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  • Polyps in the stomach: symptoms, treatment, removal, causes

    What it is? Polyps in the stomach are tumorous formations that originate from epithelial cells or glandular tissue of the gastric mucosa.

    In most cases, the disease has an asymptomatic course and is a finding during an endoscopic examination of the digestive system for another disease.

    Polyps of the stomach occur at any age, but most often they are found in men from 50 to 60 years.

    Causes of polyps in the stomach


    Inflammation in the stomach often precedes the formation of polyps. There is a whole group of risk factors that contribute to the disease, they are:

    1. 1) Age over 50;
    2. 2) Presence in the stomach and duodenum of Helicobacter pylori - this infection is the cause of gastritis and peptic ulcer, against which polyps are formed;
    3. 3) Hereditary predisposition;
    4. 4) Dental caries;
    5. 5) Improper nutrition( presence of large quantities of acute, salty foods in food);
    6. 6) The use of certain groups of drugs for the treatment of digestive diseases.

    Classification


    According to morphological features, polyps are divided into the following groups:

    1. 1) Hyperplastic polyps - represent hyperplasia( proliferation) of epithelial cells of the stomach. Such polyps occur much more often and never degenerate into a malignant tumor.
    2. 2) Adenomatous polyps - are formed from glandular tissue. They are very rare. They are a benign tumor with a risk of malignancy( malignancy).The larger the size( from 2 cm or more), such a polyp - the greater the chance of rebirth.
    Polyps can be single, as well as multiple( in this case we are talking about polyposis), located in clusters, or scattered in different parts of the stomach.

    Sitting and stalk polyps are also distinguished. The shape of the polyps is diverse: in the form of a mushroom, ball, elongated oval, papilla, villi, etc. The color of polyps is often not different from the mucosa of the stomach. Also there are polyps of red, orange, cherry, gray color. The leg of the polyp consists of a submucosal layer and the mucous membrane of the stomach. The body of the polyp consists of connective tissue, integumentary epithelium, or glandular elements.

    Symptoms of polyps in the stomach


    Specific signs of the disease, characteristic of the polyps of the stomach are absent. In general, the disease has no clinical symptoms or is masked for gastritis, peptic ulcer.

    The probability of detection of polyps during the study of the stomach is high in people with frequent complications of gastritis.

    Its signs include: painful in the stomach, which is associated with food intake and can give a lobe in the lumbar region.

    In addition to pain are characteristic: heartburn, heaviness, possibly vomiting, etc. Large( complicated) polyps are the causes of the following pathologies:

    • gastric bleeding with the appearance of blood in vomit or in feces;
    • gastrointestinal obstruction;
    • hit the polyp in the lumen of the duodenum, followed by its jam, which is characterized by the symptoms of an acute abdomen;
    • degeneration into gastric cancer( typical of adenomatous polyps).
    In complicated cases with exacerbation of inflammation of the gastric mucosa in the background of polyps, the following general symptoms are typical: weight loss, weakness, depression, poor sleep, temperature, etc.

    Diagnosis of polyps


    Instrumental research methods are considered the most reliable in determining the disease. These include endoscopy and radiography. Together, these methods increased the accuracy of diagnosis to 100%.

    1) Gastroscopy is the only reliable instrumental method that allows to reveal a polyp, determine its typology, size. During the study, under the influence of air, the mucous membrane of the stomach becomes smooth, so small formations are clearly visible on it. Gastroscopy allows you to take a piece of tissue for examination( biopsy) and determine from what tissue the polyp has occurred;

    2) Radiography is performed in several positions of the patient after filling the stomach with a contrast agent. The method allows you to determine the location, approximate size of the polyps. The main symptom in X-ray examination is characteristic of polyps - "filling defect", in which clearly visualized formations with clear contours. Some indirect radiographic signs suggest malignancy( polyp's degeneration into a cancerous tumor), including: fuzzy contours of the polyp, loss of peristalsis at the location of the polyp, large-sized outgrowth, etc.

    Polyps in the stomach: treatment, removal of


    Treatment of the diseasedeals with a surgeon. The method of treatment depends on the results of the histological examination. Benign polyps in the stomach are removed with the help of endoscopic polypectomy.

    Manipulation is performed through an endoscope( or gastroscopy).The tissue of the removed polyp is taken for a biopsy. The operation is performed on an empty stomach under local anesthesia of the pharynx and throat.

    If the polyp has degenerated into a stomach cancer, the surgeon, as a result of laparotomy( dissection of the abdominal wall), performs gastrectomy( complete removal) or gastrectomy( partial removal).

    With surgical intervention, can be delayed if the polyp does not change in size, and if the number does not change with time. For the dynamic observation, an endoscopic examination of the stomach is necessary once every 6 months.

    Important in the recovery and prevention of polyps is nutrition. It is not recommended to eat large amounts of food that irritates the gastric mucosa. It is necessary to learn the following rule: spicy, salty, smoked food should be used as a supplement to the main, steamed or boiled dish, instead of replacing it.

    Traditional medicine for polyps in the stomach and gastritis recommends eating bananas berries, sea buckthorn oil, cabbage juice.


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