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  • Influence of climate and terrain on plants

    Growth of garden plantations is affected by the following components: climatic conditions, terrain, soil and soil properties. When assessing the suitability of the territory in the first place, it is necessary to take into account the agrobiological requirements of garden plants for climatic conditions( Table).

    Agrobiological requirements of garden crops for climatic conditions

    Culture

    Sum of active temperatures ° C

    Duration of vegetation period with t 10 ° C

    Damaging winter temperature below 0 ° C

    Sum of precipitation per year, mm

    Apple tree

    1800-2400

    125-165

    30-40

    500-600

    Pear

    2200-2600

    145-180

    25-30

    500-600

    Cherry

    1400-1700

    110-115

    35-40

    300-400

    Plum

    1800-2000

    130-140

    30-35

    300-400

    Cherries

    2700-2900

    160-200

    25-30

    500-600

    Seabuckthorn

    1900-2000

    130-150

    40-50

    700-750

    Gooseberry

    150-1600

    95-105

    30-35

    400-500

    Redcurrant red

    1550-1750

    105-120

    40-45

    600-700

    Currants black

    1400-1600

    90-105

    40-50

    600-700

    Raspberries

    1100-1200

    70-75

    30-37

    700-750

    Strawberries

    1700-1900

    100-115

    10-15

    600-700

    Resource of the Moscow region

    1880-2100

    130-135

    32-35

    540-620

    For fruit crops, the best relief is considered to be dissected( alternatingand solutions of slides) providing full drainage of water and air.

    On arrays with elevated relief, cold air drains to lower places, accumulating in enclosed depressions. Under the garden are the most suitable sites on the slopes, especially their upper and middle parts. On the slopes, one should expect less frost than in the flat areas, the freezing of garden crops in severe winters, and the danger of spring frosts. In this zone, under all other conditions, the southern, south-western and partly south-eastern exposure of the slopes will be the most successful under the garden. The warmer upper sections of the slope should be occupied by heat-loving breeds, the lowered places are suitable for growing berries.

    Knowing the various requirements for the illumination of fruit, berry and vegetable crops, it is possible, in accordance with these features, to correctly place these crops in the garden area. Light-loving crops include: cherry, apricot, cucumber, pepper, tomatoes, peas. Few plants prefer a shadow( ie are shade-loving) - this is black currant, honeysuckle, salad, spinach, horseradish. Most of the crops in the garden and the garden must be classified as shade-tolerant, i.e.they can grow in the shade, but they will not give a big harvest of good quality products.

    If the site is located on a clearly defined slope, taking into account the depth of the roots and the height of the trees at the highest point, you need to plant the pear trees, and then lower down the slope to place: plum, apple, cherry, red currant, gooseberry, black currant, sea buckthorn,aronia. Then they will not shade each other on the slope.

    As we can see, the climatic conditions of growth have a multifaceted effect on garden plants and the horticulturist should be ready for adverse factors( Table).

    Influence of climatic factors on vital activity of garden plants

    Adverse factors of climate and weather

    Possible consequences of the action of factors

    Gardener's works

    Spring frosts

    Damage to flower buds at -4 ° C, buds at -2-3 ° C, flower pestles -1.5-2 ° C, young ovaries - at -1 ° C

    Selection of varieties with different flowering periods, sprinkling and watering during freezing, smoke, shelter with materials

    Strong winds

    Drying of soil and shoots of plants, poor pollination of flowers, branch stems, root damage, crop loss

    FROMwaterproofing planting, watering, branching, windbreak construction

    Summer drought

    Delay in shoot growth, leaf drop, fruit and berries melting, winter damage to roots and shoots

    Plant watering, weed control, mulching

    Thunderstorms, showers, hail

    Damageflowers, leaves, fruits, branches;flushing of soil

    Shelter of plants

    Dry summer with subsequent precipitation

    Secondary growth of shoots, reduction of their winter hardiness and the possibility of winter frost;autumn cracking of the bark

    Plant irrigation, rational fertilizer system, prickling of shoot tips

    Cold wet summer

    Delay with the end of shoot growth, freezing of unripe shoots, dying of the bark

    Snowing, sprouting shoots( next year)

    Cold rainy summer with early winter onsetand the establishment of snow cover, warm rainy autumn

    Barking and wetting the bark

    Arrangement of drainage ditches, treatment of wounds

    Autumn drought

    Winter sweepix shoots

    Autumn vlagozaryadkovy watering

    absence( or little) snow, extreme cold

    damage the roots and shoots of freezing of the kidneys

    Prigibanie shoots in winter;autumn watering and mulching of soil with peat, leaves, etc.; autumn loosening of the soil;measures for snow retention

    Warming at the end of winter

    Disturbance of rest in plants and freezing of flower buds( especially stone stones)

    Watering during planting of flower buds( June-July)

    Sharp day and night temperature changes in sunny winter-spring days

    Solar burnsbark, cracking bark

    Whitewashing of boles and skeletal branches in autumn( October-November) and early spring( March), shading snow ash( peat)