Planting of grapes
Jun 21, 2018
Seats are marked with pegs, observing straight lines in accordance with the planned plan.
With the most common in the household plots a trellis-rank system of vineyard culture, the density of hive placement depends on the climatic conditions, the growth force of the bush and the accepted formation.
On less fertile land, bushes are planted more often, and on rich and irrigated soils - less often. Varieties with a greater growth force should be planted with a large distance between rows and bushes in the rows, and sparse varieties with a smaller distance. In areas with a short vegetation period, the distance between bushes is set more than in the southern;accordingly, more powerful formations require large distances. For the surface formations, the distance between the rows is set less than for the truncated ones.
Generalization of existing experience allows us to recommend the following planting schemes for different conditions of growing grapes.
1. At the usual vertical trellis: in the northern areas of viticulture - 2,0 x1,0-1,5 m( in the direction of increase for high-growth varieties), with a strong formation - 2,0 х1,5-2 m;in areas of concealed viticulture -1,5-2,0 х 1,25-2,0 m, with a powerful formation - 2,5 х 1,5-2,0 m;in areas of unguided viticulture - 2,5-3,0 х 1,5-2,0 m( for high-molding formations and strong-growing varieties, the distance between rows and seats in the row is larger).
2. With a gazebo system: 4.0-6.0 x 2.0-2.5 m.
3. For a fence or a walled culture, the distance between the bushes is 1.0-1.5-2.0 m.
4When laying a vineyard on a two-plane trellis, the distance between the bushes in a row is 1.0 x 1.25 m for low- and medium-sized bushes and 1.5 x 2.0 m - for strong ones.
5. For special trellis systems on rich soil: 2.0-3.0 x 2.0-3.0 m.
In areas with severe winters and deep freezing of the ground, in which the eye catching is observed, it is better to plant grapes in the spring,when the eyes begin to bloom and the danger of spring frosts passes( you can navigate through long-term meteodata).In the northern and eastern regions of Russia favorable conditions for planting are formed more often in early May, in southern areas of concealed viticulture - in mid-April, uncontaminated - in early April.
In the areas of the uncontaminated and southern areas of concealed viticulture, and in the absence of conditions for storage of planting material, it is possible to plant in autumn. Grafted seedlings and kilted cuttings are best planted in the spring.
Regardless of the cultivation area, it should be planted at a depth of 45-50 cm. A shallower depth is possible, up to 30-35 cm in northern regions where the soil is covered with snow in winter, and also in heavy, moist, clay soils and in places with close pound waters. In areas with deep freezing of the soil, an embedded landing will keep the root system from low temperatures, and in arid regions - increase the viability of the bush.
Against the background of preplant filling of poor soil on the entire area of manure in the amount of 10-12 kg per 1 m2 with the addition of 60-100 g of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, 2-3 kg of humus, 5-7 g of potassium chloride and 10 gammonium nitrate. This amount of fertilizer is usually sufficient for the first 3-4 years after planting.
The pit for planting is digging in a width of 30-40 cm, and 10-15 cm deep below the level of planting. For the prevention of the wall, the bottom of the pit should be treated with a broom with a solution of nitrafen( 200 g per 10 liters of water) or chlorophos( 50-60 g per 10 liters of water).Then prepare the mixture to fill the fossa( if the soil is poor or clayey).
Where there is a shortage of water for irrigation, it is advisable to arrange vertical drainage. At the bottom of the pit lay a gravel or a large pebble layer of 15 cm;A short tube with a diameter of about 5 cm is installed at the wall of the pit located in the side of the aisle, with a yield of 20 cm above the soil surface. Then, 5-7 cm is poured into the pit and a seedling is planted in its center in the usual way.
In the center of the fossa on the previously made small hillock, a seedling is planted, well spreading the root system. Seedling is better fixed if you use a landing board that has a slot in the middle for the upper part of the seedlings, and on the sides - slits for its retention due to the pins.
Drainage device: 1 - seedling;2 -pipe
After the seedling is installed in the pit, a few handfuls of the prepared mixture are covered by 15-20 cm and tamped slightly so that there is no voids in the root development layer around the seedling;watered at a rate of 0.5-1 bucket per hole, depending on soil moisture. When the water is absorbed, the pit falls asleep, without hardening the soil, and additionally watered( 1-1.5 buckets of water).Then the seedling is planted 5-8 cm above the upper bud in the spring planting and 25-30 cm in the autumn. When planting in cases or paraffinning the top of the seedlings, hilling can be avoided.
Soil is mulched with humus, peat crumb or straw dung. This prevents it from evaporation of moisture, creates a better temperature regime, keeps the mounds from weathering and drying out.
When planting with a handle or a long vine - a ring for hard-to-root varieties - the width of the pit may be smaller.
In the northern regions, the top 1-2 eyelets are placed in the soil at a depth of 5-10 cm near the root-sapling or cuttings, which subsequently makes it easier to cover the bushes for the winter; in the remaining areas, they are left at soil level or 3-5 cm above.
In grafted seedlings in more northern areas, the place of adhesion should be located at the soil level. It may be lower, but it is well insulated with a film, so that the roots do not develop on a prive. In the areas of the unguided and semi-covered culture, the place of adhesion is placed 5-10 cm above the soil surface.
Cleverly planted and correctly placed grape bushes provide not only high yield and good quality of grapes, but also serve as an excellent decoration for summer cottages and homesteads.