Hair loss( alopecia, alopecia, thinning, thinning hair) - Causes, symptoms and treatment. MF.
Mar 08, 2018
Hair loss occurs under the terms alopecia, baldness, baldness, baldness, loss, loss of pathological hair loss. Hair has always been a sign of the vitality and beauty of not only women, but also men. In various legends about Samson, who is credited with inhuman power, it is narrated that his hair was also very strong. Loss of power was equated with decapitation. Female hair is considered a sign of beauty and femininity. It's no wonder that in the modern world, effective ways are being sought to get rid of alopecia!
We constantly lose hair, but the hair does not change. This is because the hair is in different stages of growth( growth phase 3-6 years, involutions up to 2 weeks, rest 2-4 months).But baldness is a completely different picture and is a pathological condition. Alopecia is the excessive loss of hair in certain areas of the body, leading, in consequence, to the complete disappearance of the hairline.
There are several forms of alopecia:
- androgenetic - a genetic predisposition to baldness in men, associated with hormonal disorders.
- focal - is associated with immune disorders, characterized by nest hair loss in certain areas.
- scarring - with hair loss, scars are formed from the connective tissue. Follicles are damaged without restoration.
- diffuse - uniform loss of hair as a result of violation of hair development cycles.
The presence of non-characteristic changes in the scalp and hair loss may indicate the presence of any chronic pathological process in the body.
Causes of hair loss
Over a lifetime, about one hair grows from one hair follicle. The living part of the hair is under the skin, not on the surface.
The main components that make up the hair are protein, keratin and melanin pigment. Smoothness and a healthy appearance are provided by sebaceous glands of the scalp. Normally a person loses about 100 hair a day. According to statistics, hair loss in women is less common than in men. This is a physiological phenomenon and it is associated with the withering of the old hair and the appearance in its place of a new one.
- Increased hair loss is observed in the spring and it is perfectly normal - during the winter, hair is weakened, deprived of vitamins and minerals.
- Seborrheic alopecia is another reason why hair falls out. This applies to both men and women. The process is associated with excessive production of sebum, so the disease is called fatty dandruff. Dropping hair is bound by crusts and is lost to a few pieces at a time. The most common cause of seborrhea and oily dandruff is a fungal infection.
- Alopecia can cause some cosmetic procedures, especially frequent staining, curling, straightening and daily spraying of varnish. Similarly, tying the hair into a tight bundle or too tight tail leads to damage to the hair follicle.
- People who are often on a diet also grow bald. Losing weight leads to a deficiency of nutrients - vitamins and trace elements. Iron, zinc, selenium and other elements are needed to have beautiful, shiny hair.
- Stressful situations can lead not only to hair loss, but also to their fragility. Stress hormones narrow the blood vessels. Hair begins to weaken and fall out because of starvation.
- Very often, the genetic cause is the basis of pathological prolapse - inheritance from your father, mother, grandparents.
- Some medications also affect hair growth. Some antibiotics, drugs from high blood pressure, medications that reduce blood clotting, worsen the condition of the hairline.
- Infections that are accompanied by a high temperature induce increased hair loss, because the high temperature causes a rapid transition of the hair follicle to a resting phase. But, fortunately, this temporary state and process is reversible.
- Over the years, the hair becomes thinner and weaker, the hair growth phase becomes shorter, and the "rest" period is longer - after some time the hair follicles disappear completely.
- Smoking, low-quality cosmetics - all this can speed up alopecia.
- The cause of female and male hair loss can be a violation of the hormonal level. In women, this is a shortage of estrogen. The postpartum period or the abrupt withdrawal of oral contraceptives may cause a temporary decrease in the level of the female hormone. During this time, women often complain of excessive hair loss. There are cases when women after pregnancy( with lowering the level of estrogen) lost up to half of the hair.
Often after menopause, women also lose their hair. For this, androgens are responsible, the number of which is significantly increased. This is very similar to the classic model of male pattern baldness. The action of testosterone is due to the fact that it reduces the phase of hair growth, this makes the hair weak and leads to their loss. Sometimes the disease begins earlier than the climax itself.
In men, the main cause of alopecia is an excess of testosterone and a particularly high sensitivity to androgens circulating in the blood. This type of alopecia is called androgenetic.
Diseases in which there is a symptom of hair loss
There are diseases, the presence of which we can not guess, but the symptom of baldness can indicate the presence of pathology.
- In general, the condition of the skin and hair deteriorates due to disorders of the thyroid gland, especially with hypothyroidism.
- Tumors of stagnant tissues, diseases of the stagnant brain, hidden internal bleeding( perforation of the stomach ulcer), as a result of these processes - anemia - a pathological condition characterized by a decreased content of red blood cells.
- Gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, less often gastritis - the diseases are characterized by ulceration of the mucosa. At the same time, absorption of nutrients is impaired.
- Pituitary dysfunction is the structure of the brain that is responsible for the production of hormones.
- Dysfunction of the adrenal glands is the glands responsible for the regulation of the metabolism.
- Depression is a disease characterized by low mood and decreased motor activity, a violation of mental activity.
