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  • Caring for raspberries

    Raspberries perfectly grows on sunny and humid places practically on all territory of Russia. She follows the man literally on his heels.

    Pay attention to the roadside of the newly paved road, forest cuttings, a fire, and you will immediately notice the young raspberry bushes. Raspberry seeds are mainly spread by birds.

    In the bird's stomach, the seeds themselves are not processed, only the soft seed coat softens slightly, which contributes to their rapid germination.

    When raspberries are propagated by seeds, it is necessary to remember this and before planting the seeds are stratified( break the seed coat by rolling seeds on sandpaper) or can withstand about half an hour in a weak solution of hydrochloric acid or in gastric juice( sold at a pharmacy).

    Rubus idaeus L. This is one of the oldest berry plants. Cultural types of raspberries have orange, red, purple and black berries. There are varieties, fruit bearing one or two times a year. Of the cultivated varieties, the most commonly grown are: from the usually fruit bearing - "Ruby", "Zeva II", from the repair ones - "Loyd Georg" or "Granat".The fruits of wild raspberries are most useful from the point of view of nutrition. Raspberry contains about 1% protein, 13% sugars, especially simple, and also calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, potassium. In it - a significant amount of copper, which is important for blood circulation. In raspberry about 20 mg% of vitamin C, there is carotene and vitamins B1 and B2.There are also organic acids, especially lemon, bioflavonoids, quite a few pectins, tannins, anthocyanins. The presence of salicylic acid is beneficial for colds. The high content of organic acids along with seeds in the bones of berries favorably affects the cleansing of the intestine. Berries have moderate diuretic and choleretic properties, and also favorably affect the disease with rheumatism and liver and kidney diseases. Medicinal properties and leaves. Leaves are part of tea mixtures( special choleretic and diuretic).Young leaves are collected during the flowering period of plants, they are dried and processed. Infusion of them is useful and replaces real tea, especially recommended for children with colds and people suffering from kidney disease. In the leaves of raspberries there is essential oil, bioflavonoids, a lot of vitamin C, tannins, organic acids, there is salicylic acid. Fermentation is carried out as follows: fresh leaves are left in the shade for about 12 hours to wilt. Then they need to roll with a rolling pin, wrap in a towel and leave in such condition for 1-2 days. The leaves will turn a brownish color and a pleasant smell. Then they must be dried( this treatment is called fermentation).In the same way, blackberry and strawberry leaves are stored, and mixtures can be made from them. The leaves of wild raspberries( strawberries, blackberries) are collected not only for personal consumption, but also for delivery as medicinal plants. Dry them carefully, in the shade, so that they do not lose color and are not damaged. From raspberries prepare syrups, jams, compotes, fruit drinks, juices, desserts, soups. Use raspberries and in a mixture with weakly aromatic fruits, often make a mixture with currants.

    Features of growing

    What does raspberry like? The sun, good lighting all day( although it can tolerate penumbra), a humus-rich soil with a neutral reaction, fertilizing fertilizers containing nitrogen. She loves fresh manure, moist soil.

    What does raspberry do not like? The slightest drying of the topsoil. Therefore, the soil under the raspberries must be mulched, that is, cover it with a layer of dispersed sawdust with a height of at least 8-10 cm. Peat, foliage, hay, straw, moss-sphagnum, weed-weeds can be used for this purpose. Instead of mulch, it is permissible to cover the soil between the rows, and also on the roadsides of the raspberry plantations with any lightproof material that will retain moisture and heat in the soil and will not allow the weeds to germinate. Since the raspberry root system, located in a layer of soil depth of 15-20 cm, the weeds severely depress it, depriving food and moisture. The earth under the raspberries can be poured into 2-3 cm slurry or slurry from the fermented weeds, but beforehand it is necessary to water the planting with water, so as not to cause a root burn by too high a concentration of such mulch.

    Raspberry does not like acidic soils, heavy clays or loams, grows poorly on sands, does not tolerate stagnant waters during winter thaws and spring floods. On scanty soils before planting raspberries should be made on a bucket of humus or pereprevshego compost under each bush. It is better to plant bushes on a flat surface, but if the groundwater is close to the surface or the area is flooded with water, it is first necessary to fill in crests about 30 cm high and about 1 m wide and plant raspberries on them. For better drainage, brushwood, stems, chips, branches are brought under the crest.

