• Useful and medicinal properties of ginseng

    Family Aralievye - Araliaceae

    The generic name comes from the Greek - all-healing. The species definition from the modified Chinese names jen is man and chen is the root, in view of the similarity of some roots to the figure of a person.

    Botanical description. A perennial herb, reaching the age of 200 or more years. Underground organs are represented by a short vertical rhizome, from which the stem, branchy, juicy root of pale yellow leaves. Root rarely grows vertically. More often it is inclined to the surface of the earth at 30-45 degrees, which should be taken into account when transplanting seedlings. Stem erect in height 30-70 cm, carrying a whorl of four( rarely three or five) leaves. Leaves petiolate, five-palpated, complex, resembling leaves of horse chestnut;leaflets are elliptical with a pointed apex and with a wedge-shaped base, the edge is serrate. Leaves of leaves and stems with a violet-red hue. In the third year of the plant's life, a flower arrow emerges from the whorl. It ends with a simple umbrella of small greenish nondescript flowers, from which bright red juicy two-, less often three-semi- stone drupes are formed, called in everyday life "berries".They are collected in a globular group. Bones, called "seeds", are rounded, flattened, whitish or yellowish-gray.

    Ginseng is characterized by a very slow development. Seeds of it germinate only 18-22 months after the autumn sowing. This is due to the underdevelopment of the embryo in them. In the first year, only one triple leaf is formed, then the number of leaves increases to two, three, and in adult plants - even up to five. A great expert in biology of ginseng prof.

    IV Grushvitsky points out that the buds of renewal, from which the shoot escapes every year, are laid on the top of the rhizome two years in advance. But in the wild plants the stem in spring is not always formed. Sometimes it does not develop, because the kidney is disturbed by the hoof of a deer past in the taiga or for another reason, and then the ginseng "falls asleep"."Sleep" lasts one or two, and sometimes tens of years, and when one of the sleeping buds "wakes up", the development and growth of the plant continues.

    Blooms in July. Fruits ripen in August - September.

    Geographical distribution. Wild ginseng is found mainly in cedar-broad-leaved forests, sometimes with an admixture of fir and spruce, more rarely - in oak or hornbeam forests with an admixture of aspen, maple, ash and linden in the Far East - Primorsky and southern part of the Khabarovsk Territory, more often in the eastern and westernslopes of the hills. The plant prefers in the taiga friable, rich in humus, moderate moisture of the soil. It does not tolerate direct sunlight and therefore never occurs in open spaces. This is due to the fact that the small stomata on the underside of the leaf is not able to regulate the temperature regime in the sun. It grows singly or in small groups( "families").The latter arise as a result of the spread of ginseng fruits by birds.

    .Ginseng is a rare, endangered plant included in the Red Book of the USSR.Cultivated in the state farm "Ginseng" of the Primorsky Territory;in Teberda in the Caucasus, where AA Malyshev works in this direction, who proved the expediency of growing ginseng under the canopy of the beech forest;in Belarus, the Moscow region and other regions of our country. Many amateur gardeners began to grow this plant on their household plots.

    "Seeds" of ginseng must be prepared before sowing so that they develop a fetus. For this, a warm and cold stratification is produced. First, mix "seeds" with sand in a ratio of 1: 3, the mixture is moistened and left in a room at a temperature of 15-20 ° for 4 months( from October to January).As evaporation, water is added. Then, the smokes are transferred to the refrigerator, where they stand for 4 months

    ( from February to May).The moisture content of the mixture in both cases should be approximately 15%.

    Prior to seeding, stratified "seeds" with a discarded bone are disinfected in a 1% slurry( slurry) of copper chloride or in a 0.5% solution of potassium permanganate for 15 minutes. They are sown in spring at a soil temperature of about 15 ° C and a moisture content of not more than 10%.Seedlings appear in the same year on the 20th-25th day. For winter, they are covered with paws of spruce or other non-rotting material, and after 1 - 2 years they transplant them to previously prepared and located in the west to east ridge 1 m wide, 25-35 cm in height. The distance between the rows is 1 m. The soil is prepared from leaf humus or reparted compost and soil, as a mineral fertilizer, potassium sulfate( 15 g / m2) and superphosphate( 37.5 g / m2) are added.

