• Choice of varieties

    The process of creating a new variety of fruit crops is long, it takes several decades and includes the hybridization, selection, evaluation and reproduction of a single plant out of several thousand hybrids that surpasses in some respects parental forms. After a long-term testing of the selected variety in the state-owned sections of the complex, indicators( winter hardiness, yield, disease resistance, fruit quality, etc.) are included in the state register of breeding achievements that are allowed to be used in this or that region of the country.

    The garden should be started with the selection of varieties.

    Varieties must be zoned, i.e.are adapted for growing in specific conditions.

    Even within the Moscow region with a north-south difference of 150 km it is of great importance what kind will be. For the northern, northeastern and northwestern regions, some varieties do not "fit" at all, they will freeze, because the main limiting factor is their winter hardiness.

    Second requirement for varieties - they must be of different maturity. There are varieties of summer, the fruits of which can be eaten almost directly from the tree. In autumn varieties, fruits should lie for 1-2 weeks in order that they acquire consumer properties - taste, aroma, consistency of pulp. Winter varieties have fruits that can be eaten only after pre-storage.

    When choosing a variety, one must proceed from having at least 2 varieties from each group. If there is a possibility of storing fruits, then preference should be given to winter varieties;if there are no such conditions, then there should be more summer varieties.

    A set of 2-3 varieties is also needed for pollination, because the harvest will depend on pollination, and one variety, despite the fact that most varieties are mostly self-fertilizing, will not yield the harvest that we need. It is known that due to bee pollination the yield of various crops, including fruit and berry crops, is increased by 60%.Therefore, those gardeners and gardeners who do not even have their own bees should take care of other people's bees or wildly living, because they are doing the right thing. If normal pollination does not occur, there will be no harvest of fruits, berries and seeds.

    What should a gardener and gardener do?

    1. Do not spray plants with poisonous chemicals during flowering.

    2. Attract bees and during flowering spray the crown of trees with a solution of sugar and boric acid( 100 g sugar + 2 g boric acid per 1 liter of water).You can hang jars with a solution of honey( 1-2 teaspoons per 1 glass of water) on trellis trellis, on a branch of a cherry. Have on the site honey plants - sunflower, clover, lemon balm and others.

    3. Apply bee training to improve the attendance by bees of those plants that are not good honey plants. To do this, 1 kg of sugar is dissolved in 1 liter of boiling water and 1/4 of the flowers( by volume) of those crops that are prepared for pollination( the flowers need to remove cups and other green parts) are put in warm syrup. A syrup with flowers is insisted for at least 2 hours and distributed in the morning to bees at a rate of 100-150 g per family.

    4. To obtain a good harvest in the garden, the selection of pollinating varieties is important. After all, varieties differ in terms of the duration and duration of flowering, the structure of flowers, the amount of pollen produced, the content of sugar in nectar - all this is important for bee pollination. That is why the recommendation to have, if possible, more varieties( both for pollination and for insurance) is true. In a word, it is necessary to strive to ensure that in the garden and on the site during the flowering of plants there was a rumble from the bees. Then the harvest will be provided.

    Gardeners of the Moscow region can be guided by the list of varieties that is included in the state register for the Central region, although many other varieties are offered in the market for planting material.

    Note the varieties "long-livers", which, despite the harsh conditions of growth and the constant creation of new varieties, continue to remain in the register of those allowed to use.

    Recently, breeders of the so-called "columned" apple trees have been bred. Columnoid apple-tree is distinguished by such type of crown, in which shoots grow mainly vertically upwards and side branchings are absent( or weakly manifested).The thickened shoots of this apple tree have shortened internodes, solid wood, abundantly overgrowth with fruit formations - the rings, spears and fruit branches. In this regard, the rows of trees of the columnar apple tree are narrow( about 40 cm), their height is not more than 2.5 m. Such a garden

    can be laid with a dense arrangement of trees in a row( through 60-100 cm), it yields from 2-3year after planting, lives and fructifies for 15-20 years.

    For the conditions of the Moscow region, more than 20 varieties of columnar apple trees are distinguished, characterized by high winter hardiness, resistance to scab, fastfruit. Compact compact trees yield an average of 5-6 kg of fruit with excellent commercial and taste qualities. Among them, the grades of the summer ripening period of fruits: Medoc, Dialogue;autumn maturation period: President, Ostankino, Iksha, Vasyugan, Chervonets, Malyukha;varieties of winter - Currency, Arbat.