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  • Polycystic ovary: symptoms, treatment, reasons, photo

    What is it - in itself, polycystosis is an anomaly of development, as a result of which, cystic cavities filled with coagulated blood, watery fluid, or purulent formations are formed.

    One form of polycystosis is a disease called "Stein-Levental Syndrome" - polycystic ovary.

    Clinical picture


    For the accuracy of the adjustment and the correct functioning of the body, there are about forty hormones controlling certain vital functions of a person. It is the violation of the hormonal balance in the body of a woman that leads to endocrine disorders in the form of polycystosis.

    It happens - the primary( true) and secondary form of polycystosis - a syndrome.

    The true , as a rule, occurs in adolescent( puberty) age, at the time of the formation of puberty in girls.

    Is the consequence:

    • angina and acute respiratory disease;
    • stress;
    • genetic predisposition;
    • first and early abortion.
    As a result of hormonal imbalance in adolescents, menstruation may be late or absent altogether. The moment of formation of the normal menstrual cycle passes with significant cyclic deviations - amenorrhea or acyclic manifestations. Many do not pay much attention to the abundant menstrual discharge, considering this a normal manifestation.


    The true form of polycystosis appears in young women with normal weight, with normal blood sugar. But it is difficult and the treatment is ineffective, both with conservative and operative treatment.

    Secondary polycystosis


    The disease is typical of women of "Balzac's age" with an increased weight category, and high insulin levels.

    As a rule, it is characteristic of women with signs of extinction of ovarian functions( menopause period).It is well treated. When treated conservatively, good results are observed.

    In the secondary form of polycystosis, the problem with excess weight is not associated with hormonal disorders, and "fight" with it by all available methods. The problem with intensive hair growth is solved by the cosmetic method. None of the women will not think of linking such "metamorphosis" with polycystic ovaries.

    Polycystic syndrome is the most likely cause of infertility. According to the medical classification, polycystosis - a syndrome, is divided into three subspecies:

    • typical( ovarian) subspecies;
    • mixed( ovarian-adrenal) subspecies;
    • central view, characterized by flow with CNS damage.
    The development of the central type of disease is associated with pathological disorders occurring in the hypothalamic centers, as a result of which the secretion of luteinizing - LH and follicle-stimulating - FSH hormones is disrupted.

    As a result of the lack of FSH, the process of producing estrogens( female hormones produced by the ovaries) is disrupted, which causes the accumulation of steroid hormones - androgens( testosterone) in the body of a woman.

    Not only do they provoke a delay in the growth and maturation of the follicles, they create conditions for the formation of cysts, they also cause a manifestation of secondary male sexual characteristics in the body of a woman:

    • hair in any parts of the body;
    • alteration of the skeleton and musculature;
    • development of subcutaneous tissue on the abdomen;
    • changes in the voice device.
    And increased production of LH promotes the growth of the formation of steroid hormones( androgens), resulting in a significant decrease in secretion( FSH) and the development of female hormones-estrogens.

    Also, hypermelatonimia refers to the cause of manifestation of the central form - increased secretion of serotonin, responsible for smooth muscle receptors, prolactin, decreased secretion of TG( the thyroid hormone) responsible for the normal development of the central nervous system.


    Polycystic ovary and pregnancy


    If to speak in simple, non-medical language, then depending on the physiological changes in the hormonal background in the pubertal period, it depends - whether or not to be mother.

    Changes in hormonal balance - one of the main causes of female gynecological diseases.

    1. 1) As a result of these changes, the ovaries are thickened, which causes the absence of ovulation. During the phase of the menstrual cycle, the oocyte turns into a follicle that is ready to fertilize. But he can not go through a thick belly shell.
    2. 2) In this scenario, the fusion of the female and male nuclei does not occur and the formation of a zygote( fertilized cell) is impossible. Cyst formation takes place, as a result of filling the liquid follicle with a bubble. Such a fate can comprehend many follicles, and the ovary will have the appearance of a bowl filled with cystic formations
    Naturally, getting pregnant with such a diagnosis is a big problem.

    The causes of polycystosis


    The most likely cause of polycystic ovaries is an excess of testosterone production, detrimental to the process of maturation of estrogens, preventing the ovulation process and provoking a change in the gallbladder ovary.

