• Diseases of cabbage and cabbage roots

    Kila affects the root system of cabbage, turnip, radish and radish. It appears on the roots in the form of outgrowths and blisters, the size of a large pinhead on seedlings to an apple in adult plants. Affected by a whiplash seedling almost does not differ in appearance from a healthy one. The plants are infected at the beginning of their development. Stronger disease develops on heavy clay soils. Control measures. Annually to select new plots for cabbage. To its former place it can be planted no earlier than in 4-5 years. In 2-3 years, it is necessary to change the soil in nurseries or greenhouses, where seedlings are grown. Before planting seedlings, you need to plot the soil( 30-40 g / m2) and treat it with colloidal sulfur( 40 g / 10 liters of water).Sick plants are excavated and destroyed.

    Black leg affects all kinds of cabbage, radish, lettuce and other crops, develops mainly on seedlings. The diseased plant darkens the stem. In the basal system, the stem becomes thin, sometimes decaying, curving, some plants die.

    Control measures. Reliable means - change of soil in boxes and greenhouses in which to grow seedlings. Prevention of the disease is facilitated by sparse seed sowing, regular airing of the premises where seedlings are grown, soil loosening, and sanding with 2 cm layer of sand to the plants.

    Vascular bacteriosis is manifested in the yellowing of leaves of seedlings from the edges 2-3 weeks after planting it in the ground, then the yellowing spreadsto the middle of the leaf, veins turn black. When the plant is damaged in the early phases, the head is not formed, the roots are crushed. On the slices of petioles of stems and sticks, there is a darkening of the vessels. The infection persists in seeds and residues in the soil, spreads with rain, pests, slugs and soil. Control measures. Observance of crop rotation;warming the seeds before sowing in hot water( 48-50 ° C) for 20 minutes, followed by cooling and drying. Timely pest control.

    Gray rot affects cabbage and other crops during storage: on different parts of these plants appear gray fluffy raids containing a large number of spores of the fungus. On the affected tissues black dense gum forms. Sources of infection are soil and plant debris. Freezing, insect damage, high storage humidity contribute to the spread of the disease. Control measures. Alternation of crops;selection of healthy plants for queen cells;cleaning and disinfection of storage facilities;the control of mechanical damage to vegetables during harvesting, laying for storage. Keep the cabbage at a temperature close to zero. Systematically clean the heads and pollinate them with chalk.

    Fusarium ( jaundice) - leaves become yellow-green in color. On the yellowed leaves there is a small dark mottle, in the transmitted light, a slight darkening of the veins is visible. In the transverse section of the stem and leaves petioles, a light brown ring of vessels is clearly visible. In the affected plants, the diseased leaves fall off, the head becomes curved, and with a severe lesion there is only a small bare head, devoid of external leaves.

    Control measures. Respect for crop rotation;removal and destruction of sick plants;disinfection of the soil with potassium permanganate or a solution of copper sulfate.

    Downy powdery mildew affects seedlings and adult plants of cabbage, radish, radish and turnips. It appears in the form of yellow fuzzy spots on the upper side of the leaf, and on the bottom - in the form of a weak white coating. Control measures. Proper care of seedlings( do not allow thickened crops), mineral top dressing;moderate watering of plants;regular airing of hotbeds.