The role of the endocrine system
Jul 05, 2018
The human endocrine system is represented by endocrine glands in which hormones are formed. They, in turn, are absorbed into the bloodstream and affect the vital activity of all organs and tissues of the body.
The endocrine system includes the thyroid and parathyroid glands, the pituitary gland, the adrenal glands( cortical and medulla), the pancreas, the testicles and the ovaries, the thymus gland.
The human endocrine system is very closely related to the nervous system and is therefore usually referred to as a neuroendocrine system that regulates all body functions and coordinates the work of various organs and systems. The unity and interrelation of the nervous and endocrine regulatory mechanisms can be seen particularly well in the example of the hypothalamus, the cells of which perceive nerve impulses coming from different organs and transmit them further, but already by the humoral route( through the blood) through hormones.
Although the nervous and endocrine system of a person works "in one harness", the endocrine system is constantly under the control of the central nervous system. About this in 1935 AD Speransky wrote: "The humoral factor is one of the types of reflection of nerve effects in peripheral tissues, without which no one nervous function is known to us at all."
The activity of the endocrine system depends not only on the ability of the endocrine glands to produce the required amount of hormones, but also on the ability of the blood proteins to transport them. Usually, hormones are bound by protein fractions of blood( albumins, globulins, prealbumins) and transported to all organs and systems. If the "conditions of delivery" are violated, various pathological conditions can develop in the body.
An important role in the development of aging is the violation of monitoring the functioning of cells and organs from the endocrine system. These violations are regarded as an inability to regulate the body's homeostasis in response to changes that occur both in itself and in the external environment. Formation of the phenotype of aging is largely determined by the fact in which link the endocrine system there are violations.
The mass of the majority of endocrine organs decreases during the aging process, and usually changes occur leading to atrophy and fibrosis. With age, there is a tendency to adenomas in most endocrine organs, especially in the adrenal and pituitary. The secretion of most hormones decreases. At the same time, a decrease in their clearance leads to the fact that the concentration of these hormones in the blood changes insignificantly or stays at the same level. The activity of some cellular receptors decreases, but most of them do not change. Very often, in old age, the post-receptor response to hormones decreases, especially insulin, catecholamines, steroid hormones and somatomedins. Clinical manifestations of these processes - diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism and decreased calcium digestibility.
The most typical endocrine changes occurring during aging are a change in the functional state of the reproductive system, the functions of the thyroid and parathyroid glands.
The human body has relatively constant indices of the internal environment, despite the changing external conditions. The main functions of the body's organs and systems are preserved due to the energy of the metabolic processes, three quarters of this energy being converted into heat necessary to maintain a relatively stable body temperature. This is ensured by a basic exchange, depending on sex, age, body weight, environmental conditions, emotional state of the person, lifestyle, activity of the endocrine glands, etc.
Heat is produced mainly in muscles and some internal organs. In the human body, the internal temperature of the body remains constant. At the same time, heat production is slightly higher than necessary to maintain a constant body temperature. The change in the ambient temperature affects the thermoregulation process.
Under the influence of the bath changes the composition of some body fluids, the amount of red blood cells in the blood increases moderately, the number of leukocytes increases, the coagulability of blood increases, which is associated with an increase in platelet blood. Loss of fluid in the steam room leads to an increase in the concentration of salts in the blood and tissues. In lactating women after a bath, the amount of milk increases.
Under the influence of the bath the activity of the thyroid gland changes significantly. Bath has a strong anabolic effect on the body: improves oxidative processes in tissues, increases protein synthesis. Bath affects the change in gas and acid-base balance in the blood: a shift in the composition of the arterial blood in the acidic side.
By the way, this is one of the negative phenomena that can worsen if in a bath or immediately after it "stuff" yourself with products that will enhance this shift. Therefore, before the bath, in the bath and immediately after it is better to eat foods that give an alkaline reaction: fruits, vegetables, juices from them.
What is acid-base balance? Consumed by us products in the body are different stages of metabolism. When digesting some, acids are formed, so they are called acidic or acid-forming. When digesting the others, alkalis are formed, and they are called alkali-forming. Acid-forming products include products consisting mainly of protein and rich in carbohydrates. Alkali-forming products are mainly products of vegetable origin( fruits, vegetables, green salads).
In the process of digesting foods rich in carbohydrates, a lot of carbonic acid is accumulated, which is transported through the body fluids to the lungs and exhaled in the form of carbon dioxide. But some excess of acid remains in the body.
As a result of the same digestion of foods rich in protein in the body, mainly urea and uric acid is formed. They are excreted from the body through the kidneys and remain in the body for a long time( especially with poor kidney function), which causes a shift in the acid-base balance towards the acid. With increased consumption of acid products, acid peroxidation may occur, which is most often the case with malnutrition, mainly by acid-forming products. A peroxidation is dangerous: an increase in carbon dioxide in the blood in some cases can lead to the breakdown of bone substance. Therefore, one should monitor their diet, consume more alkaline-forming products, especially vegetables and fruits. In general, the sauna causes a number of changes in the internal environment of the body, which are short-lived and quickly compensated by regulatory mechanisms. These changes are not significant, especially if the rules for using the bath are not violated.