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  • Dahlia

    Description and varieties. Dahlia is a cultured species, which includes all the dahlias cultivated during the long selection process, belongs to the genus Dalia, the family of astroids. The birthplace of dahlias is Mexico. Dahlias cultural - herbaceous perennials. Stems are hollow, depending on the variety reach a height of 30-180 cm, erect, branching. The growth of lateral shoots begins more often in the sinuses of the upper leaves, then in the lower ones.

    Leaves opposite, large, dissected with 5 ovate or oblong-ovate pointed large filamentous lobes. Inflorescence is a basket. Edge flowers of inflorescence ( petals) - reed, sterile, medium - tubular, bisexual. Most of the varieties of dahlias have double flower buds, that is, inflorescences with an increased number of lingual flowers( petals).The root system of a perennial plant consists of thin feeding and thickened storing plants. Reserved roots - roots( or simply tubers) - are formed at the base of the shoots of the current year, thicken in the year of formation and live for about 3 years. Slightly thinned root crops and all the feeding roots of winter storage can not stand and die. Renal renewal buds are located on the root neck of the root crop and on the lower part of the shoot last year. At the root of the tuber there are no kidneys. In places of natural growth of the rootstock, dahlias winter in non-freezing ground, in culture for the winter they have to be excavated and stored under certain conditions.

    The classification of garden dahlias is based on such features as the size and shape of the inflorescence, the degree of terry, and the shape of the petals.

    Currently, in our country there is no single classification of dahlias. Adopted in 1962 in Brussels, the international classification contains 10 classes, developed in our country combine varieties in 11 - 12 classes. These classifications differ in the degree of detail of the characteristics, with two classes( subclasses) or, on the contrary, they are combined into one.

    Unsharring, or single-row: , almost the entire basket is occupied by tubular flowers, the ligulate flowers( petals) are arranged in a row, along the outer circle. Low-grown non-march dahlias are allocated to a subclass( class) of Mignon, , their height is not more than 50 cm, propagated by seeds. Anemone: large petals in 1-2 rows, tubular flowers, long, long, extending above the inflorescence of a dense central group. Collar: 2 a circle of petals, the petals of the inner circle are much smaller than the petals of the outer circle, cover tubular flowers like a collar. The petals of both circles are colored in different colors. Pion-shaped: semi-double inflorescence with 2-3 rows of wide petals and center of yellow tubular flowers. The petals adjacent to the center of the inflorescence of tubular flowers are often much smaller, twisted or wavy.

    A mild, or simple, inflorescence form of the

    A dahlia inflorescence cut is produced early in the morning in the full flowering( blooming) phase. Inflorescences on the stem are cut off with a sharp tool obliquely and immediately put in water. Decorative

    : gustomahrovye inflorescence with wide, straight, curved in one direction or wavy petals ligulate flowers in the center of the inflorescence rolled and spirally twisted. The size of the inflorescence is from 4 to 40 cm in diameter. Allocate a subclass( class) of Nymphaeum, inflorescences which resemble a white water lily( nymphaea).

    Nymphaeales form inflorescence

    anemone fort inflorescence

    Ball: gustomahrovye inflorescence diameter from 7 to 20 cm spherical or hemispherical shape, broad petals with rounded tips, in the bottom( half length) petals collected into a tube. Pompons: are the same as spherical, but more rounded and smaller, flowers up to 7 cm in diameter. The petal is folded into the tube along its entire length.

    Semi-Cactus: terry inflorescences, petals broad, at the base folded less than half the length. Transitional form between decorative and cactus. Cacti: terry inflorescences with a closed middle, the petals not less than half the length are rolled into a tube. There are varieties with deeply cut at the end of the petals. Allocate a subclass( class) Chrysanthemum-shaped - petals are folded along the entire length and are bent in different directions, resemble large-chrysanthemums. Sour cream: all new grades not suitable for the description of these groups.

    Pompon form of inflorescence

    Spherical form of inflorescence

    Semi-conic form of inflorescence

    Cyaniform form of inflorescence

    Cactus form of inflorescence

    Varieties of dahlia

    Non-mastic or single row

    Irene van der Color ( lemon-yellow, diameter of flower 7 cm).

    Anemone

    Comet ( dark red, flower diameter 10 cm), SimenDurenbo ( pink, 7-9 cm).

    Collar

    Woody Woodpecker ( red, the tips of the petals are golden, the diameter of the flower is 9 cm).