    Selection of variety

    Of the modern varieties, it is necessary to choose the most winter-hardy and resistant to the main fungal diseases, with large berries.

    Of the varieties with red berries the most promising are Balsam, Bryansk, Illusion, Krendo, Skromnitsa, Sputnitsa, Malakhovka, Meteor, Patricia, Ruby, Sunny, Maroseyka, Mirage, Crossing, Hussar. Very large berries, up to 6-8 g, in the varieties Padishah, Taganka, Ainsberry. There are varieties with even larger berries - the Beauty of Russia and the Caprice of the Gods.

    Varieties Bechlyanka, Yellow Spirina are promising from varieties with yellow color of berries( almost not affected by weevil), Yellow Pineapple Vigorova, Yellow Giant( unfortunately, not wintering grounds and requires shelter for the winter), Slastena is yellow. It should be said that yellow raspberries are cultivated in exactly the same way as red.

    Of the varieties with black berries, Cumberland and Bristol are the most famous. Perspective are the varieties of Nyo-Logan and Earley Cumberland.

    Black( American) raspberry differs from red not only by the coloring of berries. First, it has a powerful, deep-rooted root system, so it is fairly resistant to drought. It can be watered much less often than red, and secondly, it does not form root offspring. Thirdly, she does not lie, the bushes are erect, so the black raspberry does not need support. However, it is less winter hardy, so for the winter, shoots should be bent to the ground and covered with lapnika. Young bushes should be properly formed, then a powerful bush is formed, giving an abundant annual harvest. To do this, at the beginning of the vegetation period, remove all broken, dry, sick, weak shoots, carving them to the ground. Once the annual shoots grow to 50 cm, they should shorten the ends by 10 cm, then by September long shoots will form. Next spring the weakest of these shoots are cut to the ground, the strong ones are shortened, leaving only 4-5 buds. In the same summer, a compact, powerful shrub is formed.

    In recent years, varieties of new breeding have started to spread widely, called Rashbush. Varieties of this selection twice bear fruit on the same shoots: at the end of summer - on young shoots of the current year and again on them in the summer of next year, that is, they are raspberry varieties of raspberries.

    One of the first grades of this direction was the sort of Progress, developed by I.Michurin. Now there are a lot of such varieties, they are sorts September, Fallall, Korblyuer, Zhuravlik, Heritage, Indian summer. I will say right away that in the North-West these grades are not very promising because of early autumn frosts. Berries do not have time not only to ripen, but also to flow normally. The ends of the shoots are frozen out, in the spring they have to be cut off, and therefore the summer fruiting is simply miserable.

    A very interesting direction in the selection of raspberries is the creation of varieties that bear fruit on the shoots of the current year, that is, annual raspberries. After fruiting, raspberries are simply mowed down, that's all. The next year, new shoots grow, on which the harvest ripens. It is easy and convenient to take care of such a plantation. In addition, annual raspberries are less attacked by pests and diseases. Here it is necessary to say a word of gratitude to the wonderful Bryansk breeder of raspberries, who created almost all the varieties listed above, as well as the annual varieties of raspberries Hercules, Augustine, Reliable, Elegant, Apricot( yellow), Academician Ivan Vasilievich Kazakov.

    Close relatives of raspberries

    This is, first of all, the blackberry is erect, or kumanyk, and blackberry creeping, or rosyanika. In addition, there is still a prince, or, as it is also called, a Polanica, a prince's berry, an arctic boulder, a mamura.

    The prince grows in the northern forests and is considered one of the most delicious berries of the North. Blossoms the prince abundantly, but he does not tie berries very much. Ripens in August and looks a little like raspberries.

    About thirty years ago in Finland a hybrid of raspberries was created with a glade( prince), which was called a nectar raspberry, because it turned out to be sweeter than raspberries. This hybrid took from its two ancestors the best properties, namely, it is delicious and aromatic, like a polonika, and harvested like raspberries. Nowadays, the Finnish variety of nectar raspberries, Hayes variety, is quite widespread. The shoots of nectar raspberry are shorter than those of raspberries. The bush is never above 1.5 m. The bush grows slowly, so there is practically no problem with the shoot. Ripens a couple of weeks after the usual raspberries and leaves in the fall with flowers and berries. In order not to lose a crop, over the bushes in the late summer, it is advisable to put a tunnel shelter or at least cover the bushes with a double layer of lutrasil. All the rest of the agrotechnics is exactly the same as that of ordinary raspberries.

