• Hygiene, daily care for the baby

    A healthy, ruddy toddler, dressed in lacy tights and peacefully snuffling in a stroller, is the ideal that every mother dreams about. And this is not so difficult to achieve. Proper care, including balanced feeding, adequate sleep, outdoor walks, hygienic procedures will help nature, and the baby will grow just like in dreams. But for this you need to work hard.

    Now talk about competent daily care.

    Morning toilet. It should be remembered that no part of the child's body needs to be washed from the inside and get to it, if it is not visible. Do not climb with a cotton swab in your ears or nose, so as not to damage your membrane or damage the mucous membrane;there is a possibility that a cotton wool will remain in the outer ear canal or in the nose, and specialist help will be required, since it is quite difficult to extract it yourself - there is a risk that it will be pushed even deeper. A natural outflow of mucus removes dirt from the nose outward;Earwax itself comes out of the auricle, and tears constantly wash the eyes.

    Every morning a child needs ordinary washing, like all people. After the hygienic procedures that the mother lovingly performs, the child has a mood and well-being will be better. It is best to carry out all the procedures on a changing table. Next you need to prepare everything in advance: a bowl or a cup with warm boiled water for washing the eyes, another bowl of warm water, cotton swabs, soft terry cloth napkins, a soft towel, clean diapers, and also baby cream, powder, etc.

    After sleep, undress the baby and put on a dry diaper. Let the skin take a little breath. If the baby does not mind, put him on his tummy for a few minutes.

    Then, with a cloth dipped in boiled water, without effort, wipe the face and skin around the ears, and also the neck, to remove sweat that can cause irritation;then just wash the handles, palms, under the arms. Thus check up, whether it is time to cut sharp long fingernails or nails of the child. True, some mothers believe that it is easier to cut off the nails of a newborn when he sleeps. Here it is necessary to adjust, as the kid actively pulls the handles, and to cut the nails is not so simple. There is an exit, and quite admissible, - to mum to bite soft nails of the baby.

    After washing, immediately pat dry skin with a dry soft towel.

    Each eye gently rinse with a separate tampon or a piece of lignin moistened in warm boiled water: so less risk of transferring the infection from one eye to the other. Wash the eyes from the inner corner to the outer. In case of suppuration, the eyes are wiped with a warm decoction of chamomile.

    After this baby turn on the barrel and, holding with your left hand, right-wash the back, buttocks and immediately dry it. Then wash your chest, tummy, legs. Separately, carefully wash the external genitalia. The boys are simply washed, not exposing the head of the penis. Girls are washed and wiped always in the direction from front to back;otherwise, you can put the infection after the stool into the genitals.

    Finish the morning toilet by wiping all the wrinkles of the skin. You can lubricate the child with baby cream or powder powder.

    Feeding. After washing, it is the turn of the feeding. During the day, you need to monitor the purity of the baby's skin. From bathing to bathing, only the "top" and "bottom" of the baby should be kept clean. He grows up and starts to touch the various

    objects with handles and suck his fingers. To avoid gastric disorders, during the day you can wipe your palms and fingers with a wet napkin.

    How to bathe a baby. Undoubtedly, the baby should be clean and smooth, but not at all to the extent that his children often make too clean parents. It is important for them that the babies smell pleasantly, for example baby powder or powder. In fact, the child needs to be washed only in order to remove from his skin something that can irritate her. The skin is so arranged that it itself successfully copes with the cleansing, unless urine, feces, sticky milk, dust or dirt has fallen on it. Moreover, there is an opinion that excessive cleanliness( when in the house everything is cleaned and sterilized, all the underwear boils, that is, when the mother is literally obsessed with hygiene) does not contribute to the development of stable immunity in children.

    However, bathing is not just a hygienic procedure. If the child splashes every evening in the bath, then he trains his muscles, relaxes in warm water, nagulivaet appetite and a sound sleep.

    The first hygienic toilet is performed in the maternity hospital immediately after birth. The midwife processes the umbilical cord to the child;for the prevention of inflammatory diseases bury in the eye a special solution;Sterile napkin cleans the child's body of original grease.

