Useful and medicinal properties of the spring of the spring( Adonis, Montenegro)
Jun 20, 2018
Family of Ranunculus - Ranunculaceae
The generic name for the plant is given by the beauty of the flower in honor of the beautiful young Adonis, the favorite of Aphrodite. Species definition in Latin means "spring", since the gorichvet blooms in early spring.
Botanical Description. A perennial herbaceous plant with a short, multi-headed rhizome of brownish-black color, from which numerous unbranched, cord-like roots depart. The stems annually grow several. They are simple or weakly branching, erect, and the marginal ones are deflected to the sides, the flower buds are located on very short shoots near the ground, at the beginning of flowering, the stems reach a height of 5-20 cm, but as they blossom and form fruit, they grow to 30-40 cm. Leaves are alternate, outlined in a wide-ovoid, palm-thoracic to narrow segments. The shoots in the flowering period are bare. Flowers are located on the tips of shoots, single, 4-6 cm in diameter. Sepals 5, less often - up to 8. In buds they are brownish-violet, and then become green. Petals 12-20, bright yellow, golden, they are oblong or oblong-back-ovate with denticles on top. Stamens and pistils are many. Fruit is a picking nut with a wrinkled surface and the remainder of the column in the form of a hook.
Blossoms in March - May, fruits ripen in June - July.
Gorisflow forms ectoendotrophic mycorrhizas: the fungal filaments not only surround the roots in the suction zone, but also penetrate into the root cells. Only in the presence of mycorrhizas the plant develops normally, but even in this case very slowly. The maximum of development reaches 40-50 years.
Seeds acquire germination only after 10-12 years, which complicates the cultivation of this plant.
Geographical distribution. It grows on chernozem soils in mixed grass steppes, along the edge of forests, among shrubs. It occurs in Ukraine, the Northern Caucasus, the Volga region, the Bashkir ASSR, the Sverdlovsk, Kurgan, Omsk, Novosibirsk and Kemerovo regions. The main areas of blanks are in Ukraine, in the Crimea, in the North Caucasus, the Volga region and in Western Siberia.
Collection and drying. Collect the herb grass at the end of flowering until the beginning of fruiting, when the plant accumulates a maximum of glycosides, and its activity is greatest.
Cut the stems at a height of 10-15 cm from the soil surface, leaving the part to not damage the plant, and part of the large shrubs for seed reproduction. You can not tear plants from the root. With such a predatory collection method, the most resolute struggle must be waged. If the rules are observed at one site, the collection can be made once every 3-4 years.
The collected grass is dried quickly in attics, under canopies or in dryers at a temperature of 50-60 °.
Medicinal raw materials. Finished raw materials - Herb Adonidis vernalis( Herba Adonidis vernalis) consists of leaf stalks 10-35 cm in length. Leaves with five segments, of which the two lower are pinnately divided, and the three upper ones are twice-bifurcated. There are oval, gray-greenish nuts with a short hook-shaped beak. Their surface is wrinkled, pubescent. Fruits are of great diagnostic value in determining the authenticity of raw materials. Flowers or buds in raw materials are rare. The smell is weak.
Art.321 GF X allows a moisture content of not more than 13%;ash not more than 10%;impure parts not more than 3%;crushed parts passing through a sieve with a hole size of 0.5 mm, not more than 2%;the fraction of leaves falling not more than 5%;plants with stems with brown scaly leaves, not more than 2%;organic impurity not more than 2%;mineral - no more than 0,5%.
Chemical joint. The herb of the spring mountain spring contains 25 cardiac glycosides( cardenolides), the most important of which are adonitoxin, cymarin, K-strophanthin, acetyladonitoxin, adonitoxol, ver-nadigine. There are genins( 3-strofantidin, strophe-dogenin, acetyl-strophadogenin).
In addition to cardiac glycosides, flavonoids are also found: adoniverit, vitexin, homoadoniveritis, phytosterol, alcohol adoit, etc. are also found.
The quality of raw materials is evaluated biologically, testing its effect on frogs or cats. Standard raw materials should have an activity of 50-60 ICE or 6.3-8.0 KED.Raw materials having a high activity for the preparation of drugs are used in correspondingly smaller quantities.
Action and application. Apply gorisvet usually with mild forms of chronic cardiovascular failure, with vegetative dystonia and neurosis. For this purpose, an infusion of grass from 6.0 to 10.0 g per 200 ml of water can be used. Adults appoint 1 tablespoon of the infusion;children - depending on age - 1/2 - 1 teaspoonful or dessert spoon 3-4 times a day. An infusion of herb grass is a part of Bekhterev's medicine.
Preparations goritsvet( dry extract, adoniside) are combined with preparations of valerian, motherwort and bromides.