    The blackberries in the garden should be planted, of course, upright, because with the creeping blackberry there is no slack. All its shoots, as soon as they come into contact with the soil, immediately begin to take root. However, it is precisely the sunflowers that have larger and tasty berries, and are rendered with no-nonsense varieties. So the choice is yours. Rectangular varieties, of course, are more compact and do not seize the territory around them as aggressively as the rosyanika. Therefore, in small gardens it is still better to grow kumanyku, that is, the blackberry is erect. When choosing a place, it should be taken into account that the blackberry is less winter hardy than raspberries. Therefore, the cropland, that is, the creeping blackberry, makes it easier to winter, because it is almost always covered with snow. Blackberries are less demanding of soils than raspberries. However, she also has preferences. The blackberry is well-liked by well-drained and fertilized organic loams. The soil reaction should be weakly acidic or neutral. The location is sunny, protected from the north winds.

    Planting a blackberry, unlike a raspberry, is better in the spring, but it is possible and in the autumn. Approximately 50 cm deep in the planting pits, a bucket of compost, a 1 liter ash canister, if the soil is acidic, and 2 tbsp.spoons of double granulated superphosphate. The pit is filled in three quarters, if necessary, adding soil, which is taken out of it. All well mixed, watered, make a mound, which spread the roots, and fall asleep on top of the remnants of the land taken out of the pit. After planting, pruning is done, leaving a hemp height about 25-30 cm above the soil surface. Bushes erupt blackberry located about 1 m apart. For solyans need more space. The distance between plantings should be at least 2 m. Care for the blackberry is no different from caring for raspberries.

    Of the erect blackberry the most winter-hardy variety Agavam, Ufa local, Flint. Of creeping varieties - Texas. The most interesting are the sparse varieties of cedarwood: Thornfree, and also a series of Tornles varieties.

    Blackberries - the berry is delicious, many consider it tastier than raspberries. It, like raspberries, is rich in micro-and macro-elements, organic acids, vitamins, but blackberry jam is even tastier than raspberry.

    Planting of

    It is best to plant raspberries in the end of summer in the same time as strawberries, that is, from mid-August to mid-September. But you can transplant it from one place to another in the spring and even in the middle of summer, if you want to plant a young shoot. It is recommended to choose a sunny place for planting. The soil is improved by adding rotten compost( 1 -2 buckets per plant).Deoxidize ash( liter pot under the bush) or make a glass of lime.

    There are different ways to grow raspberries. Often it is planted with a large curtain, placing the plants in a 50 x 50 cm pattern evenly over the entire area, while deepening the stems into the soil when planting 3-4 cm. If the raspberries are planted deeper, the stem may rot, and if higher,planting in winter. Planting all ends, as the raspberries are further abandoned to the mercy of fate. It grows on its own, like in a forest. Feeding is not done, the old stems are not cut out, the leaves are not removed. Only water from the hose on the soil in dry weather. The underground part of raspberries lives about 12 years, so the curtain will have to be moved to another place.

    However, more often raspberries are grown along the boundaries of the plot in one or two rows, placing shrubs at a distance of 80 cm from each other, and rows - at a distance of 1 m. The width of the raspberry row should be about 40 cm. All the shoots, knocked out for this restriction,should be cut, otherwise the raspberries will spread around the landings for a rather large distance. When planting rows, it is more convenient to dig not individual pits for each bush, but a solid trench into which to plant plants. It is usually recommended to plant two plants together at once. Before planting the roots must necessarily be lowered into the water for at least two hours, so that they are saturated with moisture, it is good to add water "Kornevin" or "Heteroauxin".But do not keep the roots in water for a longer time, as they will lose all the potassium contained in them, and this will weaken the plant at an early stage of survival.

    In the planting pits or trenches, everything that was mentioned above should be applied, soak the soil well with water, so that the plants are planted in the mud. Make the mounds, spread on them roots( broken or dry pre-cut) and fill them with dry soil. In the trench bushes are planted on hills, located 80 cm apart. Then the trench is completely covered with soil. The soil after planting is not compacted, but only slightly compressed around the stems of raspberries.

