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  • Common forms of crowns

    Crown form

    Fruit species

    Tier

    Varieties of paddy crops with pronounced longline

    arrangement of branches

    Sparse-tiered

    Apple, pear, apricot, cherry, cherry, plum

    Improved tiered

    Apple trees on medium-sized rootstocks, pear, apricot, cherry,

    Asparagus

    Apricot

    Bushy

    Apple tree, pear, quince, cherry, plum, peach

    Vase( or cup-shaped)

    Peach, cherry, plum, apricot, apple and pear varieties

    Spindle-shaped

    Apple trees and grushes with spreading type of crown on medium-sized and

    sloughy rootstocks, stone rocks extremely rarely

    Spindle-shaped compact

    Apple trees of medium and poorly grown varieties

    Palmetta with inclined branches

    Apple, pear from medium to very tall varieties with high

    degree of branching, less often stone stones

    branches to regulate their growth and give the right direction. Shortening is used mainly on annual shoots. In this case, the degree of shortening of the main branches is chosen taking into account the features and strength of the tree growth. It is necessary to watch closely that the crown is not too thickened, for which its periodic thinning is used. When thinning the crown of an adult tree, first cut out the shrunken, diseased, broken, dense branches growing in the crown. Simultaneously with pruning of skeletal branches, thin and thin and bare fruit branches are thinning and shortening. of aging trees gradually stops the growth of branches even with good care, a pronounced periodicity of fruiting appears, the quality of the fruit decreases. During this period of the development of the tree begins the revelation of the endings of the skeletal branches and even the death of some of them, beginning with the lower ones, weakened or strongly shaded. In the lower part of the crown of the old tree at the base of the branching of the main skeletal branches of the first order, wolf shoots are formed. Such trees are usually subjected to a very shortening anti-aging pruning. With rejuvenation, the skeletal branches are shortened to the area of ​​the growth of the tops, which is approximately 1/3 of their length. Simultaneously with the shortening of the skeletal branches, a partial thin thinning of the crown is performed, basically removing the withered, weak and broken branches.

    The fruit tree crown should:

    be strong, resistant to the maintenance of large volumes of fruit and snow in winter;

    be convenient for care and harvesting;

    have sufficient number of basic and overgrown branches to obtain high yields.

    The initial and most crucial stage in the formation of the crown of fruit trees is the bookmark of the main branches.

    distance between the branches on

    shtambe When forming the crown of the tree is necessary to ensure that the branches do not grow too densely, creating serious competition g EVELOPMENT each of them, and placed on trunks in a relatively regular intervals.

    1. verticillate branches formation cha shtambe branches arranged

    with minimal running start, actually grow from a single point, which hinders the formation of crown skeleton.

    2. The branches are located on the stem through: regular intervals, which allows each of them to develop equally, cover themselves with overgrown branches and create a strong core of the crown.

    . The selection and laying of the main branches of the crown in young trees in the garden are made with the goal of forming a solid skeleton of the fruit tree,which is one of the main conditions for his subsequent successful fruiting. The laying of the main branches depends on the tree species, as well as on the strength of growth and branching of a certain variety, the awakening of the kidneys, the shoot-forming ability and other biological features of the fruit tree. The crown should be strong, easy to care for and harvest, and have enough basic and overgrown branches to obtain high yields. The main branches should be placed so as to avoid their thickening. The laying of the main branches begins when the lateral shoots on the central conductor reach a length of 15-20 cm. When laying the first main branches,

    The angle of the branch of the branches

    When forming the crown, it is extremely important to take into account and observe the angle of branch off from the stem. The optimum angle between the growing branch and the stem is in the range of 45 to 90 °.The branch on the right is too steeply moving away from the stem, which creates a significant risk of its breaking off

    . Young tree seedlings are cut at a height of 70-100 cm from the ground, in the crown zone, the number of branches corresponding to this type of crown is laid. The strength of the core of the tree depends on the placement of the main branches on the tree trunk, therefore, when laying the main branches it is very important to take into account the subordination of the of the main branches to the central conductor and especially the corners of their departure from the central conductor. Branches with an acute angle of divergence of less than 40 ° are removed, since they are loosely attached to the trunk. Angles of discrepancy between closely spaced branches should be at least 90 °.The main branches of the upper tiers must in no case fall into the lower of the target. The branches of the second order are placed, as a rule, singly, not closer than 35 cm from the trunk and not denser than 50 cm to each other. In gardens for the formation of young fruit trees, the most commonly used is sparse-tiered crown shape. It is closest to the natural form of the crown and is suitable for almost all breeds of fruit crops, but it requires a significant place on the site. The main feature of the sparse-longline crown is in the longline and single placement of first-order skeletal branches that are located approximately at regular intervals at different heights around the center. Comparison of the shapes and volume of crowns of fruit trees

    1. The spindle-shaped form of the

    crown on a low stem.

