Cystitis: symptoms, treatment at home, prevention
Mar 06, 2018
- Read the article:
- Acute cystitis: symptoms and causes
- Cystitis: treatment and diagnosis
- Cystitis treatment at home
- Cystitis in pregnancy
- Prevention of exacerbations of cystitis
Cystitis is an inflammatory disease of the mucous membrane of the bladder, manifested by frequent and painful urge to urinate, a feeling of incomplete emptying of the bladder and cutting pains in the lower abdomen.
Acute cystitis: symptoms and causes ^
According to statistics, every woman at least once in her life experienced symptoms of cystitis, and every tenth later acquires a chronic form of the disease.
- Due to the anatomical features of the structure of the female genitourinary system, women suffer from cystitis 5 to 6 times more often than men.
- The urethra( urethra) is much wider and shorter in them and is in close proximity to the anus and vagina, which greatly facilitates the penetration of the infection into the bladder.
Cystitis in men, most often, does not arise as an independent disease, but as a consequence of inflammatory processes in nearby organs - the intestine, urethra or prostate gland.
- The disease usually begins acutely and is accompanied by frequent and painful urination( every 15 to 20 minutes), accompanied by cuts and pain in the suprapubic region.
- In this case, it is often difficult to start the process of urination, the separated urine becomes turbid and drops of blood appear in it.
- In the most severe cases, nausea, vomiting, a sharp increase in temperature and urine acquires a milky tone to the listed symptoms.
Despite the fact that acute symptoms of the disease often occur after severe supercooling( especially the pelvic area), it is mistaken to consider it the root cause of the disease.
The main cause of cystitis
The main cause of cystitis is a bacterial infection:
- E. coli E. coli( in 85 to 95% of cases),
- Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus saprophyticu( 5-20%),
- other bacteria living in our body and penetrating into the urethrachannel ascending.
And hypothermia, colds, stress and weakening of immunity are only an additional aggravating factor. The infection in the bladder can be caused by improper washing( it should be washed strictly from the front back) or the onset of sexual activity, the so-called "defloration cystitis of the honeymoon".
During sexual intercourse, possible microtraumas of the female urethra significantly increase the risk of infection, so before and after sexual intercourse, doctors recommend that both women and men empty the bladder - the urine stream rather effectively cleanses the microorganisms trapped in the urinary canal.
Other causes of cystitis:
- abnormalities of the urinary tract, stones in the kidney and bladder;
- tumors in the pelvic organs, including the prostate, compressing the urethra;
- narrowing of the urethra, trauma to the mucous membrane of the bladder and surgical manipulations( catheter placement, cystoscopy);
- transferred gynecological, urological or venereal diseases( gonorrhea, adnexitis, urethritis, endometritis, etc.);
- vaginal dysbacteriosis( bacterial vaginosis), or its infectious inflammation( colpitis);
- foci of chronic infection in the body, including caries and periodontitis;
- frequent constipation, prolonged sedentary work, wearing tight underwear;
- non-observance of the mode of urination( less often 5 times a day), because at long intervals between urination in the bladder stagnation and decomposition of urine occurs and the inflammatory process begins;
- decreased immunity in pregnancy, diabetes, chronic fatigue, stress, lack of sleep, malnutrition.
Good immunity, as is known, plays an important role in the fight against any microorganisms, viruses and fungi - thrush, herpes, human papillomavirus, fungus, lichen and many others. Cystitis is not an exception: during normal functioning of the immune system, microorganisms entering the urethra immediately attack and die, and the bladder remains "sterile".
Cystitis: treatment and diagnosis ^
Primary diagnosis of cystitis includes mandatory urine tests - general, Nechiporenko analysis and bacteriological culture.
- A general clinical analysis of urine in an inflammatory process is usually characterized by an increase in the level of leukocytes to 8-10( at a rate of up to 5 in the field of view).
- Nechiporenko analysis allows to determine the presence of not only blood cells( leukocytes, erythrocytes) in the urine, but also cells lining the urinary tract( epithelial cells and their remains - cylinders).
- Bacterial culture of urine( produced within 2 days) plays a key role in the selection of antibacterial therapy, as it helps to identify the specific type of bacteria that caused the inflammatory process and find out what antibacterial drugs can kill them.
If necessary, the doctor can prescribe cystoscopy - examination of the inner surface of the bladder with a special optical device - a cystoscope, which allows you to examine all its departments and make the correct diagnosis.
Treatment of cystitis should be performed under the supervision of a urologist or gynecologist after a comprehensive examination. Usually prescribed course of antibiotic therapy, physiotherapy, it is recommended that a sufficient amount of liquid and a restriction in the diet of acute, direct, fried, pickled foods and beverages( alcohol, coffee, strong tea), irritating the walls of the bladder.