- Infectious diseases( ARI, ODS, FLU, etc.) are conditions caused by ingestion of a viral agent.
- Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune non-infectious disease, mainly affecting the scalp, and consequently, the hair follicles.
- Dependence on surfactants( alcohol, drugs) - the state is characterized by intoxication, a violation of the liver.
- Alopecia can be a side effect of medications, such as antidepressants or chemotherapy. So, how they have a toxic effect on the body.
When to consult a doctor for hair loss
Before consulting a doctor, you need to wait time. Perhaps everything will return to normal and the lost hair will grow back. But if hair loss continues, you find yourself with signs of alopecia - urgently need a specialist consultation!
Disturbing signs of hair loss:
- large amount of hair on the pillow, in the sink during washing, on the comb, on clothes,
- dry flakes of dandruff,
- oily substance accumulates under the nail plate when scratching the head,
- reddening of the scalp,
- scalp itch,
- old hair does not grow on the site of old hair,
- there are cicatrical skin changes in the place of hair loss,
- it is characterized by a clear zonation( in men is the temporomandibular part and upper part of the head,silt, hair fall out everywhere).
If you have one or more of the above features, you first need to get a general practitioner consultation. He will assess the nature of the changes, the probable cause and, if necessary, send it to the trichologist. Trichologist is a doctor whose specialization is dermatovenereology or medical cosmetology. He has an in-depth experience in the treatment of scalp and hair diseases, which means he can more accurately determine the causes of alopecia and choose the appropriate method of treatment.
The standard examination of the trichologist includes:
- Trichoscopy - the method allows you to determine the type of baldness. Includes a view of the enlarged image of the hair and scalp through a special video camera connected to a computer monitor.
- Trichogramma - hair from different parts of the head is examined under a microscope. It is estimated how many of them are in the growth phase.
The findings are evaluated and, thus, a possible cause of hair loss is identified.
Special light is also used, which helps to detect fungal head skin lesions.
Very important is the collection of anamnesis of life in men, since baldness is hereditary.
Women need an additional gynecological examination, as well as a blood test for the maintenance of female sex hormones.
Treatment of hair loss
For women, specific therapy is effective, which may include oral contraceptives or other medications containing estrogen.
Androgenetic alopecia in men is closely related to the genetic sensitivity of the organism to dihydrotestosterone( an active form of testosterone), which leads to shrinkage of the hair follicle. For the conversion of testosterone to DHT, the enzyme 5-alpha-reductase corresponds, the entire treatment is based on the suppression of the action of this enzyme.
Finasteride( Proscar) - taken internally, slows the production of a compound that turns testosterone into a more active form. It is the most effective in combating hair loss.
Dutasteride( Avodart) is used, both for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia, and for the treatment of androgenic( male hormonal) alopecia. The action is based on a reduction in testosterone consumption.
Side effects of drugs containing finasteride or dutasteride: decreased libido, difficulty with ejaculation, enlarged or painful breasts, very rarely allergic reactions: skin rash, urticaria, edema of the eyelids.
Treatment is most effective in young people who have lost only a small part of their hair, since dead hair follicles can not be restored!
Minoxidil - used for external use. The solution is intended for the treatment of alopecia, both in men and in women. The main effect of this drug is the improvement of blood flow in the vascular bed of the skin, cleans the potassium channels responsible for nutrition and oxygenation of hair follicles, promotes the activation of hair rudiments. Thus, preparations containing minoxidil increase the amount of hair or make it healthier, thicker and longer. The first results are visible after 2 months of treatment, and the highest intensity of growth is observed after 12 months of use.
Compositions of liquids containing minoxedil for scalp: Loxon 2% or 5%, Piloxidil, Regaine.
Treatment lasts about a year, further - the effect is maintained by shampoos and conditioners against hair loss.
Sometimes, when infected with a fungal infection, antifungal medications are prescribed, which help to get rid of unsightly problems with dandruff and restore lost hair.
Vitaminotherapy. Often hair loss is a lack of vitamins and microelements in the body.especially in the winter - spring period. To treat hypovitaminosis should take vitamin complexes containing vitamins A, B, E and C, iron, copper, cobalt, zinc and other trace elements.
Cosmetic products for hair loss
When hair begins to thin, you can use conditioners containing keratin, protein, vitamins A, B6 and E, zinc and copper.
Keratin is a protein, and is a key component of hair, nails and the stratum corneum.
D-panthenol( provitamin B5) softens and moisturizes the head code, makes the hair shiny and elastic, stimulates cell growth and renewal, speeds up melanin formation, protects against UV rays.
Zinc - prevents the destruction of hair follicles and inhibits hair loosening. Cosmetic products play an important role in maintaining the fat balance of the scalp, prevent the appearance of dandruff.
Placenta cells( placental extract of an animal) - is applied externally, is part of cosmetic products or in the form of a medicinal preparation( capsule, ampoule form).Contains amino acids that provide hair with everything necessary for their intensive growth. The first effects of treatment can be expected in 2-3 months.
Cosmetic kerosene( liquid paraffin) - not only nourishes, strengthens, but also prevents hair loss, eliminates signs of dandruff.