    Plant seedlings in rows of 20 cm with a width of 25 cm, placing the root obliquely, and top of the rhizome with the kidney covering the ground( 4-5 cm).Ridges with seedlings and transplanted plants are shaded by wooden shields 1-1.5 m high, knocked down from thin plates with a width of 5 cm and apertures between them of 2-3 cm, since solid ones considerably reduce the temperature of soil and air. Shields are installed on the posts obliquely. In autumn, when the stems die, they are collected and burned, and the shields are removed and cleaned until next spring.

    In the first years of life, ginseng is prone to fungal diseases and it should occasionally be sprayed with a suspension of copper chloride, and periodically irrigated with a pink solution of potassium permanganate. Soil moisture should be moderate - about 50-60%, because even short-term waterlogging or drying of ginseng does not tolerate.

    In addition, the root of ginseng without stem and leaves is "grown" on special nutrient media. Such an unusual way is called the culture of isolated tissues. Unfortunately, the root grown under such conditions is not always standard in the content of biologically active substances in both qualitative and quantitative terms in comparison with the root grown on the ridges, but it can be thought that eventually scientists will force it to produce the necessary substances innecessary quantities. In the meantime, such a root is used for the manufacture of perfumes and cosmetics, for example, zhenypene cream.

    Along with ginseng in medicine, related plants belonging to the same family are used: aralia high( Manchu) - Aralia elata( Miq.) Seem.(= A. mandschurica Rupr. Et Maxim.), Aralia heart-shaped( Schmidt) - A. corddta Thunb.(= A. schmidtii Pojark.), Enticement - Oplopanax elatus Nakai( = Echinopdnax elatus Nakai) and Eleutherococcus-Eleu-therococcus senticosus( Rupr. Et Maxim.) Maxim.

    Collection and drying. The preparation of wild ginseng is carried out under licenses by persons who know the technique of harvesting. Dig up roots with a mass of not less than 10 g and give them to the reception points fresh. Such roots are called white. They are not subject to long-term storage and are recycled. For unauthorized ginseng in the taiga, offenders are charged the cost of roots in a tenfold size. Established an annual limit on the collection of wild-growing roots. The commercial maturity of such roots occurs after 25-30 years of plant life.

    On the plantations, the roots are excavated at the age of 5-8 years old, they are given fresh or canned, keeping the water heated to 80 ° C for an hour over steam, and dried in the shade for at least one or two months until they become completely solid,light brown color. These roots are called red. They can be stored for many years.

    Medicinal raw materials. Finished raw materials - the root of ginseng - Radix Ginseng - consists of the actual stem root - the "body", the rootstock - "neck", lateral thick and thin roots - "shoots".The quality of the wild fresh root is regulated by GOST 100064-62, and the cultivated one is GOST 23938- 79. The export root is analyzed by OST KZ SNK 351. The latter sets for raw materials 27 varieties that combine into four classes.

    Chemical composition. The root of ginseng contains seven saponins - panaxosides, which are denoted by the initial letters of the Latin alphabet. The genins of these glycosides are based on steroid compounds that are close to triterpenes. In addition, panaxic acid, panaxen ( ginsenin), pectin substances, phosphates, vitamins C, B, and B2, traces of essential oil, causing a peculiar root odor, are found in the root.

    The root of aralia contains three triterpene saps of

    nitric glycoside - araloside, which are derived from oleanolic acid. The rhizome of zamaniha is rich in saponins, echinoxosides, in chemical structure close to panaxosides of ginseng. Roots and rhizomes of Eleutherococcus saponins do not contain. Biologically active substances of this plant are seven glycosides of the lignan group, called eleu-terosides.

    Action and application. Ginseng - a tonic - relieves fatigue and increases efficiency, has adaptogenic and immunostimulating properties. Adaptogenic substances help people adapt to new climate conditions, weightlessness, disease, etc. Such properties of ginseng are associated with panaxosides, which increase the body's resistance to harmful physical, chemical and biological factors. Immunostimulating effect of them is expressed in the stimulation of the production of antibodies, accompanied by an increase in the amount of total protein and gamma globulins in the blood. Panaxoids promote hemopoiesis, almost double the biosynthesis of nucleic acids, proteins and fats in the bone marrow, increase the miotic activity of bone marrow cells. These glycosides also have a radioprotective effect both with internal( incorporation) and with the external action of ionizing radiations, promote the excretion of strontium-90 incorporated into the bone tissue, which is apparently associated with an increase in calcium metabolism in the bones. This also applies to other radioactive isotopes. The protective effect is manifested not only with the prophylactic administration of ginseng to gamma irradiation, but also when it is administered some time after irradiation.