Many women at the first signs of the disease take, on the advice of friends, several tablets of antibiotics and, having received relief, believe that they can successfully treat cystitis at home without the help of doctors.
However, this is a dangerous delusion and a sure way to get a chronic disease - a similar "treatment" gives only temporary relief, without eliminating the cause. Therefore, relapses of the disease will occur again and again, with each hypothermia or cold, whereas a timely call to a specialist and a clear implementation of medical recommendations will help cure cystitis in a rather short time and reduce the risk of chronic development to zero.
Doctors call not to take lightly to the manifestations of cystitis and necessarily bring the treatment to the end, even if you become much better. The fact is that untreated acute cystitis can go on into a chronic form and regularly remind oneself of painful attacks with seasonal exacerbations and any weakening of immunity( colds, flu, severe stress, overwork, avitaminosis).
If treatment with antibiotics has ended prematurely, it may give rise to the multiplication of bacteria resistant to medicines, that is, repeated treatment with the same medication will be already ineffective.
In addition, with frequent cystitis attacks, the mucous membrane of the bladder begins to deform, bleed and gradually replace the connective tissue, which can lead to urinary incontinence with laughter, coughing and any strains. But, the most dangerous is when the infection from the bladder spreads higher( the upward path of infection) and involves the upper urinary tract and kidneys in the inflammatory process.
Treatment of cystitis at home ^
Treatment of cystitis with folk remedies can be used as an auxiliary therapy to the antibiotic treatment prescribed by the doctor and give a good analgesic effect.
- In case of acute attacks of the disease, observe, whenever possible, bed rest, put a warm warmer on the bottom of the stomach and between the legs and make warm foot baths, with a water temperature of no more than 32-35 degrees.
- Sitting baths with medicinal herbs( chamomile, St. John's wort, celandine, yarrow) give a good relief.
- During an exacerbation, you can try the old "grandmother's" remedy. Take the red brick, split it in half, heat it on high heat and lower it into a bucket. Bend the edges of the bucket and sit on it, wrapped in a blanket, as long as the brick is warm.
- Drink during a day at least 2 liters of plain water( you can mineral without gas), drink berry fruit, unconcentrated juices, herbal teas( with bearberry, corn stigmas, kidney tea), broth of wild rose.
Avoid eating foods that irritate the mucous membrane of the bladder - seasonings, hot sauces, smoked foods, alcohol, canned food and marinades. In the menu include sour-milk products, fruits and vegetables, especially diuretics - watermelons, melons, zucchini, carrots, spinach and cucumbers.
Cystitis in pregnancy ^
Cystitis in pregnancy is an extremely common phenomenon associated with changes in the hormonal background and the functioning of the immune system of a future mother. The growing uterus presses on the bladder and shifts it to the side, disrupting the outflow of urine and causing bacteriuria - an excessive amount of bacteria in the urine( up to 10 ^ 4-10 ^ 5 cfu in 1 ml).
Urine in healthy people practically does not contain bacteria, so its sterility is an important indicator of urinary tract and kidney health. Bacteriuria during pregnancy is very dangerous and requires timely treatment, as it increases the risk of premature birth, miscarriage and the birth of a child with underweight 2 times.
For any suspected cystitis, a pregnant woman should immediately notify the attending physician and take the tests. Treatment of cystitis in pregnant women is carried out both with the help of special antibiotics that do not adversely affect the fetus, and with the help of the instillation procedure, in which drugs are dripped directly into the bladder, that is, into the immediate center of infection.
The positive effect of instillation comes fairly quickly - frequent and painful urge to urinate disappears, and the walls of the bladder strengthen, which allows you to safely keep the pregnancy and give birth to a full-term baby.
In addition, a pregnant woman needs to drink enough water and sour juices( especially cranberry juice), which causes acidification of urine, which prevents the development of infection.We also recommend you read Helicobacter pylori article - causes, symptoms and treatment.
Prevention of exacerbations of cystitis ^
According to medics, the best remedy for cystitis is a general strengthening of immunity and an increase in the body's resistance to infections that does not allow microbes and bacteria to be hosted. In addition, it is important to eat properly and follow the rules of personal hygiene.
Useful tips for the prevention of cystitis:
- dress for the weather, do not overcool and do not sit on cold surfaces;
- do not allow overflow of the bladder, try to emptying at least every 3 to 4 hours and never tolerate if you want to go to the toilet;
- avoid constipation and include in your menu more raw vegetables, fruits, greens and foods high in fiber;
- drink plenty of water and natural juices, especially sour( cranberry, cranberry, blueberry);
- during menstruation try not to use tampons, but gaskets and change them regularly;
- do not wear overly tight clothes and underwear that interferes with normal blood flow in the pelvic area;
- after sexual intercourse, always visit the toilet to urinate.