Home treatment for hair loss
Moisturizing home hair masks in some cases are an alternative to pharmacotherapy. They include castor oil, egg yolk and lemon juice.
Castor oil is the most versatile cosmetic moisturizer. Contains 85% ricinoleic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid and linoleic acid, which are effective for nutrition of hair follicles. Castor oil strengthens, reduces hair loss and increases hair growth.
Egg chicken yolk - contains a large number of polyunsaturated fatty acids and minerals, which intensively nourish and moisturize the hair.
Lemon juice acts as a natural bleach and peeling for keratinized scalp cells, prevents the development of dandruff.
Banana prevents dehydration of the scalp, soothes, smoothes, moisturizes and nourishes the hair.
Buttermilk or whey - contains lactic acid, which gently exfoliates and regenerates the scalp. Hair gets shine and elasticity, become moisturized and strong.
RECIPE1.Mix 1 tablespoon of castor oil with 3 tablespoons of cosmetic kerosene( see cosmetics), one egg yolk and a few drops of lemon. Apply the mask on the head along the entire length of the hair and wrap the head with food film or a packet, cover with a towel. After 30 minutes, rinse and wash your hair thoroughly.
RECIPE2.In a bowl, mash one ripe banana with a fork. Add 3 teaspoons of natural kefir, half a teaspoon of coconut oil( see phytotherapy) and mix thoroughly. Then apply the mask on the scalp and hair, keep as long as possible, minimally 30 minutes. Then wash your head with shampoo, designed for dry hair.
Recipes can be changed, depending on the availability or availability of ingredients. For example, coconut oil can be replaced with burdock or olive oil, add decoctions or infusions of herbs( see phytotherapy), and instead of cosmetic kerosene, household clean kerosene, which is sold in hardware stores, is quite appropriate.
Phytotherapy for hair loss
- Horsetail - well strengthens hair, prevents their fragility, strengthens blood vessels.
- Burdock root( burdock) - used for baldness, poor hair growth. Strengthens, moisturizes, nourishes the hair follicle.
- Chamomile - is known for its anti-inflammatory properties. It is recommended for the care of blond hair due to its bleaching properties. Eliminates itching, disinfects the scalp.
- Extract of a palm tree serenosa or dwarf palm( Saw Palmetto) - is considered equivalent to a finasteride preparation. Some studies have shown that it lowers testosterone levels, so that it can be used to prevent prostate disease and treat baldness in men. Has a softer effect and has no side effects on the body.
- Coconut oil contains a large amount of lauric acid( about 60%) and vitamin E, so it easily penetrates the structure of the hair and intensifies it intensively.
- Olive oil - helps strengthen and regenerate hair. It is used in obtaining infusion of burdock( burdock oil).This combination is most useful in alopecia.
- Chili pepper - use juice, infusions, decoctions. Rub into the roots of the hair. Its locally irritating property improves the flow of blood to the hair follicle.
Salon treatment of alopecia
Professional procedures that improve the hair condition:
Sauna for hair. For this procedure, the temperature is about 40 ° C. In beauty salons or SPA it is a dome-shaped chamber, slightly larger than in a traditional hair salon. Before the procedure, the hair should be washed with shampoo twice, the appropriate conditioner, intended for the sauna, is applied. During the procedure, steam with a pleasant smell comes out from under the dome. Steam also has a beneficial effect on the skin of the face. The procedure lasts about 20 minutes. Then the hair is rinsed and dried.
Sauna enhances the effect of balm. Hair becomes elastic, shiny, easier to comb. Moisture and heat softens them, removes dandruff husks, keratin molecules contained in the balm, penetrate deep into the structure of the hair, strengthen them. The procedure should be repeated preferably every week.
Laser treatment. The procedure is performed using a special laser device. Therapy improves blood circulation, which increases hair growth. In order to achieve visible results, treatment should last a year, and then every month you need to carry out supportive procedures.
Mesotherapy. Injectively injected with special vitamin cocktails or medicines that nourish the hair. Preparations for mesotherapy are selected individually, including on the basis of a trichogram or microscopic evaluation of hair collected from five areas of the head.
When all the above methods of treatment do not work, only hair transplantation remains. The procedure involves collecting( usually from the back and other parts of the head) and implanting them in a new place. Donor strands are divided into fragments, which are placed in bald areas through microscopic cuts of the skin. During one session, you can move about 2000 skin fragments with four hair follicles. The session lasts from 2 to 5 hours and is conducted under local anesthesia. The effect is permanent, and when the hair grows, it looks very natural.
Prevention of hair loss
For the prevention of hair loss, follow some simple rules:
1. Revise your diet - eat more unsaturated fatty acids( olive oil, olives, sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds, fish protein, various fruits).
2. Shorten the hair, cut the damaged ends. For men with the first signs of baldness, it is better to cut the hair "to zero."
3. Reduce the use of planks, hair dryers, rectifiers. They lead to damage to the hair and overdrying the scalp.
4. Limit the contamination of the hair, ensure the flow of oxygen to the hair. Fresh air not only improves brain functions, but also nourishes the hair follicles.
Doctor cosmetologist Kondratenko NA