    At present, in the first 12 hours of life, the baby is vaccinated against hepatitis B and on the 3rd-7th day against tuberculosis. At the injection site, a crust is formed, which should not be treated with tincture of iodine or zelenok. The crust itself disappears. Before that, it is better not to bathe the baby, so as not to wet the crust.

    The first bathing of the house can be arranged for the child on the 7th-10th day of life, the pediatrician or health visitor will tell the more accurate date. It depends on the condition of the navel: while the navel does not heal, the baby does not bathe, so that the infection does not get into the body. You can

    only wipe the child's body with wet wipes or gently wash it.

    Doctors advise you to bathe your baby every day. However, if the infant actively opposes this and it becomes obvious that bathing does not yet provide him, and even the mother, the pleasures, the water procedures should be slightly delayed. You can keep your child clean and regularly wiped with a damp cloth. It is very important to accustom the child to water gradually, little by little, not frightening him and not putting himself under stress, when it is difficult to keep in a bath full of water, slippery, screaming crumbs.

    More often after one or two bathing, the newborns are simply blissfully in the bath. But at first, when they are lowered into the water, the reaction is usually concentrated-tense, the baby calms down, as if listening to their new sensations, and carefully expects what will happen next. If he feels that the danger has passed, then he relaxes and immediately begins to chatter vigorously with his hands and feet. If the first experience was successful, the child would like to frolic in the future. He will no longer freeze in the water in an incredible strain of fear and horror, ready to scream at every second, and will pounce on the water with his hands and feet with all his might. Therefore, it is difficult to overestimate the importance of the first water procedure, which must be seriously prepared in advance, not missing a single detail. If a child seems dangerous to her, parents may have a problem for more than a week, trying to teach him to water. The child will vigorously protest and resist, and all because of the fact that the first experience was unsuccessful.

    So, what should be thought through and prepared for the evening bathing.

    To bathe a baby is best in the bathroom, especially if it is spacious enough. The air in it should not be stagnant, but fresh and warm. Some prefer to bathe the baby in the kitchen, because there is more space and you can put the bath on the table.

    Of course, you need a special baby bath, which should be used only for bathing the baby, - you can not wash it or soak underwear, even baby diapers. Which bathtub is better?

    Suitable metal enameled or galvanized, or plastic. It is not recommended to use a wooden bath for bathing a baby, especially carved, since microbes can remain on it due to uneven surfaces.

    The bath should be placed on a stable table or bench.

    Prepare a water thermometer, a baby soap in a separate soap dish, a special baby shampoo "without tears," a cup of warm boiled water for a face, a large terry towel, soft napkins, sterile cotton wool bags, a clean diaper - all this should be in the bathroom. A washcloth in the first weeks is not required, but it must be prepared in advance, to teach the baby to light massage in water;the sponge should be very soft and soft. It is convenient, when everything is in one place, for example, on a side table, nothing has to be looked for, one should not be distracted from the child.

    In the child's room, on a changing table, everything you need right after bathing should be prepared in advance: powder, baby cream( if required), brilliant greens, a set of clean underwear - ryazhonki, blouses, clean diapers, cap, if the room is coolso that you can wipe the baby without a fuss and swaddle.

    Usually a child is bathed before evening feeding. Therefore, you must be ready to immediately feed him. As the bathing relaxes and calms the child a little, after eating it, he quickly falls asleep and for a long time quietly sleeps. Therefore, it is better not to miss water procedures, which also have a hardening effect. They are very important for the child.

    Infants up to 3 months are advisable to bathe in boiled water. For this, water is boiled and cooled in the morning. The temperature of the bathing water should be +37 C. Prepare a solution of 5% potassium permanganate( sold in the pharmacy).It is not recommended to make a solution of crystals, since insoluble crystals can burn the baby's skin. Add the decoction broth prepared beforehand. Before bathing the baby, prepare a bath - rinse thoroughly, rinse, pour it over with boiling water and only then pour water into it for bathing. At first, it will be easier to hold the child in water if its level is low. It is better to pour very little water into the tub.

