Type 2 diabetes mellitus
Jul 06, 2018
Diabetes mellitus is a disorder associated with a metabolic disorder. Therefore, the main thing in the treatment of the disease is diet and properly adjusted nutrition. To put it more simply, it should be remembered that in diabetes mellitus, as a result of pancreatic disease, insulin production - a hormone responsible for the digestion of sugar by the body - is reduced. This leads to increased blood sugar and serious complications. Currently, there are about 150 million diabetic patients in the world, including 8 million in Russia. According to forecasts, these figures can be doubled in 15 years.
Treatment for diabetes should begin with the organization of dietary nutrition. If you choose the right diet, then with mild, and often with an average form of type II diabetes, drug treatment can be minimized, and even completely dispensed with. But the patient alone can not decide how and what to eat, only the doctor can determine the required number of individual foods in his diets.
The food of a patient with diabetes should contain the necessary amount of high-grade proteins, the source of which are meat and fish, milk and eggs. Proteins are necessary for building cells, but their surplus is nonetheless contraindicated. A diabetic patient should receive 1-2 g of high-grade protein per 1 kg of body weight per day. This rate is variable and depends on the total number of products in the daily diet of the patient. Read more about choosing the best diet on a specialized site for people with diabetes.
It is best to use refined sunflower oil( especially it is useful for people with elderly, suffering and atherosclerosis).When frying and putting out food, do not use fat, preferably cook, stew and bake them without fat. This applies primarily to meat and fish.
Recently, as a result of a number of studies, it has been found that the increased contribution of fats in the blood makes a big contribution to the progression of diabetes. Therefore, limiting the use of fatty foods in diabetes is no less important than restricting sweets. It is necessary to exclude from the diet fatty varieties of meat, fish, fatty cheeses and whole milk. It is recommended to pay more attention to dishes prepared from veal, lean beef, chicken, rabbit, rabbit, pike, cod, pike perch, flounder, bream, roach. Low-fat cheeses are useful. In the daily diet, you can include not too fatty ham and ham, smoked fish. Vegetables and fruits can be taken without restrictions. Vegetable oil is recommended to fill salads, since fats are necessary for the preservation of vitamins contained in vegetables.
The total amount of fats used in the free form and for cooking( butter and vegetable oil, fat, cooking fats) should not exceed 40-50 g per day, it is necessary to limit the consumption of products containing fats( meat, sausages, sausages,sausages, cheeses, sour cream, mayonnaise).It is necessary to limit or not to eat fried, spicy, salty, spicy and smoked dishes, canned food, pepper, mustard, alcoholic beverages. And of course, it's better to completely abandon foods containing many fats and carbohydrates at the same time: chocolate, cream ice cream, cream cakes and cakes.
A daily diet of carbohydrates( from 200 to 250 g) is given to a diabetic from cereals, potatoes, coarse cereals, and also from rye bread( preferably coarse grinding).But this is only in cases when the disease is not accompanied by gastric diseases - of the intestinal tract. First of all, you should limit the use of easily assimilated carbohydrates: sugar, honey, jam and jams, sweets, muffins, sweet fruits and berries, grapes, bananas, dried fruits. Sometimes, with severe diabetes, some of these foods are excluded from eating completely. With a mild and moderate form of the disease, the consumption of a small amount of sugar and sweets is entirely acceptable, but only under the condition of regular monitoring of blood sugar level.
You can use the estimated data to determine the amount of food you eat. For example, 1 tablespoon of cereal without top - 20 g;porridge from the same cereal, 1 tablespoon with top, - 25 g, 1 tablespoon of mashed potatoes - 70 g. Products such as meat, cheese, etc., should be weighed several times to make sure thatHow much does it weigh. It should be remembered that 100 g of low-fat meat can be replaced with 100 g of cottage cheese, 2 teaspoons of sugar - 2 teaspoons of honey or 4 teaspoons of jam, jam. Bread can be consumed up to 200 g per day, mostly black or special diabetic. Soups should preferably be cooked primarily vegetable, and soups, cooked on a weak meat or fish broth, can be consumed no more than twice a week. Low-fat meat, poultry( up to 100 grams per day) or fish( up to 150 grams per day) in boiled or poured. Dishes and side dishes of cereals, legumes, pasta can be afforded occasionally, in small quantities, reducing these days the consumption of bread. From cereals it is recommended to use oatmeal, buckwheat, millet, pearl, rice. Mancus is better to exclude.
It is recommended to use potatoes, beets, carrots not more than 200 g per day. Cabbage, lettuce, radish, cucumbers, zucchini, tomatoes and herbs can be eaten almost unrestrictedly in raw and cooked form.
Fruits and berries are better to choose sour and sweet and sour varieties( antonovku, oranges, lemons, cranberries, red currants) - up to 200-300 grams per day.
Milk - only with the permission of a doctor. Sour-milk products( yogurt, yogurt, unsweetened yogurt) - 1-2 glasses a day. Cheese, sour cream, cream - occasionally and slightly. Cottage cheese with diabetes is recommended to be consumed daily, up to 100-200 g per day in kind or in the form of cottage cheese, cheese cakes, puddings, casseroles.
Curd, as well as oatmeal and buckwheat porridge, bran, rosehip improve fat metabolism and normalize liver function, prevent fatty liver changes.
Green or black tea is allowed, it is possible with milk, not strong coffee, tomato juice, juices from berries and fruit of acid varieties. Alcoholic beverages are not recommended, since they can significantly increase the sugar content in the blood.
With type II diabetes mellitus, moderate amounts of beer can be consumed( not more than 500 ml), it can be referred to the group of "allowed" drinks, because the carbohydrates contained in it are compensated for by the sugar-reducing effect of alcohol.
It is recommended to eat with diabetes at least 4 times a day, and better - 5-6 times, at the same time. Food should be rich in vitamins, micro- and macro elements. Try to diversify your diet as much as possible, because the list of products allowed for diabetes allows you to do this.