    Pioneer

    Horhoven ( dark crimson, flower diameter 9 cm), Rote Funken ( blood red, 10-12 cm),

    Decorative

    Bernard Voight ( thick pink, diameter of flower 15 cm), Brandaris( orange-red, 15 cm), Kamed Anjel ( thick pink, 20 cm), Gauja ( red, 17 cm), Iosif Langtress ( brick red, 20-25 cm), Russia( bright red, the diameter of the flower is 20 cm).

    Decorative, subclass Nymphy

    Black Rose ( dark cherry, flower diameter 15 cm), Gerry Hawke ( pink, 15 cm), Dahlia ( red, 20 cm).

    Nymphs

    Black Rose ( dark cherry, flower diameter 15 cm); Gerry Hawke ( pink, 15 cm); Dahlia-70 ( red, 20 cm).

    Semi-Cactus

    Bad Kissengen ( light wine red, diameter of flower 20 cm); Bernard Voit ( dark pink, 14-15 cm); Glory to ( dark red, 18-22 cm); Snow-covered Russia ( white with dissected tips, 18-20 cm); Nora ( pink, 17 cm); Pref Demand ( light crimson, 12 cm); Preferns ( salmon-pink, 12 cm); Rose Preference ( dark pink, 13-15 cm); Russian souvenir ( dark cherry with a thin cream strip on the edge and creamy spots, 22 cm); Standard ( dark purple, up to 25-30 cm); Tartan ( dark cherry with white tips, 22-25 cm) Bacchus ( red, flower diameter 13-15 cm), Black Burd ( dark red, up to 30 cm), KelDable Rose Tender ( gently pink, up to 30 cm), Severi ( light yellow, 15 cm), Rims ( dark purple, 15 cm), Vourvogel ( redpetals with a yellow base, 15 cm).

    Cacti

    Apash ( bright red with dissected tips, flower diameter 16 cm); White Olympiad ( white 18-20 cm); Doris Day ( purplish red, 14-16 cm); Zweigznite ( red, 14-18 cm); Crystal ( white with dissected tips, 14-18 cm); Black ( light crimson with white tips, 12-14 cm);Amber ( light yellow, 12-15 cm); Alvas Doris ( blood-red, flower diameter 15 cm), Pioneer ( lemon yellow, 15 cm), Promotion ( gently pink, 20 cm), Snowy top ( snow-white, 15 cm) Television ( red-orange, 18 cm).

    Spherical

    Bonnet Blue ( lilac, flower diameter 10 cm); Meteor ( dense orange, 12 cm); Edinburgh ( cherry with white tips, 10 cm); Erfurter Kupfergold ( light orange-red, flower diameter 8 cm), Fatima ( dark crimson, 8 cm), Yuri Gagarin ( dark red to black, 9 cm), Rothbal( dark cherry, 8 cm).

    Pom-pon

    Photon ( bright yellow, diameter of the flower 4-5 cm); Negro ( dark cherry, 5-6 cm); Gretchen Heine ( white with crimson edges, 4-5 cm); Schnitzenetse ( white, 5-6 cm); Spinel ( dark yellow with orange-red tips, 5-6 cm); Cylinder Rouge ( dark red, flower diameter 5 cm), LittleCON ( dark red, 5-7 cm), Magnificos Diamond Ai ( orange-red, 5 cm), Rose Effect ( thick-pink, 6-7 cm), Stadtpark Inspector Ashes ( bright lemon yellow, 6 cm).

    Mixed

    Purple Leafs

    Especially interesting varieties with dark red to purple leaves and scarlet flowers, the most outstanding among them are Eternal Flame ( flowers bright alo-red, terry), Danko ( blood red, terry), Volley Aurora ( fiery red, gustomahrovye).

    Undoubtedly, all varieties of dahlias are beautiful in their own way. And yet, even from an extraordinary variety of colors and forms, flower growers distinguish a number of varieties that are distinguished by their perfect beauty and, moreover, the most suitable for cutting.

    Ornamental form of inflorescence

    Chrysanthemum form of inflorescence

    Dahlias can also differ in the color of the leaves, for example, dark-leaf varieties of dahlia of Lucifer type are distinguished.

    Breeding, rearing and care. To preserve varietal characteristics, dahlias are propagated only vegetatively. - tuber nesting is the simplest and most commonly used breeding method, which is also a way to prevent the aging of the dahlia bush. In dahlias not subject to division, aging occurs in the 5th year.

    The division is performed in the autumn before depositing for storage or in the spring before planting for rearing. When dividing a nest with several shoots, the first thing is to shake it up by the stems, untwisting and pulling the tubers, separating them into single-nest nests. To divide the nest with one shoot, a pointed peg is driven into the middle of the stem and the nest is broken into several parts. Delenka, considered to be a landing unit, should consist of a tuber with a well developed root neck and have at least 2-3 buds. Very long or powerful tuber tubers shorten. This contributes to a better growth of feeding roots and new tubers.