    When everything is ready, strip the baby, let him lie down for a minute without clothes( this will be an air bath) and carefully, without haste and bustle, not to frighten him, lower him into the water. Many parents cover the bottom of the bath with a clean diaper, and some initially lower the baby into the water in a clean diaper to reduce slipping. It is hardly advisable to advise something unequivocally. Everyone decides for himself how it is more convenient to adapt to bathing. After all, this procedure will be a night after night, and it should give pleasure to everyone, especially the baby.

    How long should the baby stay in the water. At first, if everything goes well, 3-5 minutes, then, when bathing is not only a hygienic cleansing procedure, but also gives pleasure, the duration is gradually increased by adding 1-2 minutes. When the child gets stronger and grows up, you can swim for 15 minutes. Approximately three months of age, bathing will be one of the favorite activities of the child. Of course, it is much more convenient to bathe a child together. If there is an opportunity, especially in the first days, the help of relatives - the husband or the grandmother, grandfather of the kid is desirable. During bathing, you must firmly hold the child with your left hand by the shoulders, laying your hand under your back, and the right one easily soap the body and pour with warm water. You need to thoroughly wash your hand all the wrinkles - on the neck, behind the ears, under the arms, on the legs. It is not recommended to diligently rub the baby, all movements should be stroking and rubbing - after all, the skin of a child is so tender and vulnerable. First, wash the neck, chest, stomach, arms and legs, back. In the ears only the ears are washed, so that the water does not get into the ear canal. And at the end of the procedure, they wash their hair. The head needs to be thrown back a little, holding it with the palm of your hand, and with the other hand, water it from the temples to the back of the head. A few drops of shampoo should be diluted with warm water and extremely gently soap the head so that the soapy foam does not get on the face and eyes. Even a very mild soap foam delivers unpleasant sensations to a baby, and he may even object to bathing because of such oversights.

    The face is best wiped with a tissue moistened with clear water from a cup. To bathe a child with soap and wash his head should not be more than 1-2 times a week, depending on the weather, the skin condition of the child, etc. The rest of the days are bathed without soap.

    After bathing the child immediately wrapped in a warm, soft terry towel and gently squeezes the whole body, never rubbing and wiping with effort to not injure the skin. First, dry the head, ears, neck, then the body, the folds get wet especially carefully.

    If necessary( for example, redness and irritation of the skin in the groin, etc.) or a doctor's recommendation, grease the wrinkles with baby cream, after washing, wash only with baby detergent or baking soda, which are washed off thoroughly so that there is not anydrops of detergent, then necessarily dried.

    Keep the bath in a dry condition.

    with boiled vaseline oil or sprinkle with powdered baby powder. Powder helps if the child has sensitive skin, which is easily irritated. Its thin layer is applied to the skin, easily stroking the body.

    Then quickly dress and swaddle the baby.

    After the baby is dressed and fed after bathing, it is necessary to do a bath.

    Interceptions. Sometimes, even with good care, babies have diarrhea of ​​varying degrees. At the same time, the skin condition changes: it can turn a little red, but there is probably a strong inflammation with pustules and wounds. The skin is irritated by the constant friction of clothing and diapers( especially if they are poorly spread), moistened with feces. And as a result - redness, and in neglected cases, possible injury. The child at this time is restless, sleeps badly and cries for a long time in pain.

    Avalanches can be avoided by taking the most common preventive measures and

    hygiene: diapers and all baby underwear should be thoroughly washed, boiled and rinsed;Do not keep your baby wet or in diapers for long periods;care should be taken to ensure that the perineum is dry;often arrange air baths, so that the baby can lie naked, at least for a minute( if, of course, the room is warm).If the child has very sensitive skin, the perineum should be washed with water every time swaddling, gently drying it and lubricating with vaseline oil.

    If, with proper care, diaper rash does not go away, a doctor's consultation will be required. But definitely have to give up polyethylene panties, change the diaper immediately, as soon as it is soaked or soiled, leave the child without clothes for as long as possible;lubricate the perineum with special oil. Until the problem is resolved, you can not wash the crotch with soap and water and apply a baby cream.

