Peas useful properties
Jun 23, 2018
Brain cultivars of peas are especially appreciated. In addition, there are scapular varieties that have a wide, fleshy scapula, it is used in writing, without waiting for the appearance of peas. Spade varieties are used for making soups, mashed potatoes, paddles are fried, stewed.
In a garden plot, peas of any sort are planted for consumption in raw form, for which they remove filled, but still quite green pods. By the way, the root system of the pea is weak and the pods should be removed carefully, holding the stem with one hand, so as not to pull the plants out of the soil from the pod.
Peas are early ripening( about 55 days after sprouting), mid-day( about 65 days), mid-ripening( about 75 days), mid-late( about 75-85 days) and late-ripening( 90-100 days).It is best to sow several varieties of different maturation periods at once, then all summer you will eat young green peas. Otherwise it will be necessary to sow the peas in several terms with an interval of 10 days. It must be borne in mind that late-ripening varieties have a thicker and strongly leafy stalk, so they are quite strongly affected by powdery mildew in the second half of summer.
Peas prefer a sunny location, fertile, friable, water-intensive soil and does not like dense clays, acid soils.
All kinds of peas are cold enough, so they should be sown quite early. Sow peas without pre-soaking, dry grains, in moist soil to a depth of 5 cm. In this case, the pea grains are in the same regime with the soil. If the soil is moist, the grains swell slowly, taking moisture out of the soil.
When sowing the soaked peas in dry weather, the top layer of the soil may dry up and it will begin to take moisture out of the grains. Peas can die. Peas, sown with dry seeds, just stop swelling and "wait" dry period. In addition, the slow swelling of peas in the soil favorably affects its development. Seedlings appear later than in soaked peas, but the yield is higher.
Since pea bacteria live on the roots of peas, transferring nitrogen from the air to soil nitrogen, in peat nitrogen, peas, like all leguminous crops, do not need. But peas need an increased content of potassium in the soil. In addition, he is very responsive to the introduction of microelements into the soil. It is possible to immediately apply to the soil a powder fraction of AVA fertilizer( 1 teaspoon of fertilizer per each meter of planting).In this case, you can do nothing more. Either on the eve of landing on each square meter of the area you need to make a bucket of humus, 1 tbsp.spoon of superphosphate and potassium, a glass of dolomite or 2 cups of ash.
Soil should be slightly dug to a depth of 12-15 cm, leveled and well watered. The next day the soil should be poured again, with the edge of the board making grooves 5 cm deep at a distance of 20 cm from each other and spreading 2 peas every 10 cm. Then sprinkle the furrows with soil and compact the board. Before the emergence of seedlings, it is better to cover the crops with an old film so that the heat and moisture do not leave the soil.
Seedlings will appear in about 10-15 days. That they are not burned, immediately remove the film. Great damage to pea shoots can be caused by birds, so the supports under peas should be installed just before sowing - they will scare the birds away. In dry weather, peas should be watered. Feeding can not be done, except for the very initial period. Shoots must be fed once with infusion of weeds( dilute with water 1: 5).As a trace element in this case, the easiest way to use "Uniflor Micro", adding to the organic top dressing 2 tsp of this fertilizer per 10 liters of solution.
When the plants reach 15-20 cm, they must be tied to the trellis. But I prefer to grow modern low-growing varieties that do not require garters, especially if you sow two grains together. Clinging to each other, plants do not fall to the ground. However, one must know that low-growth varieties are less productive.
At the moment of appearance of the first buds, peas may suffer from a pea( pea seed), which pierces the bud and lays the larva in it. At this time, planting should be sprayed with "Fitoverm" or "Agravertin".After 3 weeks, spraying should be repeated, because the pest is fouling all summer.
Of diseases, peas are damaged by powdery mildew with the onset of wet and cold weather at the end of summer. Without waiting for this misfortune, conduct preventive spraying of pea plantation on the foliage with a solution of "Fitosporin" in the middle of the egg and 2 weeks later. You can not spray the plants, but simply water from the watering can directly on the pea.
Filled with peas, but still green pods should be removed every 2 to 3 days. If the plant leaves ripe, lightened pods, it will serve as a signal to the plant that it has completed its mission of growing seeds and can stop the formation of subsequent beans. Usually they cut off the crown of the plants that reached 25 cm. Then they begin to branch strongly, and the yield is higher. In addition, the plants will not be too tall. Remove peas begin 12 to 15 days after the beginning of flowering. At this time he is the most delicious and delicate.
Remove the pods on the seeds when they lighten. It is better to take the very first beans. If the weather is wet, the grains may become moldy. In this case, the flaps should be slightly opened, but the grains should not be removed until they completely dry in the bean wings. Then they will fall away themselves. Seeds of peas are always better to have their own, rather than store. Peas after harvesting it is better not to clean the beds, but on the contrary, to dig into the soil. The remains of peas, especially the remains of roots, on which the nodule bacteria will live for a long time, will enrich the soil with nitrogen and biologically active substances, and will improve its structure.
