A short biography of Pushkin. Life of A.S.Pushkin
Mar 04, 2018
Alexander Pushkin was born in Moscow on June 6, 1799.The formation of the worldview of the young Pushkin was greatly influenced by the grandmother Maria Alekseevna( Hannibal), in the village where the future poet rested every summer.
In 1811, A.S.Pushkin went to study at the Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum. Here he spent 6 years of life, radically influenced the development of his poetic talent. Already in these years the literary activity of the young Pushkin begins. At the age of 16 he read in the presence of Derzhavin a poem "Remembrance in Tsarskoe Selo".While studying at the Lyceum, Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin was in the literary community "Arzamas".
In 1816 the poetry of A.S.Pushkin undergoes changes, "grows up."Favorite genre of Pushkin's lyrics of this period is elegy.
In 1817, Alexander Pushkin graduated from the Lyceum and served in the College of Foreign Affairs. The poet joins the literary and theatrical community "The Green Lamp", and also continues to be a member of "Arzamas".
Decembrists in the life of A.S.Pushkin
Pushkin never took direct part in the Decembrist movement, but his friends were active in secret organizations. Dialogue with the Decembrists contributed to the poet's work: one by one, political poems "To Chaadayev", "Liberty", "Village" appear.
In 1820 Alexander Pushkin finished writing the poem "Ruslan and Lyudmila", started while studying in the Lyceum. The poem aroused the disapproval of critics who accused the poet of lowering the high canon of the genre of the poem.
Political works of Alexander Pushkin could affect the future fate of the poet is not the best way - he was threatened with exile to Siberia. The patronage of friends: Glinka, Karamzin, Chaadaev - softened the punishment, and the reference was replaced by a transfer to the service in Ekaterinoslav.
The summer of 1820 was marked by a trip by A.S.Pushkin to the Caucasus. Under the impression of visiting this place, the poet wrote the poem "The Prisoner of the Caucasus" in 1822.She brought Pushkin the unofficial title of the first poet in Russian literature. One after another, new poems of Pushkin appear.
Alexander Pushkin in Mikhailovskoye
In 1823 Pushkin began working on "Eugene Onegin" - a novel in verse. In the same year, he is transferred to Odessa. A.S.Pushkin is quite popular among readers at this time. However, this period is also marked
A year later Alexander Pushkin asks for his resignation. He is sent to the Mikhailovskoye estate under the supervision of his parents. Here Pushkin's creative talent continues to unfold: work continues on "Eugene Onegin", a number of poems and a poem "Count Nulin" are written, the plot of the drama "Boris Godunov" is considered.
Under the auspices of the Emperor
In 1826 Pushkin was invited to an audience with Nicholas I, who favored the poet and took him under the protection, thereby freeing himself from any censorship. However, despite the fact that, at the behest of the great sovereign, several investigations related to AS Pushkin's poetry were discontinued. Pushkin, from 1827 for the poet was established by secret surveillance of the police.
Cases amour and Boldin period
In 1830 Alexander Pushkin made a marriage proposal Natalia Goncharova. Father gives Pushkin as a gift for the wedding of the village of Kistenevo, next to the estate of Father Boldino. The poet goes to Boldino to take possession, and remains here for three whole months because of the quarantine due to cholera.
Boldin Autumn - this is the name of this period in the works of A.S.Pushkin. This is the peak of the poet's work, during which more than 30 poems, prose works, critical articles, fairy tales were written.
February 18, 1831 in Moscow there was a wedding of Alexander Pushkin and Natalia Goncharova. In the spring of the same year, the newlyweds move to live in a dacha in Tsarskoye Selo. Here the poet finishes his eight-year work on the novel in verse "Eugene Onegin".
In the 30 years Alexander Pushkin goes to prose. In 1832, he began to write the novel "Dubrovsky", and also collects material for the novel about the revolt of Pugachev, the work on which later resulted in the "History of Pugachev."
Pushkin continues to write and poems."The Queen of Spades", "Angelo", "The Bronze Horseman", "The Tale of the Fisherman and the Fish", "The Tale of the Dead Princess and the Seven Knights" are the best examples of Pushkin's works of this time.
After returning to Petersburg, Pushkin faces a problem of lack of money: books did not bring the income that the poet's life demanded. A.S.Pushkin takes a loan to pay off his debts on account of his salary for five years - but this is not enough for him either.
In 1834 Pushkin submits a resignation petition, which was granted. From now on his whole life depended solely on the rather unstable income from published works. The problems with money and the harsh attacks of critics who prophesied the decline of Pushkin's talent led to the creative crisis of the poet.
However, this time Alexander Pushkin does not spend in vain - he studies historical materials of the times of Peter I, is in search of new literary forms. The poet participates in the founding of the literary magazine Sovremennik, in which he publishes his novel The Captain's Daughter. However, among a wide range of readers, Sovremennik did not find a response due to the novelty of the format of this journalistic publication.
Death of the poet
In the winter of 1837 between A.S.Pushkin and Georges Dantes, there was a conflict that led to a duel on January 27, 1837.On this duel the poet was mortally wounded and died two days later. Alexander Pushkin was buried at the walls of the Svyatogorsky Monastery, near the Mikhailovskoye estate.