Periodontitis, periodontitis and bleeding gums
Mar 16, 2018
Gum bleeding isThe most common symptom of periodontal disease is a complex of tissues surrounding and retaining teeth in the bones of the jaw.
Despite the fact that the periodontium also includes bone tissue around the tooth and the muscular ligaments that hold the teeth in the jawbones, most people face the problem of gums - permanent or occasional bleeding, swelling and inflammation.
What is periodontal disease and periodontitis - what is their difference?
Many people mistakenly consider periodontal diseases to be trivial and do not require an emergency treatment symptom - with "harmless" bleeding gums just rinse the mouth with weeds and do not go to the doctor. However, doing self-medication, they cause serious damage to their health.
The fact is that gingivitis( the initial stage of periodontitis), the main symptom of which is bleeding gums, is quite successful( almost 100%) that can be treated if it begins with the first symptoms.
If the disease takes neglected forms, then the risk of losing teeth is great, even at a young age. According to WHO, 80% of children under the age of 10 already have initial signs of gingivitis, which is associated with significant physiological stress of periodontal tissues in a growing organism during teething, formation and growth of teeth.
As for the elderly, due to periodontitis, tooth loss occurs in 95% of cases. However, there is good news - if a few decades ago, with the disease of periodontitis, it was considered practically impossible to keep the teeth, the modern development of tooth-preserving technologies allows successfully to stop the destructive process.
Periodontal disease: causes, symptoms, treatment ^
Periodontal disease is a relatively rare disease( it accounts for only about 3 - 4% of cases of periodontal problems), while periodontitis takes the "honorable" second place among all dental diseases( immediately after caries) andis present to varying degrees in almost 95% of the adult population.
Periodontal disease is a noninflammatory disease of periodontal tissues caused by internal disorders in the body, resulting in inadequate nutrition and blood supply of the peri-toothed tissues and, as a result, atrophy of the alveolar processes( the bone edges of the tooth socket).
As a result of atrophic processes with periodontal disease, sclerotic changes occur in the bone tissue, interdental septa decrease, and the gums gradually become thinner and "settle", leading to the formation of the effect of "wedge-shaped teeth" with exposed roots.
In the future, sensitivity to chemical and temperature stimuli increases, their color changes and enamel breaks down. Subsequently, as a result of neglected and complete atrophy, teeth strongly loosen and fall out.
The causes of periodontal disease are both congenital( genetic predisposition) and triggered by the following factors:
- changes in the hormonal background( pregnancy, puberty, menopause),
- by bad habits( smoking),
- by certain diseases( diabetes, atherosclerosis, gastrointestinal disturbances- intestinal tract, hypovitaminosis),
- by taking certain medications( most often, anticonvulsants).
Local factors, in particular, the effects of microorganisms, do not play a significant role in the development of the disease, but serve only as an aggravating adverse factor.
Treatment of periodontal disease
Despite the fact that effective treatment of periodontal disease is currently absent, there are both physiotherapeutic and surgical modern technologies that allow to restore gums and reduce itching, pain, hypersensitivity and other unpleasant symptoms.
Physiotherapeutic procedures are aimed at improving blood circulation and regeneration processes in the periodontium. These include:
- gum massage,
- vacuum therapy,
- gingival shower,
- magneto laser therapy.
A good massage for the gums and better prevention of periodontal diseases is chewing solid plant foods. The abuse of soft refined food leads to the depletion and atrophy of bone tissue, and with regular chewing of solid foods, especially raw vegetables and fruits, on the contrary, training of gum vessels and natural cleansing from plaque occurs.
Surgical methods for the treatment of periodontal disease are used to remove periodontal pockets, eliminate microabscesses and suppurations of the gums, replant the bone tissue, remove infected expanded soft tissues, close the naked roots, raise the descending gums.
One of the promising areas of treatment for periodontal disease is the use of cellular technologies that allow stimulating the restoration of their own bone tissue. Similar operations are already taking place in Moscow.
Periodontitis, stages, treatment ^
Periodontal disease, in contrast to periodontitis, is inflammatory and manifests itself by the destruction of the joint between the tooth, gum and surrounding tissues, the formation of deep dentogingival pockets and the gradual deformation and destruction of the bone tissue of the tooth socket.
Since periodontitis, most often, develops slowly, gradually and for years does not cause discomfort, in the early stages it is rather difficult to diagnose it. However, it should be noted that there are cases of quite rapid development of the disease.
The stages of periodontitis
- The first, easiest, harmless and effectively treatable periodontitis( gingivitis) is accompanied by a slight redness, inflammation and bleeding gums, bad breath and the formation of shallow periodontal pockets.
