• Collection and storage of fruits

    The harvesting time, transportability and duration of storage of fruits and berries are significantly influenced by the removal time.

    Depending on the purpose and use of the fruit, distinguishes between removable, technical and consumer maturity.

    The removable maturity of is characterized by the completion of the main processes of growth and accumulation of nutrients in fruits and berries, which by this time reach the size and shape inherent in this variety. Removed in this degree of maturity, they ripen during storage and acquire a characteristic color for the variety, flavor and aroma. At the stage of removable maturity in fruits and berries, the process of growth and accumulation of reserve substances is completed: sugars, starch, pectins, etc. As a result of the formation of a cork layer between the peduncle and the branch, the fruits easily separate from it and crumble. In this phase, the ripening of the seeds ends. Technical maturity of comes 2-4 days later removable. Fruits, taken at this time, are suitable for technical processing and transportation.

    At the consumer, or edible stage, the maturity level of as a result of the biochemical transformation of the reserve substances acquires the inherent size, appearance, consistency and color of the pulp, taste, juiciness, aroma and is suitable for fresh consumption. In summer and early autumn varieties of pome fruits, stone and berry plants, the removable and consumer maturity of fruits and berries almost coincide in time.

    Demountable maturity of fruits of summer and autumn varieties of pome fruits, as well as stone and pome fruits;Berry crops are determined when they reach consumer maturity. In summer varieties of apple and pear, the removable and consumer ripeness of fruits coincide. Apples of summer varieties intended for transportation should be harvested 5-7 days earlier, and for realization on the spot - during the period of consumer maturity. Fruits of autumn varieties, taken from a tree, are ready for use in fresh form. Their shelf life is 1-2 months. In late-autumn and winter varieties of seeds, the removable maturity of the fruit is much faster than the consumer one. To achieve consumer maturity, the fruits of late-autumn varieties require a storage period after harvesting of 10 to 20 days. The fruits of winter varieties become usable a few months after harvesting. For the fruits of autumn and winter varieties of seeds for removable maturity take such signs as changing the color of the seeds to light brown, changing the color of the skin of the fetus: the appearance of a yellowish-white hue( in Antonovka), easy separation of the stem from the twig and the fall of some healthy, intact fetuseson a calm day.

    It should be borne in mind that these signs vary depending on the variety, weather conditions and the level of agricultural technology. Thus, the fruits of varieties Borovinka, Grushovka Moscow begin to crumble, having barely reached the optimal removable maturity, and the fruits of the varieties Cinnamon striped relatively firmly adhere to the tree.

    Untimely collection of fruits reduces their value. Prematurely removed fruits have a rough flesh, sour taste, they contain little juice, are poorly colored and are worse stored, since their skin does not have a protective layer, easily evaporates moisture, fruits lose volume and wrinkle.

    The belated collection of fruits results in the fact that the fruits have an overripe dark grainy inconsistent pulp and are poorly stored.

    Peel of fruit that has reached the normal removable maturity, is coated with special substances( oils, resins, wax coating).Fruits with such skin are provided with good protection from the influence of unfavorable external conditions and can be stored for a long time.

    Winter varieties of apples are removed after the fall, but often they are removed at the same time because of the short cleaning period. It should be known that early-removed fruits have mediocre taste qualities and are poorly stored, with late-eating deterioration both the fecundity of fruits and the conditions for preparing trees for the winter worsen. In early October, during the harvest, there may be light frosts. To preserve fruit,

    is waiting. Collection of apples

    Apples and pears are harvested when the stem is easily separated from the branch. For a better fruiting of the fruit, the pedicle should be left. The fruit is gently taken into the hand, pressed with the index finger on the end of the stem and raised upwards. Do not pull the fruit on yourself

    their complete thawing. Fruits tolerate a drop in temperature to -5 ° C and are well preserved in the tree.

    Do not hurry with the removal of fruits of late-autumn and especially winter varieties. It must be remembered that every extra day of fruit stay on the tree contributes to their increase in size, quality and longevity. However, you can not be late.