    2. A dwarf "ballet dancer", grown as a kad culture.

    3. The sparse-tiered form of the crown of a half-stamping tree.

    4. Sparse-tiered crown of high-cutting wood

    Sparse-tiered crown shape.

    of the trunk. The core of the crown is usually formed from 5-7 branches. There is also the possibility of choosing different schemes for arranging branches on the trunk, the most universal and widespread in the fruit-growing scheme assumes the presence of three branches in the first tier and two in the second. The distance between longlines for varieties on tall-growing rootstocks with a sprawling crown should be at least 60-80 cm, while the central conductor( or trunk) is cut using the trimming method for translation, over the last lateral branch. The angle between the skeletal branches and the central conductor should be approximately 50 °, the optimal angle of the branches in the crown can be achieved using pulling by means of weights or the installation of struts. It is also possible to place the skeletal branches in a sparse-longline formation, in which 3-4 branches are locatedwhorl, and the rest sparse on the trunk or in small groups. The distance from the lower tier of branches to the next single branch is 50-60 cm. If not a single branch is above, and the whorl, which is usually a group of two branches, the interval between them proportionally increases to 80-100 cm. At a distance from 50 to 80cm from the skeletal branches grow semi-skeletal crown forming branches. It is necessary that the semi-skeletal branches with growth in length and thickness remain subordinate to the skeletal branches and be located at approximately equal distances. The main task of sparse-longline crown formation is to achieve the most uniform distribution of semi-skeletal branches and fruit shoots on skeletal

    when pruning. Crown formation

    This type of crown is closest to the natural form of the tree crown, it needs only to be slightly adjusted according to the characteristics of the cultivationfruit trees.

    1. Wood before trimming.

    2. Trimming is performed in an optimal way. The proportions of the length of the central and the skeletal branches are observed.

    3. The pruning is too weak, a long central conductor and long skeletal branches are left, which will interfere with the proportional growth of the

    tree

    branches of both tiers. If the crown becomes too thick, its light and air permeability deteriorates, the fruit grows worse, the wood dries out badly and remains moist for a long time, which can lead to its decay. The first step in the formation of the sparse-longline crown is the pruning of the seedling during planting. At this stage, the skeletal branches and lateral shoots are shortened equally by half, and the central conductor is cut so that it rises above the skeletal branches by 10-20 cm. All the others not used to create the structural skeleton of the branch branch should be removed. However, the shoots below the crown, which are not the basis of the future skeleton of the tree, should be temporarily left to improve the growth of the stem in thickness. They can be removed at the very base only a year after planting the tree. When pruning, the skeletal branches are shortened to the outer kidney, which will help to avoid too steeply growing shoots up in the development process. The subsequent winter pruning for the second and third year after planting is intended to consolidate and continue the formation of the tree crown, given as a result of primary pruning during planting. The main rule of the subsequent scraps is the orientation to the weakest of the left skeletal branches of the crown. It is also important to find the optimum degree of pruning to avoid excessive elongation of shoots, which is observed when the pruning is too strong, or to bare some areas on the central conductor, indicating a weak trimming that left the shoots too long. Normally, the central conductor and the skeletal branches are pruned 1/3, at most 1/2 of their original length. On skeletal branches, it is necessary to choose the strongest and most developed semi-skeletal branches, which are 50-70 cm apart, and leave them, evenly cutting off to the very tip of the tree. Superfluous shoots should be shortened to the first kidney. If the process of sprouting is too slow, one of the reasons for this may be shoots left too long after the previous pruning. In this case, in order to stimulate the formation of new shoots, they need to be shortened up to last year's wood. On the contrary, if the stripping process becomes undesirably intense, 2-3 kidneys located on the upper side of the skeletal branch should be removed immediately after the trimming site. The central conductor should be shortened to the opposite kidney, so that it is straight and well lengthened. When pruning, it is necessary to distinguish semi-skeletal branches and fruit shoots, strong shoots must be shortened to the lower bud, and not close to the horizontal plane of the spear. In subsequent years, the maintenance of the crown should consist in maintaining its shape in order to preserve the ratio of the growth in length and the thickness of the skeletal branches of the i of the central conductor. With the growth of trees;the main criterion for sustaining cutting is to ensure the balance of growth;branches and shoots. Half-skeletal branches, the circle growing up, should be pulled downwards giving them a more horizontal position in space, and also tie up to stimulate the process of formation of flowering buds. The sparse-longline crown needs to be maintained so that the undesirable reformation of the crown does not occur. This is caused by this denudation of its internal space with the displacement of the areas of fruit formation to the periphery of the crown.