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  • Lilies

    Lily occupies a special place in floriculture, as one of the most beautiful cultures of the globe. It is distinguished by the elegance and beauty of flowers, often with a strong aroma. Since ancient times, lilies have taken a firm place in the most exquisite flower gardens.

    The most common species and varieties of lilies with white, orange and orange-red flowers. Lilies are known with yellow, pink, lilac and other colors, except blue.

    The variety of species of lilies of various origins makes it possible to have flowering plants, beginning in May and ending with late autumn. If you consider that many species and varieties are amenable to forcing, you can have flowering lilies throughout the year.

    Lily flowers are kept in water for a long time, revealing almost all the buds.

    White lilies combine well in a bouquet with almost all colors. Orange, yellow, orange-red look good with blue, blue or purple delphiniums, with any white flowers, but in no case with pink or carmine-red.

    Cut lilies is recommended no more than half the length of the stem, and if possible and less, as removing most of the stem depletes the plant.

    Propagate lilies with bulbs, bulb bulbs, seeds and some species with stem bulbs, as well as leaves.

    Bulb propagation is applicable to all types of lilies and is the main method of reproduction. Once planted onion in two to three years is able to form a nest of several bulbs. This nest is excavated, the bulbs are separated from each other and one is planted in a new place. The best time for dividing and planting bulbs is the end of August and the beginning of September.

    If the bulbs are not planted in the fall, then this can be done in the early spring, but in no case should you delay landing. Distance between planting between bulbs varies depending on the type of lily from 20 to 30 centimeters.

    Bulbs planted to a depth of 15-20 centimeters except for the white lily( candidum), which should be planted no more than 2 centimeters from the soil surface to the top of the bulb.

    To prevent pest damage, bulbs are etched in a solution of horn in a concentration of 0.25-0.3 percent for 15-30 minutes. Against diseases, TMTD is dusted or dressed with formalin at a concentration of 1: 200, i.e., one part of a 40% formalin solution is diluted with 200 parts of water.

    Plant bulbs in furrows or holes, on the bottom of which a two-centimeter layer of sand is poured. The roots of the bulb are straightened during planting and, evenly compacted, they are covered with earth. After planting necessarily watered and mulched with fine humus.

    A good mulch for lilies is also sawdust that protects the soil from overheating, but it is necessary to introduce more nitrogen fertilizers, as sawdust decomposes and binds soil nitrogen.

    Bulb bulb replication is the most effective way. It gives an opportunity to get from one bulb from 15-20 to 100-150 new plants.

    The best periods for separating scales are early spring and autumn( plant transplant period).

    The bulb removed from the soil is washed from the ground and carefully separated from it by scales( all or part).With partial separation of peripheral scales, the remaining part of the bulb is planted in the soil, retaining the mother plant.

    Sometimes, in order to avoid the death of a valuable gnaw, it is not extracted from the ground, but, after slightly exposing it, separate several scales in place.

    Scales after separation from the bulb are washed in a dark pink solution of potassium permanganate( 1 gram per liter of water) and, after spreading a thin layer on paper, lightly dry. Then they are sprinkled in small polyethylene bags, poured into TMTD, tightly knotted and placed in a dark place in the room at a temperature of 18-20 ° C.Periodically, the pouches are scanned to remove decaying scales.

    After 30-40 days, small bulbs are formed at the base of the scales, which, together with scales, are planted in boxes or in the ground( depending on the time of disembarkation).When spring scales, landing flakes with bulbs can be made directly into the soil - on the ridges - followed by abundant watering and mulching. In autumn scaling it is advisable to keep scales in the refrigerator or cold basement at 0 + 4 ° С.In January, they are planted in boxes and put in a greenhouse in a bright place. Soon there are shoots. In May.planted in the ground and pritenyayut shields or branches.

    Reproduction by stem bulbs is used in lilies of tiger, Rubin, Sargent, Estonia, Red Start, Bulbous and some other species and varieties. Bulbocks are green or greenish-brown, almost black in the leaf axils. When they mature, they begin to fall to the ground. This moment is the best time for their collection and sowing on open ground ridges.

    The lobes of lilies Sargent and Estonia are best sowed in boxes and kept during the winter in a cold conservatory, basement or in greenhouses.

    Bulbs sown in the ground for winter cover with sawdust or foliage. In spring, they tend to give amicable shoots.

    Less commonly, reproduction is carried out by babies formed at the base of the stem, with stem and leaf cuttings.