    Begin cleaning from a selection of the fallen carrion from the ground. In the dry and hot summer, the fruits start to crumble earlier than in the damp and cool. Fruits of pome fruits are removed from the periphery of the crown. For minimal damage, they are removed successively along the tiers: first the fruits from the lower branches, then proceed to the middle part of the crown and, finally, complete by harvesting from the upper branches. They take off the fruit after they are dried from the morning dew( wet fruits quickly get warm and spoil).When you take the fruit carefully take into the hand, pressing the index finger on the end of the stem and lifting it upwards. You can not pull the fruit on yourself( thus easily damaged stalk and skin).You can not let them fall even from a small height. Take the fruits carefully so that they do not fight against each other, put them in a container and cool in a cool place( you can not keep them in the sun), then put in storage places with the temperature recommended for each grade. For long-term storage choose healthy fruits with pedicels, sorted by size( small and medium-sized fruits are stored better than large ones).

    Storage of apples and pears

    The removed fruits are sorted according to the sizes and grades, then each fruit carefully, without pressing it with fingers, is wrapped in waxed paper, overlapping the corners of a sheet of paper one on top of the other so that the latter is on top

    Fruits of autumn and winter varieties,intended for long-term storage, are removed especially carefully, trying to protect them from mechanical damage.

    Fruits of stone fruit( cherry, cherry, plum) must be removed after they have acquired their inherent color and taste, but still solid. When cleaning, try to keep the stems, do not damage the flesh skin, covered with a protective layer, and do not wipe the wax from the skin of the fruit, which contributes to better storage. Collection of fruits of summer varieties of pome fruits, stone fruit ;: berry crops are usually performed for 4-5 days before their optimal consumer maturity.

    These fruits and berries are mostly used fresh, so they are stored for a very short time or are recycled. Berries of gooseberries and currants, as a rule, are collected in one step. So that they do not crumple, the berries of gooseberries try to collect with the peduncle, and the currant berries - along with the brush, carefully separating both of them from the twig. In this form, they better tolerate transportation.

    berries of chokean ash for fresh consumption are cut with whole secreting brushes. For processing, it is more convenient to assemble them without peduncles. They are stored in boxes or baskets, they are stored for up to 2 months at a temperature not exceeding 10 ° С.

    The berries of the Kalinas are also conveniently cut with a secateter without breaking the brush. In this form they can be stored all winter just in the basket in the frost. When freezing, they do not lose their valuable qualities.

    Only late-autumn varieties of apples and pears and winter varieties of apples can be stored for a long time in fresh form. Fruits of stone fruit( cherry, cherry, plum) and berries( strawberries, raspberries, currants and gooseberries) do not stand long-term storage in fresh form, so they are processed - canned.

    The care of the fruit is greatly influenced by the care of the soil in the garden during the growing period, as well as the weather conditions at this time. The drought in early summer and the rise in temperature during the ripening of apples and pears lead to a decrease in their shelf life and a rapid loss of flavor. Soaking the soil in the garden helps to improve the nutritional qualities of the fruit and increase the shelf life. Under the influence of excessive watering and nitrogen fertilizers, the fruits quickly fall ill and rot when stored.

    Many undesirable, fast-moving changes in fruits such as shrinkage, wrinkling, wilting, loosening of tissues, loss of nutritional value can be avoided by strictly observing the conditions of their storage. In this case, much attention should be paid to temperature, air humidity and its composition in the storage. When storing winter varieties of apples it is recommended to maintain the temperature regime in the room 1 - 2 ° C.But the optimal temperature for storage of these varieties is 1 -0 ° С.For better storage of apples, the optimal humidity in the room should be maintained at 86-90 %. In this case, the fruits do not wilt, and the vital activity of microorganisms is much lower than at a humidity of 100 %.

    Fruits are better preserved if immediately after removal from the tree they are placed in storage tanks with a reduced temperature( about 0 ° C).More restrained fruits can be stored in bulk in boxes, less lezhkie, predisposed to a faster tanning, decay, stored packed, wrapped in paper.

    The temperature in the room for storing fruits should be at least 0 ° C and not higher than 2 ° -3 ° C, and the air humidity should be 95-97 %. In very

    dry rooms, the fruits are wrapped in paper or shavings( paper) in drawers and baskets. You can significantly increase the shelf life, sealing the fruits in plastic bags of 1 - 1.5 kg( film thickness 0.05 mm, with a thin film they are stored worse).During the storage period, the fruits are periodically inspected( after 1.5-2 weeks), selecting rotted ones.

    Pests and diseases of fruit and berry crops