- With moderate severity, the following symptoms are added: slight tooth mobility, the appearance of cracks and gaps between the teeth, the formation of supra-and subgingival stones, difficulties in chewing food, deepening of dentogingival pockets( up to 5 mm) with insignificant discharge from them.
- With a severe degree, the teeth begin to ache, move to the sides, stagger and fall out, and the periodontal pockets deepen and frequent and profuse purulent discharge with an unpleasant odor occurs from their cavity.
Causes of periodontitis
Hygiene of the oral cavity
The causes of periodontitis are quite diverse and the main one is traditionally considered to be insufficient oral hygiene, however, everything is not so simple as it may seem. Indeed, microbes living in the oral cavity and forming dental deposits( stones) can inflict peri-toothed tissues, cause inflammation in them and lead to loosening and tooth loss. Therefore, the periodic professional removal of dental calculi is necessary, but, unfortunately, insufficient means of prevention.
Uniform load on the teeth
No less important role in the development of pathology is played by uneven load on the teeth, uncorrected bite abnormalities, errors in prosthetics and jaw injuries. For example, periodontitis often develops if 6 teeth are removed and no prostheses are installed soon or the contact between the upper and lower jaws is incorrectly formed. Adverse effects can be worn by braces, microtraumas with a bite of the thread, the habit of chewing on one side, resulting in an overload of a separate part of the jaw, the use of metal objects as toothpicks, and the effect on the enamel of acids and alkalis.
It is very important that the seals are correctly installed - they do not protrude over the edge of the tooth, and at the same time, fit snugly against it. If the seal does not fit tightly, the microbes and infections can easily penetrate to the root and destroy it, if the filling hangs, this hinders the quality removal of plaque and, as a consequence, inflammation of the gingival tissue. In the case of improper prosthetics, the pathological process develops locally, that is, only in problem areas. In such cases, they talk about local gingivitis or local periodontitis.
In addition, the trigger for the development of the disease is often the general negative for the whole body:
- decreased immunity,
- salivary gland diseases,
- endocrine system diseases,
- improper nutrition.
In this case, the pathological process develops in the field of all teeth and is generalized( general) in nature - generalized gingivitis or periodontitis.
Treatment of periodontitis
The treatment of periodontitis in the initial stage, as already mentioned, has a very favorable prognosis, therefore, it is very important, at the first alarming symptoms, to consult a dentist. First of all, you should be alerted by the appearance of bleeding when brushing your teeth and chewing on solid food.
To begin with, try replacing the toothbrush with a softer toothbrush and using toothpaste and rinses with the addition of healing, firming and antiseptic natural ingredients. If this does not lead to the desired result, then you should immediately seek help from a doctor - the periodontist, since you can not ignore bleeding.
In the first stage, treatment is usually limited to professional cleaning and removal of plaque and the use of folk remedies for periodontitis - applications of aloe vera leaves and rinses with infusions and decoctions of herbs( chamomile, oak bark, sage, plantain).Traditional medicine with bleeding gums also advises rubbing them with sea salt with honey - mix 20 g of honey with 5-10 g of salt and rub your teeth and gums daily, without leading to trauma.
In addition, in the presence of periodontal pockets, the doctor offers their washing with antiseptic solutions - this procedure can remove inflammation and swelling of the gums and reduce bleeding. If the teeth lose their stability, temporary or permanent splinting with especially strong bands is shown. First, a groove with a depth of about 0.5 mm is made on the tooth surface, then the tape is placed and covered with a filling material.
For the acquisition of resistance, surgical methods are widely used, in particular, the patch method, soft and bone tissue transplantation, and artificial controlled bone regeneration. Patchwork operation is used when the gingival pocket is too deep( more than 5 mm) and it is necessary to reduce its depth. For this, a small incision is made in the gum area and the root is cleared from the stone. Then the affected contour of the bone tissue is leveled and the incision is sutured.
Soft tissue transplantation( taken from the palate) is used for denuding of the tooth roots and for cosmetic purposes, and bone grafts( from bone tissue or synthetic ones) are used when bone tissue is significantly damaged both for retaining the tooth and for regenerating new bone tissue.
Prevention of periodontal disease ^
To prevent periodontal disease, you must take seriously the status of your teeth:
- at least once a year visit the dentist for professional oral hygiene,
- brush your teeth 2 times a day and, if possible, after each meal,
- after eating to remove its residues from the interdental spaces using dental floss,
- to choose the right toothbrush with rounded and not too coarse bristles,
- to eat properly. For the health of periodontium, the menu should contain physiologically necessary amounts of proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, microelements. Do not abuse sweets and eat plenty of fresh natural fruits and vegetables,
- discard bad habits and lead a healthy lifestyle.