    But, a lot of provoking factors can become a trigger:

    • factor of inheritance on the female line;
    • endocrine and psychoemotional disorders;
    • chronic infectious diseases;
    • adverse ecology and climate change;
    • excessive formation of adipose tissue;
    • metabolism at the cellular level;
    • androgen excess;
    • insulin resistance;
    • neurohumoral failures;
    • effect of prostaglandin levels.

    Symptoms of polycystic ovary


    As a rule, at the initial stage, the symptoms of polycystic ovary do not have a vivid clinical picture, and can be detected by chance.

    The expressed symptoms of this disease include:

    • disorders in the cycle of menstruation;
    • cyclical changes in time.
    • profuse hemorrhage with menstruation;
    • long-term delay in menstruation;
    • hirsutism( excess of hair cover);
    • Orthopedic alopecia( full or partial hair loss),
    • primary or secondary infertility.
    Symptoms of polycystic ovaries are accompanied by certain signs, which can not be ignored. They are manifested:

    1. 1) Fat skin and "greasy" hair;
    2. 2) Acne by precipitation and uncaused increase in subcutaneous fat;
    3. 3) Pain and discomfort in the lower abdomen
    A preliminary diagnosis is based on a combination of symptoms. For more thorough diagnosis it is necessary to conduct additional diagnostic studies.


    Diagnosis of polycystosis


    To confirm the diagnosis, the following methods for diagnosing polycystosis are shown:

    1. 1) To determine the characteristic changes in the sex glands( ovaries), changes in the capsule's white envelope, size, presence of connective tissue proliferation, use the diagnostic ultrasound method.
    2. 2) Detection of elevated levels of LH, the presence of testosterone, the content of the hormone of the yellow body( progesterone), the determination of the level of insulin - is determined by analysis for the content of luteotropic hormone.
    3. 3) A test that determines a violation of glucose tolerance.
    4. 4) Metabolic disorders are detected by biochemical blood analysis.
    5. 5) A study of the uterus, its internal membrane, for the detection of tumor formations, causes of uterine bleeding is used - endometrial biopsy.
    6. 6) In controversial questions, the laparoscopy method is used to detect subcapsular cysts.

    Treatment of polycystic ovary


    Treatment of polycystic ovaries is based on a conservative, medical method and minimally invasive intervention.

    The conservative method, which is based on the correction of the impaired cycle of menstrual flow and the normalization of hormonal secretion, is more preferable, although quite prolonged.

    This approach to many women with infertility gives a real opportunity to give birth to a child. Selection of drugs is purely individual. Assigned:

    • artificial analogues of estrogens;
    • medications that restore the cycle of menstruation;
    • selects drugs that block the estrogen secretion and secretion of male hormones - androgens;
    • medications normalizing the pressure and reproduction of the peptide hormone( insulin);
    • compiles an individual diet for weight correction.
    Such treatment of polycystic ovaries allows to achieve the normalization of the cyclic period of menstruation, to stimulate ovulation, to achieve the maturation of the follicle-blister and its free release into the abdominal cavity, providing the ovarian cycle. What, in fact, is ovulation.

    If the conservative method does not give the desired results, partial or complete ovarian resection by laparoscopy is prescribed. A method corresponding to the degree of lesion is selected:

    • method of electrocoagulation;
    • microretection;
    • laser vaporization or electrocoagulation and many other modern techniques.

    Possible complications of the disease


    The presence of polycystic ovaries, in the absence of adequate treatment, leads to multiple complications:

    • hypertension, which causes the formation of excessive fatty tissue;
    • ischemic heart disease;
    • cardiovascular pathologies;
    • arterial occlusions;
    • heart attacks and cerebral hemorrhages;
    Prolonged intake of hormonal drugs provokes the development of mastopathy and female oncology. The presence of disease in already pregnant women can trigger the manifestation of diabetes of pregnant women - gestational diabetes.

    Forecast


    With the timely treatment of polycystic disease, it is possible to neutralize the disease at the earliest possible time. Only in patients with suspected infertility, the process of treatment will be painstaking and long.

    Observing all medical appointments and recommendations, a long-awaited pregnancy is possible in a year. Good luck and patience.


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