    The raspberry planting material should be shortened at the time of purchase, leaving stems only 20-25 cm high. If you plant young shoots from your plantation, then it should also be shortened before planting at the same height. Otherwise, the leaves, evaporating moisture, will dry the stalk, which is not supplied with moisture, until the bush has settled down and the sucking roots have appeared.

    Several different varieties should be planted, since raspberries need to be re-sprayed. In addition, it is necessary to have varieties of ripeness in raspberries of different maturity.

    In the future, leave no more than 4 young shoots in the bush in addition to 4 last year's stems. If you leave more than 4 young shoots at the beginning of summer, the bushes become heavier, which leads, on the one hand, to poor illumination, and consequently to a drop in yield, on the other hand to the spread of fungal diseases.

    If you grow raspberries in rows, you will definitely need a garter of stems, otherwise they will begin to lean towards the soil under the weight of berries or wet foliage, and this can lead to a breakage of the stem at the base, which is especially common in strong winds. To hold the stems in a vertical position, two or three horizontal trellises of strong wire or a cord made of fiberglass are tightened, which are fixed on the cola driven into the ground at a distance of 2-3 m from each other.

    If you make two such fences at a distance of 40 cm from each other on both sides of the landings, then raspberries can not be tied to trellises. If the fence is only one, then you have to tie the stems to each of the horizontal trellis. The fences can be spread about 50-60 cm wide. To tie last year's shoots to one side, from which we will harvest, and for a young young growth there will be enough room. It will not be overshadowed by fruit trees. As the growth of young shoots should be tied to trellises second fence. Thus, you will divide last year's and young shoots. This greatly facilitates the care of plants.

    So that the raspberries do not creep out of the allotted space, one must either dig at a depth of 30 cm of slate and limit the planting on both sides, or each spring and autumn cut through the spade of the shovel the limiting lines along the landings. But you can do otherwise - leave along the plantings of raspberry sod width of about 40 cm on each side, which is constantly walking, trampling the grass. Raspberry does not like dense soil and will not spread its roots to the trampled place. If the shoots appear in the wrong place, it should be removed, pruned with a sharp shovel and torn out with roots. Cut the raspberries by a secateur is useless, since it will grow even thicker.

    Raspberry can be planted by single bushes around the site on sunny places. But then, before planting in the center of the future bush, a length of about 2 m of water pipe is inserted into the ground, not less than 40-50 cm deep into the ground. Once planting two plants on both sides of the pipe, they will tie them to this support as they grow,just slightly pulling the rope in a bunch of all the stems. Always make sure that the roots do not creep around.

    There is also such a way of growing raspberries, in which raspberries bear fruit in one row, and all young shoots are torn out, in the other row, on the contrary, only young growth for fruiting grows next year, and all fruiting shoots are carved. Next year, a fruitful row and row with a young growth will change places. But in the cramped conditions of a small plot, it is uneconomical to apply such a method in terms of the use of the landing area.

    Raspberries perfectly next to apple, pear, plum, but it does not tolerate cherry: even planted in 2-3 m from it, raspberry starts to shed, becomes short, ill fruit. You should not plant raspberries close to sea-buckthorn and black currant, as in all these plants the roots live in the same layer of soil. Seabuckthorn will gradually survive the raspberries from its place, and raspberry will sprout in the middle of the black currant bushes, oppressing the latter.

    You can not plant raspberries next to strawberries, and not only because their roots are located at the same depth, but also because they have common diseases and pests. It is not recommended to break the raspberry plantation near tomatoes and potatoes.

    With any method of planting, raspberries should not be kept in one place for more than 8-10 years. It practically ceases to bear fruit. And not only because the root system has become obsolete or a large number of diseases and pests have accumulated. There is one more feature, which for some reason is paid little attention.