    Biologically active substances of ginseng reduce the absorption of polysaccharides, enhance the resynthesis of glycogen and high energy phosphates. A tendency was established to accelerate the restoration of albumin in the blood in the posthemorrhagic period, an increase in the overall reactivity of the organism, a beneficial effect on the functions of endocrine glands. In particular, ginseng preparations increase sexual excitability and have a positive effect on impotence.

    In small doses panaxosides excite the vasomotor and respiratory centers of the oblong

    brain, and in large, on the contrary, cause their inhibition. Most clinicians consider ginseng a means to excite the central nervous system and the breadth of the therapeutic effect far exceeding the phenamine. However, in large doses, ginseng exerts no sedative effect, but an exciting one. Some researchers believe that under the influence of preparations of ginseng there is a very good effect in improving the well-being of people engaged in mental work. In particular, labor productivity rises at night and memory improves.

    Panaxen, panaxosides and panax acid reduce blood sugar levels to normal, accelerate the synthesis of glycogen from glucose. Like insulin, they accelerate the synthesis of lumps in the liver and promote their accumulation in fatty tissues. There is evidence that ginseng not only inhibits the emergence of excess cholesterol in the blood, but it is also a good preventive agent for atherosclerosis. Under the influence of drugs, the uptake of methionine in the liver increases and its passage into serum albumin is accelerated, the tissue respiration of the liver and brain is stimulated, and therefore oxygen consumption increases with them.

    Ginseng increases cardiac contractions, normalizes blood pressure.

    Ginseng tincture - Tinctura Ginseng - used 15-20 drops before meals as a tonic for various forms of asthenia, hypotension, fatigue, overfatigue, neurasthenia, gonadal gland hypofunction, as a radioprotective agent and as an additional treatment for heart disease and diabetes. Some doctors believe that in the treatment of diabetes, ginseng is not inferior in performance to insulin. More effective is the use of tinctures in autumn and winter than in spring and summer.

    Ginseng preparations are non-toxic and practically harmless. They do not have absolute, from a medical point of view, contraindications, but despite the fact that under the influence of ginseng blood pressure decreases, it should not be prescribed for hypertensive illness, especially during the summer heat, as in other cases at this time. The course of ginseng treatment lasts

    for 30-40 days, then make a two-week break and the course is repeated again. With asthenic conditions, the effect of treatment is slow, sometimes after 2-3 courses.

    Ginseng preparations do not cause insomnia, irritability, anxiety, as it is inherent in its substitutes - aral plants.

    It should be remembered that in the treatment of ginseng is contraindicated the use of alcoholic beverages. The female-made vodka produced in Korea with a small root in the bottle is not intended for medicinal purposes.

    Earlier in China, ginseng was attributed to the properties of prolonging human life and returning youth, and therefore searches in the taiga of this miraculous root were conducted for 4000 years. The root there was valued more than gold.

    A similar action is exhibited by preparations of aralia, zamanichi and eleutherococcus, however they do not have the property of lowering blood pressure.

    The root of aralia is high( and in the absence of it - the rhizome of zamaniha) is a part of the collection of arfazetine, which is prescribed for the prevention and treatment of diabetes( see blueberry).This collection produces the industry packaged in polyethylene bags of 10 grams. To prepare the infusion, the contents of one packet are placed in enameled dishes, poured into 400 ml( 2 cups) of hot boiled water and heated in boiling water( on a water bath) for 15 minutes, insisted at room temperaturenot less than 45 minutes and filter.

    The remaining raw materials are squeezed out. The volume of the infusion obtained is adjusted to 400 ml with boiled water. Take inside 30 minutes before meals, preferably in a warm form of 1/3 - 1/2 cup 2-3 times a day for 20-30 days. After 10-15 days, the course of treatment is recommended to be repeated. During the year 3-4 courses are conducted.

    Eleutherococcus extract has an immunostimulating effect and is especially indicated for people living in areas with slightly elevated levels of radiation. Use it in the autumn-winter time for 30-40 drops for half an hour before meals. At the same time, during or after a meal, multivitamin preparations containing vitamins A, C, P and B are prescribed. Pectins that are introduced into the diet in the form of canned food or fresh fruits and vegetables are also useful.