    If the kid does not like to swim. This is a considerable difficulty. Perhaps he is afraid of water and new sensations. How to be? We must be patient and cautious, and gradually make new attempts in the best conditions. It is important at the same time not to worry yourself and not to freeze from fear in expectation of the usual screams of protest. It is necessary to help the baby relax and love bathing.

    One of the main conditions - the child should be healthy and calm. After all, if something is bothering him, he is nervous and crying, then the bath does not have to be to his liking. The room should be warm, so that the child does not shiver from the cold and with pleasure undresses. The ideal temperature is about +24 ° С.Water should also be pleasantly warm. Do not limit the movements of the child, let him sprinkle water as long as he wants.

    The child should feel that he is "in good hands", not in "weightlessness" - it is necessary to hold him tightly around the neck and the back of the head,

    otherwise he will be frightened and will expect something even more terrible. Keep the head with your left hand so that it does not tilt, it's very unpleasant. Do not let the soap bubble get in your eyes, it's better to swim at first without soap. After bathing the baby should expect a large soft warm towel. It is not necessary to unfold it immediately, but after a short time, so that the child rests and relaxes.

    It is not necessary to bathe the baby in a cool room, it is better to refuse bathing altogether, if the home temperature does not exceed +20 ° С.The same requirement applies to water - it must correspond to body temperature;The kid definitely does not like the cool water, and from too warm water, he may even have stress.

    Soap the baby only in water, not on the knees. It can freeze or even slip out of your hands. Do not spray the baby with water so that it does not get into the nose or mouth.

    After bathing, disguise is reduced to a minimum, you can only wrap the child in a warm mahrovoy sheet - after all, he does not like to change clothes. You'll have to change dress a little later, when all the unrest will be over.

    Diapers. Which diapers are preferred? Cotton and gauze have to be washed and dried, and paper just enough to buy and throw away after use. Soft, especially gauze, diapers are the most suitable clothes for a child, especially for a newborn. The diaper is folded so that the maximum thickness is where it gets wet most: the boys in front, the girls at the back.

    Very comfortable and indispensable in certain situations, diapers with permanent wear can cause skin irritation. As always, the best solution is a compromise solution: gauze diapers are best used at night, because they are soft and

    is very

    hygroscopic and the child is not worried, and paper diapers are suitable for daytime life and walks.

    To change diapers better on the changing table or bed, on the spread oilcloth or polyethylene film. Do not wash your baby whenever swaddling. It is enough to wash it twice a day. If the diaper is stained with fecal masses, it is necessary to remove them with a clean part of the diaper: the child is lifted by the legs, wrapped around the thumb and middle fingers of his hand, and the forefinger is inserted between them. Then the legs will not rub against each other, smearing the dirt. The rest of the dirt is removed with a wet swab and lubricated with a baby cream. This is the so-called fast toilet.

    Children's underwear is washed with a special baby powder or baby soap, boiled in soapy water, thoroughly rinsed and ironed with a hot iron. Some parents believe that it is not necessary to iron the diapers. But at least up to 3 months it should be done. Firstly, after ironing, the fabric becomes softer and, in the second, clean: after all, the tender baby peel is irritated if the remains of urine remain on the diapers. This means that the diapers are poorly stretched and rinsed. Dirty diapers cause diaper rash and even inflammation.

    ryh, under a hot iron perish pathogenic microbes.

    Hygiene concerns housing hygiene. Undoubtedly, that the apartment should always be clean, and in the room where the baby lives, wet cleaning should be done daily. This is especially

    has become relevant in recent years, when more and more children suffer from allergies, and home dust is considered the most common allergen.

    Particular attention should be paid to the cleanliness of toys. New, before you give the child, always wash with soap. And then regularly treat with some antiseptic or wash with soap.

    The child's room should always be filled with fresh air, air it as often as possible.

    ruts the cold of the child because it sweats, and even a small breath can cause a cold.

    And it is very important to start tempering from the very birth of the child. At first it will be simple air baths. The temperature of the air in the room should not be below +23 ° C.When swaddling, simply leave the baby naked for 1 -2 minutes( of course, on a dry diaper) to allow the skin to breathe. Very gradually and gradually the duration of such procedures is increased. If the baby is unwell, then quench the tempering until better times.