    The fact is that the roots of all plants secrete toxins in order to suppress root growth of other plants adjacent to them. But with prolonged cultivation of the same plant, too much accumulates in one place of these toxins, and they begin to oppress the plant that gives off them. Each plant has its own time, for which this process takes place. So, when grown on the same spot of salad, the influence of own toxins starts to affect already in the third generation. In pions, the process is stretched for 15 years, and in raspberries it occurs approximately in 8-9 years. Even with the rejuvenation of the bush, the plants remain depressed, since not only the renewal of the plant itself, but also the change of soil is required. This should not be forgotten when you rejuvenate the strong pruning of shrubs. It is necessary to dig the bushes on all sides with trenches, remove the soil from them and replace it with fresh ones.

    Addition and care of

    Do not hurry up in the spring to untie or unravel the raspberries, if you tied it or laid it on the soil in the autumn. Raspberry fragile stems, and they easily break almost near the ground, especially at temperatures below 6 degrees Celsius. Raspberries wake up late, so untie the bushes only after the temperature becomes about 10 degrees. The stems straighten themselves. Only after that they should be tied to trellises or stakes.

    Raspberry loves nitrogen fertilizing, but nitrogen reduces frost resistance, so the first fertilizing with nitrogen should be given only after the end of spring frosts( for the Northwest - in early June).For nitrogen feedings, fresh manure diluted with water( 1: 10), rabbit and goat droppings( 1: 10) or bird droppings diluted with water( 1: 20) is best suited. You can use faeces from the toilet( 1: 10), but this is undesirable. Instead of manure and litter, we can use the infusion of weeds, but it should also be diluted with water( 1: 2).Before top dressing, the plant should always be watered to avoid burning the root system. If there is no organic top dressing, then use mineral, containing nitrogen: urea, ammonium nitrate. However, it is better to always top-dress with mineral nitrogen together with potassium, that is, add chlorine-free potassium( sulfuric or potassium carbonate).It is most convenient to use for potting a potassium nitrate containing both nitrogen and potassium. In total, mineral fertilizers must be taken 3 tbsp.spoon and dilute them in 10 liters of water. But before top dressing, first rinse raspberries with water. Under each bush should be poured about 1 liter of fertilizing.

    Potassium nitrate is preferred as spring top dressing also because it does not acidify the soil, unlike all other nitrogen fertilizing, and raspberry, as you remember, does not like sour soil. In this regard, the raspberry plantation must constantly be introduced with a deoxidizer, especially in the North-West, where acidification of the soil is constant. You can water 2-3 times a season with lime milk( 1 cup of lime or dolomite for 10 liters of water, which is used for 10 m of planting) or pour 1 -2 cups of ash on wet soil under each bush.

    Remember: the main thing - in the spring and early summer raspberries should be constantly watered( at least 2-3 buckets of water under the bush a week).Irrigation should always be done in the evening, so that moisture per night leaked into the root zone, and not evaporated from the soil surface, as it happens during day or morning waterings.

    During fruiting in the middle of summer raspberries are fed with phosphorus and potassium. In addition, trace elements are added. For this you can take 1 tbsp.spoon of double granulated superphosphate and potassium fertilizer without chlorine, add 2h.spoonfuls of "Uniflor-micro", dilute all in 10 liters of water and after watering to make a solution of fertilizers - in a liter jar under each bush. Irrigation during fruiting can be reduced to 1 bucket per bush per week in dry weather or stop them altogether if the weather is wet.

    After fruiting, you should immediately cut out the stalk bearing the stems. If they are not swollen - gall, then the stems can be left right under the raspberries;if such growths on the stems are, then it is better to burn them. However, the old stems, which do not have a gall, can be left until the spring, especially if you tie a raspberry for overwintering in bundles. The old stems will serve as a support and protect young shoots from wind and cold, as they will facilitate the retention of snow.

    Raspberry - the plant is not frost-hardy, but many varieties can winter without any cover. For wintering, the bushes are pulled into a bundle, tied not too tightly and left to winter. You can tie each bush into a bundle and bend the bundles towards each other, and then tie them together. You can just pin each bush to the soil. But all these measures should be done in warm weather, at a temperature not lower than 6 degrees Celsius;and very carefully, because you can easily break the stems of raspberries when they are pinned to the ground. Sometimes it is advised to cover the raspberries with raspberries and pile snow onto it. Personally, I never do it.

