Endometriosis: symptoms and treatment, causes, photo
This disease is characterized by abnormal growth of the endometrium, - the inner layer of the uterus wall, outside the uterus or inside the organ itself.
The disease is accompanied by quite strong pain, a violation of the menstrual cycle.
In addition, endometriosis in most cases leads to infertility, which is why its timely detection and treatment is one of the urgent tasks of modern gynecology.
Causes of endometriosis: what is it?
For today in medicine there are many versions and theories concerning the causes of endometriosis, but there is still no consensus on what is the fundamental factor in the formation of this pathology.
Most doctors consider hormonal as the main cause of endometriosis. This is because the disease is best treated with hormone therapy. In addition, it is proven that those particles of the endometrium that are found outside the uterine cavity react to hormonal changes in the woman's body.
According to the hormonal theory of the emergence of endometriosis, there is a degeneration of one type of tissue - coelomic epithelium, in the other - of the endometrium. Most often this happens in women with an unstable hormonal background, or with thyroid gland diseases.
Another common cause of endometriosis is a mechanical cause, or, as it is also called, implantation. According to this theory, endometrial cells are transported outside the uterus in the opposite way, so-called retrograde menstruation occurs. Most often, such a pathology develops with the usual menstruation, after traumatic births or complicated abortions.
Entering the abdominal cavity, endometrial cells are implanted into the ovaries, peritoneum, intestines. In addition, a common situation is when the endometrial cells grow into the muscular ball of the uterus.
An important factor affecting the formation of endometriosis foci is the genetic predisposition: as a rule, the greatest risk is for those women whose mothers have had this disease in their time. At the moment, the exact mechanism of inheritance is unknown, although scientists have already managed to identify defects on several genes involved in the formation of the disease.
Symptoms of endometriosis
The set of symptoms and signs of endometriosis directly depends on its shape, as well as the stage of the disease.
Depending on the location of the foci of the endometrium, endometriosis is genital and extragenital.
In the genital form, the organs of the genital area are affected: the ovaries, the cervix, the vagina, and with extragenital - the intestine, omentum, navel, bladder, lungs, inguinal canal and many other organs.
A common symptom in endometriosis is painful sensation of varying degrees of strength. Most often, the pain is localized in the pelvic region. It increases during menstruation, and also becomes especially noticeable during sexual intercourse, with urination or defecation. If it is a question of extragenital endometriosis, the pain can have more precise localization.
The presence of endometriosis also causes a violation of the menstrual cycle. Most often it is about increasing the number of secretions, increasing menstrual pain. Also a common symptom may be blood clots, which begin several days before the onset of menstruation. Increased blood loss, as a rule, leads to a decrease in the level of hemoglobin and, consequently, to anemia.
In most cases of endometriosis, healthy conception is not possible, so women in this case suffer from infertility. Usually, after the course of treatment, fertility rises and a woman can tolerate a healthy child.
Endometriosis belongs to the category of diseases that are difficult to diagnose, especially if you take into account the fact that in some cases the disease passes almost asymptomatically.
If suspected of endometriosis, a gynecological or gynecological-rectal examination of the woman should be performed. During such an examination, the doctor may reveal some tension in the appendages, uterus, or Douglas space. The final diagnosis of endometriosis can be made only with the help of special procedures - hysteroscopy or laparoscopy.
In some cases, CT and MRI are also needed. But ultrasonic diagnostics in this situation is not effective enough, as when examining endometriosis nodes, especially a small size, they are practically invisible.
Treatment of endometriosis
To date, the most effective is the surgical treatment of endometriosis. It is used for endometrial cysts of the ovaries, nodal forms of endometriosis, in situations where the endometriosis of the uterus body is combined with fibroadenoma.
Surgical treatment of endometriosis is the complete removal of foci of pathological growth of endometrial cells. In some, especially neglected cases, it may be necessary to remove the whole organ.
In the initial stage, the disease is well suited for hormonal therapy. In particular, gestagens are widely used: dydrogesterone, norethisterone;estrogen-gestagens;antagonists of gonadotropin-releasing hormone;gestrinone. In most cases, hormone therapy is combined with surgical.
Also, the treatment of endometriosis is aimed at eliminating pain, so it is advisable to take non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and analgesics. In addition, the patient is prescribed general strengthening therapy: antioxidants, vitamins, diet, soothing.
Prophylaxis of endometriosis is, first of all, in a regular visit to a gynecologist, because very often the illness does not last long. Preventive examinations help to identify the disease in the early stages and avoid repetition.
It is also recommended that the following rules and regulations are observed:
- avoid strong physical activity during menstruation
- do not have sexual intercourse with monthly
- minimize use of tampons
- sleep well and try not to be nervous
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