Useful and medicinal properties of angelica officinalis
Jun 18, 2018
Synonyms: cowshed, in a sense, stinking, bun.
Description. A two-year herbaceous plant of the family of celery( Apiaceae) 1.5-2.0 m high. The stem is hollow, erect, furrowed, thick, with a bluish coating, branched. Rhizome shortened, cylindrical, roots wrinkled, brown outside, and in the fracture white. The leaves have an inflated vagina partially enclosing the stem( an arrangement through which rainwater does not stay between the leaf and the stem).Seeds are ovoid, flat, brown. Weight of 1000 seeds is 3-5 g.
Medicinal raw materials: rhizomes with roots.
Biological features. As a result of studying the photoperiodic aftereffect of angelica officinalis, it is established that it belongs to the so-called group of plants of the long day;on a short day( twelve- and especially eight-hour), the fruiting stage of it passes from the second year to the third. On a long natural day, most plants bloom and give seeds, and the roots, as usual, die off after fruiting. Studies have shown that the average yield of the second year of culture on a long day was 21.6 centner / ha, with a 12-hour day - 35.5 centners per hectare and 40.4 centners per hectare for a short eight-hour day.
Seeds of angelica officinalis during storage soon lose their germination( after lying only two years, they give a low percentage of shoots - about 20%).
Distribution. In the wild it occurs almost throughout Europe, with the exception of the steppe belt. Angelica officinalis grows along the banks of rivers, streams, lakes, in damp places, in flood meadows, swamps, in ravines, in shaded areas, etc. Cultivated in France, Germany and in many parts of England.
In Ukraine, angelica is not introduced into culture, but is planted in orchards and vegetable gardens as a medicinal, spicy and honey plant. Raw materials are harvested in natural conditions.
Chemical composition. Roots and rhizomes of angelica contain up to 1% essential oil, coumarins, organic acids, tannins, etc.
Application. For medicinal purposes, rhizome roots are used as a tonic and stimulant, which promotes digestion, strengthening of the stomach, separation of urine and sweat;it is also recommended for diseases of the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract, etc. In folk medicine, angelica is often used for indigestion, bowel swelling, sluggish withdrawal and urinary retention.
Dry flowering shoots of angelica, leaves and petioles, and mainly, the essential oil of its roots is used as a spicy seasoning for the production of gin, liqueurs, muscat wines and confectionery. Fresh
leaves, stems and petioles go for the preparation of jams, candied fruits, jam, pastille, and garnish, salads, etc. Essential oil is used for making vodkas and tinctures. Angelica is a good honey.
Agrotechnics of cultivation. Site selection. The most favorable are fertile soils with a deep arable layer, high humidity, and water permeable. The best predecessors are steam and row crops, which are fertilized.
Soil treatment. The main plowing should be carried out to a depth of 27-30 cm. On soils with a small arable layer plow to its full depth. Presowing treatment depends on the methods of reproduction. Under the autumn crop requires cultivation to a depth of 7-8 cm, and for spring planting parts of shrubs or rhizomes produce plowing to a depth of 14-16 cm and harrowing.
Application of fertilizers. If organic fertilizers were not applied to the previous crop, then before sowing, compost should be added at the rate of 10-15 t / ha and mineral fertilizers in the amount of 1.0-1.5 c / ha of ammonium nitrate, 2-3 c / ha of superphosphateand 0.5-1.0 c / ha of potassium chloride.
Reproduction. Angelica is usually sown in August with freshly harvested seeds. The seeding rate is 25-35 kg / ha, and the seeding depth is 2-3 cm. At the end of September, the seedlings are transplanted to a permanent site, followed by thinning for 30-40 cm plant from a plant in rows with rows between 60-80 cm.
In addition, angelica can be propagated by dividing bushes, layers from two-year plants and spring cuttings in spring.
Care for plantations is the systematic loosening of the soil and the removal of weeds. In early spring in the second year of life, last year's angelica stalks should be cut. Increased yields are primarily due to increased soil moisture and top dressing with liquid organic fertilizers. Mulching with moss allows to increase the yield of roots by 23.5% and the yield of the above-ground part by 27.2%.
Harvesting. The roots of Angelica officinalis are excavated in spring by a plow, and in small areas by shovels. The roots are immediately cleared from the ground and the stems are cut.
Drying. After washing, the roots are cut along and dried. Drying should be done outdoors, in well-ventilated attics or in dryers at 30-35 "C.
Packing: Ready products are packed in bales or bales weighing 50-75 kg
Storage: Dried rhizomes and angelica roots are hygroscopic.absorbing excess moisture near the angelica folded in stacks, spread out quicklime or store the rhizomes in well-clogged jars. The storage room should be dry and well ventilated. The average yield of dry roots is 15-25 centners per hectare. The raw material must meet the requirements of OST 7909/372
Seed growing The seed material should be harvested on ordinary technical crops. During the flowering of Angelica, its plantations mark the most developed plants with large seeds that are free from damage, which can yield the greatest yieldseeds from the bush. Seeds are removed when the boxes acquire a brown color. After a short drying of the flower umbrellas and threshing them, the seeds are cleaned by sorting.
These data indicate that angelica officinalis can and should be introduced into the culture, especially since the quality of the rhizomes of cultivated plants is incomparably higher than that of wild plants.