    In October, raspberries are introduced with organic fertilizers( in the bucket for each bush) in the form of overgrown manure or compost. If the autumn is dry, then it is necessary to water abundantly raspberries with water( at least 3 buckets of water under the bush).When growing raspberries, very important is the mulching of the soil under plantings. Firstly, mulch retains moisture in the root zone, secondly, it hinders the growth of weeds; third, it retains heat in the soil, and covers the roots of raspberries from frosts in winter. If you do not have fertilizers, lime, manure, then use instead of manure an infusion of weeds, this is something one can do, and ash instead of mineral fertilizers.

    When planting raspberries, you can make 1 tbsp.spoon of complex fertilizer AVA and no more to feed the raspberries for three years, at the end of which they fill in the soil around each bush another 1 st.spoon of this fertilizer for the next three years. In order not to engage in weekly watering, plant new shrubs on "Aquadon" or hydrogel( 2 cups of gel under the bush).This makes it possible for two years to water raspberries in a week in dry weather, provided that the plantings are clouded. Since raspberry loves nitrogen and constantly moist soil, then abundantly water it in early June, infusion of weeds, diluted well with water( 1: 10).After that, immediately pour the soil under the raspberry thicket from under the infusion of weeds or slurry, when there is manure, a layer of not less than 3-5 cm. This makes it possible not to water it at all and eliminate the struggle with weeds.

    How to form a raspberry? In the beginning of summer, when young shoots come from the ground( usually they are red), you should leave the 4 strongest ones, the remaining ones to pull out. In addition, it is necessary to remove all shoots, which are drooping and attached tops, because they have a larva of a raspberry fly. When the young shoots reach a height of 1 m, they should be pulled out the upper growth bud( you can just cut off the tip of the shoot) to stop further growth and cause the appearance of lateral shoots. Side shoots usually manage to grow to a length of 40 cm by the end of summer.

    Next spring, as soon as the raspberries thrive, cut the dried ends of the branches to the green part. If the ends of the branches are green, then pinch the side branches. Prischipka will cause the growth of additional branches, as a result, instead of a single stem, a whole tree will form with four lateral branches. What does it give? The increase in yield is almost twice, the ripening period of raspberry, which has been extended for the whole summer. You can not be late with all these pinches, because otherwise the fruiting on the lateral shoots will begin later than it should, and the berries do not have time to ripen before the autumn frosts, which, you see, is offensive.

    Pests and Diseases

    Some of the raspberry pests are also pests of strawberries, respectively, and the measures to combat them are the same. It is a spider mite and a strawberry weevil. But there are also own pests: a raspberry beetle and a raspberry fly, which inflict the most significant damage to raspberries. In addition, there is also a stalked gall midges, but there is no nematode.

    With a raspberry fly it's easiest to fight during its flight, which coincides with cherry blossom. At this point, you can spray the raspberry planting with carbophos even before it blooms. But it is better to use one of the biopreparations - "Fitoverm" or "Agravertin", because useful insects have already emerged from the earth. If you missed the fly-fly moment, then pay attention to the drooping tops of young raspberry grass. This fly penetrated into them, so immediately rip out the shoots and burn in the stove. You can not leave torn off growth on the compost. The larva of the fly hibernates in the soil, it can overwinter in compost.

    The raspberry beetle also hibernates in the soil and comes to the surface at the end of May. If at the time of cherry blossom you sprinkled raspberries with biopreparation, then it retains its protective properties against all sucking and gnawing pests for three weeks, so that the next spraying can be done in early June. The raspberry beetle lays the larva, like the weevil, in the flower bud. The simplest way to fight is to shake the beetle in the mornings, when the beetle is inactive, on the litter and its destruction. With a weevil on raspberries, too, the easiest way to fight it by shaking it on the litter.

    When you collect raspberries, you involuntarily help the beetle larvae( white small raspberry worms, harvested in berries) to get on the soil. Therefore, in order not to alleviate their fate, cut the raspberries together with the pedicels. Then all the worms in the berries fall into your hands. After cleansing the berries from the fruit stalks, pour raspberries with salted water( 1 tablespoon per 1 liter).Worms will float to the surface, and it will only be necessary to drain them together with water, and rinse the berries once more with cold water and immediately use.