This is an ancient cultural plant. In Asia Minor peas were already known in the stone and bronze centuries. For ancient Greeks and Romans, especially for ordinary people, peas were one of the most important food plants. In the countries of Central Europe it spread late - in the 8th-10th centuries.and grew it to produce grain. But already in the XVIII century.food use of peas was fairly widespread in France and England. From history it is known that peas were in high esteem among the Russian people. In "Domostroe"( XVI century), many different advice was given on how to protect peas in bins. Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich's favorite dish( 1645-1676) was steamed peas with melted butter and podovye pies with pea filling.
Peas, common in culture, are usually divided into two groups: white-flowered and red-flowered. Vegetable varieties of it are divided into two types: lushchilny and sugar. Lushchilny in the leaves of the bean has a hard parchment layer, and therefore blades of such varieties are not used for food. Sugar varieties are devoid of parchment layer, and young tender blades are used for food.
Mineral content in 100 g of peas( mg): sodium - 2, potassium - 236, magnesium - 23, calcium - 26, iron - 0.7, phosphorus - 119, iodine - 4.2.
The content of vitamins in 100 g of peas( mg%): carotene -0.54, vitamin K-0.28, vitamin B-0.28, vitamin B-0.15, vitamin PP-2.10, vitamin B-0, 17, vitamin C - 25.50.
Pea grains are highly nutritious, there is more protein in it than in meat. And the pea protein consists of very important amino acids, which are synthesized only by plants. These include cystine, lysine, tryptophan, arginine, methionine, etc. There are in peas another vitamin B-inositol, from the Greek word Inos, muscle. This complex substance is of great importance in the activity of our nervous system and in the regulation of metabolic processes. There is aminobenzoic acid in pea, which regulates pigmentation processes and protects from burns with ultraviolet rays.
Peeling peas are best dried and used in winter for pea soups.
Green peas can be preserved, but at home it is not easy.
Useful and medicinal properties of peas
Medicinal raw materials are grass in the flowering stage and fruits. In folk medicine decoction of the fruits of peas is taken as a diuretic, promoting the dissolution of kidney stones;Pea flour is used for poultices for furunculosis and carbunculosis.
In folk medicine, a decoction of pea seeds is often used as a diuretic for diseases of the kidney and heart, with urolithiasis. Pea flour is used in the form of poultices for resorption of solid infiltrates, furuncles, carbuncles. Pea poultices are useful for mastopathy.
Peas are a source of vegetable protein, it contains substances that prevent sclerosis, and hence, the aging of the brain. But people who are sick with gout, eat peas are not recommended.
Fruits of pea seeds in the form of flour( powder) are taken inside as a means rich in glutamic acid, which improves the nutrition of brain cells, normalizes the metabolism in it and treats atherosclerosis. Take the powder 1 / 2-1 teaspoon 3-5 times a day before meals, washed down with boiled water.
In folk medicine, decoction of grass and pea seeds is used as a diuretic for nephrolithiasis. To soften the abscesses and boils used poultices of pea flour. In recent years, pea butter has also been subjected to biological study.
Green peas are a wonderful cosmetic. Two thousand years ago, the beautiful Romans made a face mask for him. Two tablespoons of mashed green peas mixed with two tablespoons of whey. Apply the mixture to the face and wait until it is dry. Then wipe with circular movements of the fingers and rinse the skin - first with hot water, then with cold water.
In off-season it is possible to prepare a mask of dry pea flour( peas are ground in a coffee grinder).Stir with two tablespoons of whey. Mask to keep on the face until drying, circular movements of fingers rub it into the skin, then wash off with hot and followed by cold water.
Mature seeds of peas are consumed in cooked form. From the boiled grains prepare and canned food. They can be used as an additive to flour when baking wheat bread. Unripe green seeds - green peas - are consumed in fresh, dried and canned form. The caloric content of green peas is 1.5-2 times higher than other vegetables and potatoes. It contains many proteins( up to 20%), fiber, vitamins C( 25 mg%), group B and carotene.
Try to cook the soup from peas according to the recipe of our great-grandmothers: Take peas, wash and cook it until soft, rub through a rare strainer, pea mass fried in nut oil, then diluted with boiling water and boiled for long. To such soup rye bread, sprinkled with dill, was served.
Green peas soup puree
You can cook using canned peas( 800 g), for sauce you need 3 tbsp.tablespoons oil, 2 tbsp.spoons of flour, 4 cups of milk.
Canned peas to wipe and mix with dairy sauce. To prepare the milk sauce, lightly cook the flour with butter, dissolve with hot milk and cook together for 15 minutes. After that, strain the sauce through a sieve, dilute with broth or hot water, salt to taste. Before serving, refill with oil and put 3 tablespoons of uncooked green canned peas. Separately serve croutons.
Souffle from green peas
200 g of green peas, 50 g of milk, 10 grams of butter, egg, 10 g of cheese, sour cream, parsley.
Green peas cook with butter and milk for 5 minutes. Then pass through a meat grinder with a fine grate. Add the raw yolk, whipped into the foam protein. Spread the mass in a coconut, sprinkle with grated cheese, pour sour cream and bake in the oven, putting it in a frying pan with water. When serving, decorate with greens.