Emergency care for hip joint dislocation
Mar 06, 2018
Dislocation of the hip joint - a relatively rare injury, it is only 5% of the total number of cases. This is explained by the fact that this type of displacement can occur only under the influence of a large force, for example, in case of road transport accidents.
Classification of dislocations of the hip joint
Specialists distinguish the anterior and posterior dislocations of the hip joint. In this case, the posterior is a much more common injury, since it occurs when the hip is bent or rotated in the inner direction.
In this case, the back of the capsule of the femoral joint is torn by the upper part of the femur that fell out of the acetabulum. Depending on the location of the damaged joint head, iliac or sciatic dislocation is diagnosed.
The front is a much rarer phenomenon. This type is indirect and can arise as a result of a person falling from a great height to a leg that has been set aside. In this scenario, the femoral head moves downward and rips the joint capsule.
Specialists distinguish bryonic and inhibitory anterior dislocation. Separately, it is necessary to consider the ailment in children, resulting from an abnormal intrauterine position of the fetus. This pathology is called congenital dislocation of the hip joint.
It occurs relatively often and in the case of timely detection and adequately performed treatment, the function of the joint is fully restored. In the absence of treatment, a dislocation of the hip joint in newborns in the future threatens the child with lameness, pain syndrome and "duck gait."
Signs of injury
In addition to severe deformity and the forced position of the injured limb, the main symptom is severe pain. Depending on the type of damage, the clinical signs of the disease may be different:
If the patient has this ailment, the leg is bent and freely rotated by the knee inward. The greater the range of flexion, the greater the likelihood of a sciatic type of dislocation of the hip joint. Accordingly, with the iliac type, the leg is bent much less.
Signs of anterior dislocation of
For anterior dislocation of the thigh, a characteristic symptom is the possibility of turning the patient's knee outward. The leg bends at once in the knee and hip joints, while its mobility is completely lost. In case the patient tries to unbend his leg, applying force, as a result of muscle contraction, he feels a springing resistance. It is noteworthy that for all types of hip dislocation, a shortened limb
is shortened. What should I do for this pathology?
As mentioned above, this is a fairly rare damage that is possible only under specific conditions. If there is a suspicion that the patient will dislocate the hip joint, in no case can it be adjusted independently. Since the dislocation is often combined with various fractures, self-treatment here can only do much harm. To accurately diagnose and determine the specific type of injury, it is necessary to conduct an x-ray examination.
First aid for this type of pathology involves the administration of an anesthetic to a person and its immediate hospitalization. Before transporting the patient to a specialized institution, care must be taken to keep the patient stationary.
How to implement a suitable treatment
A dislocation of the hip joint is quite serious damage, so you should not take risks. If the slightest suspicion of such a trauma occurs, you should immediately contact a specialist. As for the congenital dislocation, then with this pathology should also immediately apply to the orthopedist. In any case, with such a pathology, the success of treatment largely depends on when it was started.
Treatment of this type of injury involves the repositioning of the hip bone in a normal position. Since the hip joint is surrounded by a large array of muscles, with this injury the patient feels severe pain. It is for this reason that it is recommended to perform a full anesthesia just before the beginning of the joint repositioning procedure with the use of muscle relaxants.
Only the use of special medicament preparations of the muscle relax, and it becomes possible to correct the joint. To correct the dislocation of the hip joint, doctors use several different methods. The most popular among them are the methods of Kocher-Koefer, Janelidze-Collen and Depres-Bigelow.
After all is set, and the bone is back to normal, the patient needs to apply a pulling tire, in which he must spend at least a month. The tire must be removed only by a specialist. After the tire is removed, the patient is also advised to go through a set of different health procedures.
Within the framework of rehabilitation after such trauma, UHF physiotherapy, magnetotherapy, as well as diadynamic currents can be used. In addition, to restore the function of the joint is recommended the use of massage, thermal procedures and physical therapy. In some cases, after taking off the tire, doctors are advised to walk with crutches for 10-12 days.
Treatment and rehabilitation of such damage as a hip joint dislocation should be taken seriously, as this injury is often accompanied by complications. The most common complication in this case is the development of coxarthrosis.