    Wet raspberries are not stored at all. The berries, taken together with the pedicels, can be transported and stored in the refrigerator for no more than a day. If you are accustomed to remove berries without peduncles, then spread paper to the bottom of the basket, so that the worms dropped from the berries do not fall to the ground through the gaps between the rods, or collect the berries in the basin. And then with the berries do the same as just been told. Berries, taken without peduncles, strongly wrinkle, so their transportation is difficult. Collect raspberries should be in a shallow container, so as not to crumble berries. Raspberries without worms practically do not happen.

    Of the raspberry diseases the most common is gray rot, which especially annoys in rainy summers. In thickened plantations, it can cause significant damage to the crop. In recent years, the purple spot of the raspberry stems began to appear in the Northwest. First it appears in the form of purple spots under the petioles of leaves, then the spots spread and can ring the stem. The bark is cracked, flakes, and the shoot dies. Against all fungal diseases, "Phytosporin" helps, spray plants that can be sprayed at any time during the growing season, or early spring spraying with a 3% Bordeaux fluid solution. Repeated spraying should be done after harvesting. In recent years, a new preparation "Zircon" has been created, which copes with all fungal, bacterial and even viral diseases of plants, including purple raspberry spot.

    As soon as you notice that in the summer a shoot starts to dry out( along with flowers and berries), immediately cut it to the ground without leaving a hemp. Escape should not be left, it should immediately be burned or, at least, shoved into the oven. After all, the stalk is just the spores of the fungus of the purple spot, and they are carried everywhere, including falling on the stalks of the young raspberries of this year. It is urgent to spray all the stalks of raspberries as young, grown this year, and fruit bearing, with the drug Zircon.

    After harvesting, when you cut out and burn off the shoots that have germinated, the remaining wintering young stems must be sprinkled with Zircon once again. By this you will save the harvest of the next year, otherwise entrenched arguments on young shoots will cause their death next summer, at the height of fruiting.

    The most dangerous for raspberry viral and mycoplasma diseases, against which drugs are still powerless. These diseases manifest themselves in different ways. Mosaic raspberry immediately noticeable on the yellow-green mosaic color of the leaves. The witch's broom is externally manifested in the appearance of a myriad of root cane, which does not grow.

    The curliness of raspberries is expressed in the pitting of the leaves, which acquire a reddish-bronze tide and are very shallow. All shrubs with the indicated signs should be immediately excavated with a large clod of earth and all at once burned, as the diseases are transferred from sick plants to healthy saliva of sucking insects. These diseases spread quickly and can ruin all plantings of raspberries in one season.

    Time

    Measures

    Preparations

    Before blossoming

    Cutting stems with wintering

    larvae of

    buds of stalked gall midges.

    Loosening of the soil in the aisles and fertilization.

    Spraying against fungal stinging mushroom

    60% nitrafen paste( 200 g

    infection

    per 10 L of water)

    At the beginning of blooming

    Spraying against raspberry bud moth if

    30%

    emulsion concentrate of

    leaves was not treatednitrafen

    carbofos( 30 g. per 10 liters of water)

    Before flowering

    Shaking the raspberry beetle early in the morning, collecting and destroying.

    Spraying against raspberry beet, raspberry

    30% emulsion concentrate

    fly, arachnoid mite.

    carbofos( 30 g per 10 liters of water)

    Spraying against anthracnose, septoria,

    Bordeaux liquid( 100 g

    didymella

    of copper sulfate and lime per 10 liters of water)

    During flowering

    Low cutting and destruction of shoots with faded tops, damaged by a raspberry fly, and shoots damaged by larvae of a raspberry gall midges. Shaking and destroying a raspberry beetle. Detection and destruction of bushes affected by virus diseases

    After harvesting

    Spraying against anthracnose and didymella at

    Bordeaux liquid( 100 g

    of strong infection of plantation,

    of copper sulfate and lime with 10 liters of water)

    Spraying against larvae of raspberry beetle and

    30% concentrate emulsion

    weevil.

    Spraying in the presence of a spider mite

    carbofos( 30 g. Per 10 liters of water)

    Autumn

    Cutting and burning of the fertilized stems and damaged shoots to destroy raspberry bud moth, stem gall midges. Raking and burning( or composting) fallen leaves to destroy sources of infection of fungal diseases.