    Seed multiplication is widely used for some species of lilies. Many white tubular lilies - regales, sulfurgele, etc. - and at seed reproduction retain their qualities. The seed method of reproduction of lilies makes it possible to obtain immediately a large number of healthy and strong seedlings, better adapted to local conditions.

    It is easy to tie seeds from free pollination of lily regales and its hybrids, Wilmott, David, long-flower, Filipino. Many species of lilies, not tying seeds in free pollination, bind them with artificial pollination.

    The most widely propagated by the lily regalia seeds. Capsules with seeds are cut off when they become brown and begin to crack on the seam. Then they are dried and stored until sowing at a low temperature. Seeds are sown in February-March in a greenhouse in boxes, covered with paper and kept at a temperature of 22-25 ° before emergence, after which the temperature is reduced to 15-18 °.Thick shoots dive, trying, at the same time, to damage the roots as little as possible. Water carefully so as not to cause seedling disease. In April-May the boxes with the seedlings are carried to the greenhouses, and in May-June the seedlings are planted on, ridges and pritenyayut. If seedlings are weak, they are left in boxes until August-September, and sometimes until next year. Ridges with wintering seedlings harbor. It is possible to sow lily seeds in the soil.

    Not all kinds of lilies are easily propagated by seeds. By the nature of the germination of lily seeds can be divided into three groups:

    Rapidly growing - regale( Tibetan), Vilmotta, Philippine, coral. They give good seedlings during spring sowing.

    Hard-growing - Daurian, saffron, special, pardall, monodelphum. In this group seeds for germination require a freezing or sub-winter planting.

    Species, which in the first year give only an underground root growth. Above the terrestrial parts appear in a year in the lilies of a special( speciozum), golden( auratum), chalmoid( martagon), Japanese, Caucasian, etc. It is important to sow the seeds of these lilies fresh. At a certain temperature and processing, shoots can be obtained in the spring. For this purpose, the seeds are mixed with the substrate( a mixture of peat and sand) and contain two to three months at room temperature( 12-20 ° C).After the appearance of the spine and small onions, the seeds are poured into a polyethylene bag and placed for two months in the refrigerator. Sown seeds after this regime give seedlings in the spring.

    In the Central Chernozem zone, the sowing of seeds of most species of lilies is possible.

    Caring for lilies in open ground conditions is to keep the soil moist, loose and clean from weeds, protect plants against diseases and pests, and maintain normal nutrition.

    Lilies need light, loose and nutritious soil. Therefore, when pre-planting on heavy soils, peat, sand, humus is applied. During the spring and the first half of summer, feeding is given, initially with the predominance of nitrogen fertilizers, later - phosphorus and potash fertilizers.

    Of the diseases of lilies, the greatest danger is the gray rot caused by the botrytis fungus. An indication of gray rot is the appearance on the leaves of gray spots of oval form, which then drill and merge. The leaves and stems turn brown and dry up( as if burnt).Gray rot more strongly affects plants in wet years, as well as in excessive watering, especially if water falls on the leaves.

    In the fight against gray rot and other fungal diseases, the collection and destruction of stems and leaves in autumn, regular spraying with 1% Bordeaux fluid or a coppermium emulsion is of great importance. Good results are given by the introduction on the surface of the beds in the spring of wood ash( 200-300 grams per square meter of area).

    One of the best means against fungal diseases is azurin, which is prepared as follows:

    Replacement solution. In 1.5 liters of hot water, 300 grams of copper sulfate is dissolved. At the same time, 100 grams of soda ash is dissolved separately in 1.5 liters of water. After cooling the first solution to 15-17 ° C, soda solution is gradually added to it, gradually stirring. There is a reaction. After an hour and a half, 200 cm3 of 25% ammonia is poured in. After eight to ten hours, the solution is ready for use. It should be cornflower blue. Sediment on the bottom does not shake. The solution is prepared and stored in a glass or enameled container.

    Working solution. For 10 liters of water take 100-200 grams of a spare solution. Plants are sprayed abundantly. The bulbs are etched for 30-40 minutes, diluting 200-300 cm3 of the reserve solution in ten liters of water.

    In hot years, overheating of the soil adversely affects plants, therefore it is useful to mulch with sawdust, light paper or sowing between rows of lilies of stunted annuals( alissum, petunia, etc.).

    On soils not well provided with nutrients, top dressing is applied in the spring - with a predominance of nitrogen, before flowering - phosphorus, after flowering - potassium.