    Digging soil in rows and rows to destroy wintering in the upper layer of soil raspberry beetles, weevils, pathogens. Mulching of soil

    The purple spot of affects weakened bushes damaged by insects. A characteristic feature of the disease is the violet-brown blotches on young annual shoots, mainly near the places where the leaves are attached. Gradually the spots expand, merge and subsequently ring the entire shoot. On leaves, petioles and fruit branches, the disease manifests itself in the form of large necrotic spots that lead to their drying. Control measures. After harvesting, it is necessary to cut and burn infected annuals, as well as fertilized shoots, leaving no hemp. In late autumn or early spring, the soil under the bushes dug up with the embedding in it of the affected leaves. In spring, at the beginning of bud budding, the bushes should be treated with 1% Bordeaux mixture( 100 g per 10 liters of water).

    Anthracnose often affects shoots and leaves. At the end of May - beginning of June, small violet spots appear on the lower parts of young, newly emerged substitution shoots and root offspring, which eventually grow, are pressed and become gray with a purple fringing. The bark is cracked, exfoliated, ulcers are formed, sometimes with an influx around them.

    On the leaves along veins are formed small gray spots, they often merge. Leaves often curl and prematurely wither. The ends of the shoots die. Bad berries develop poorly, become brown, become ugly and wither.

    Control measures. See Purple spot.

    Septoria( white spotting) on leaves appears as numerous rounded light spots with a dark border. In the middle of the spots on the upper side of the leaf in the middle of summer black dots - pycnidia( in which the fungus is retained until the spring of next year) are formed. The leaves are turning brown, withering and falling off. On the diseased stems, small spots with pycnidia first appear, then cracks on the cortex, which later peels off, and the stems easily break. Control measures. See Purple spot.

    Rust in the beginning of development is manifested in the form of light yellow warts on the leaves and stems of raspberries.

    In the middle of summer small pads of orange develop from the underside of the leaves, later they turn black. On diseased stems, large ulcers of gray color are formed, filled with orange spores of the fungus.

    The development of rust is promoted by increased humidity.

    Control measures. Use only healthy planting material. Autumn collection and embedding in the soil during digging of fallen leaves. Processing see Purple spot.

    Viral diseases

    Curl is characterized by vitreous veins and twisting the lobules of the leaf along the main veins with the edges down. On the affected bushes the berries are one-sided, dry and sour. Bushes are thinned and die in 3-4 years.

    Mosaic causes the appearance of yellow spots on young leaves. Particularly clear signs of the disease are manifested in the first half of summer, and in the second - in dry and hot weather - they can be masked. Growing, or "broom witch", is the formation of a large number of thin, weak offspring, shredding and brightening of leaves. Strongly affected bushes cease to bear fruit.

    Infectious chlorosis causes yellowing of leaves at the beginning of vegetative growth. Berries are underdeveloped, becoming one-sided and not tasty.

    The carriers of all viruses are sucking insects - aphids, leafhoppers.

    Control measures. Use only healthy planting material;destroy sucking insects - carriers of viruses. Periodically carefully inspect the raspberry bushes, while removing plants with signs of viroz.

    Non-infectious chlorosis is similar in appearance to viral. Its cause is excessive soil moisture, leading to poor aeration, high soil carbonation or lack of iron, potassium, manganese and other nutrients. Non-infectious chlorosis is not transmitted with planting material, and when the conditions of plant cultivation change, the painful phenomena disappear.

    Raspberry berries are taken with a part of the peduncle. Separate them by pinching the stalk with two fingers.

    In the case when the berries are densely distributed and have a short peduncle, they are cut with small scissors or in the extreme case removed without the peduncle.

    When pinching or cutting, do not touch the berries directly with your fingers. Raspberry berries are very tender and with careless handling easily crumple. Fruiting raspberry begins in July and can last up to 2 months. Fruits are collected every 2-3 days, in hot and rainy weather daily.

    Usage: at home, berries are used to make a delicious fragrant jam, jam, all kinds of fillings, juices, compotes, drinks and liquors. The healing properties of raspberries are well known: salicylic acid fruit has a diaphoretic, antipyretic and anti-catarrhal effect. Dry raspberries are brewed either separately or as part of sweatshops for colds, flu and sore throats. Raspberries are useful for anemia, atherosclerosis and hypertension. A syrup of fresh berries is added to flavor unpleasant to the taste and smell of medicines. As an external remedy, raspberries are used to remove acne and acne.