    Collar shape of the inflorescence of

    Many growers grow dahlias from smaller ones, consisting of one or even a part of a tuber with 1 kidney.

    At the end of the division, all sections are sprinkled with pounded charcoal or processed with greenery. If the division takes place in the spring, then the tubers should dry well for 2-3 days before planting on the undergrowth, after which they are planted in pots or boxes with good nutrient soil. When disembarking in a box, it is desirable to separate one from the other by strips of polyethylene. This is necessary so that the roots of the pieces do not intertwine with each other. Otherwise, by the time of transplanting the plants into the open ground, their roots will have to be separated, which makes it difficult to extract plants from the box, and, most importantly, traumatizes the root system, which in turn leads to inhibition of the development of the dahlia. Pots or boxes with cuttings are placed in the brightest place with a temperature of 16-20 ° C.When the kidneys are spilled on each division, 1-2 shoots are left, and the rest are broken. The development of several shoots weakens their growth.

    Warning!

    After dividing each nest, the entire instrument used to divide it must be disinfected to prevent the possibility of contamination of all the material from one diseased plant. These precautions will not be superfluous, even if during the vegetation period the plants looked healthy, as the signs of viral diseases in the dahlias appear much later after their infection, some diseases do not appear until 5-10 weeks later.

    It is not recommended to reproduce dahlia dividing for many years. This leads to a degeneracy of the variety. It is necessary at least once every 3 years to update the planting material by means of cuttings. With one single-stem nest root can be obtained up to 40-50 cuttings. By cuttings, lower, but stronger shrubs with larger and bright inflorescences are obtained. With timely and correct cuttings, good care, the cuttings plants manage to form full-grown tubers that tolerate winter storage well.

    Dividing the nest of the corn-pectoral dahlia

    1 .Dividing the nest of corn-pectoral dahlias can be done in the autumn before depositing for storage. If the nest is very large, a pointed peg is driven into the middle of the stem of the nest, , by means of which the nest is broken into parts. Smaller nests are divided with a sharp knife. You can continue to divide up to one tuber. The delenka must have a root neck area and 1 -2 developed kidneys. All slices must be sprinkled with ash for disinfection.

    2. If the tuber has more than one well-developed bud of renewal, it can be cut into parts so that each part has an independent kidney.

    3. Nest division can be carried out in the spring, after germinating tubers on cuttings

    Planting of germinated tubers

    Germinated dahlias are planted in the open ground in a prepared pit, in the bottom of which a drive is previously driven in. The plant is tied to the support with a soft banding material

    For cuttings during the flowering period, select the best plants and mark them with labels. In autumn, when digging, labels are transferred to tubers. Since mid-February marked nests are planted for germination. After a certain time, the tubers give shoots. Cuttings begin to cut off when shoots reach a length of 6-8 cm, with a sharp tool( knife, scalpel, blade), carefully disinfected or calcined on fire. The tool is disinfected after cutting cuttings from each nest of the root crop. Cut the cuttings directly under the lower pair of leaves, leaving the lower part of the shoot on the uterine nest( the zone of proximal internodes).Sleeping buds located on it, give several new shoots, which are used for further propagation. At the last removal of the cuttings from the uterine nest, the shoots are cut off or broken at the base, which accelerates and strengthens the process of root formation. The earlier the cuttings begin, the more cuttings can be obtained from one nest and the more valuable the tubers will have time to form a blackened plant by the autumn.

    In the middle belt, the cuttings of the dahlias are from February to the end of April. Since the dahlias of the plant are thermophilic and are damaged by the first slight frosts, they can not be planted in low areas. The landing site must be level or elevated, protected from winds that break their stems. Soils with a high content of humus and good moisture permeability. Heavy and sandy are unsuitable for dahlia.

    Formation of the dahlia bush

    To obtain well-developed plants and high-quality flowering, dahlias should be formed. To do this, the plant leaves only lateral shoots, which develop from the first and second upper pairs of leaves. To obtain a larger number of inflorescences, the main shoot is plucked over the fourth pair of leaves, and the formed upper shoots over the second pair.

    Site preparation begins in the autumn. Under deep( 35-40 cm) digging up to 15-20 kg / m2 pereprevshego manure and up to 20-30 grams of superphosphate.2-3 weeks before the landing of the dahlia, the site is dug to a depth of 20-25 cm. Make up 20-30 g / m2 potassium fertilizers under the digging.

    In the middle belt, the undergrowth and cuttings of dahlias are planted in open ground from June 5-10, after the danger of late spring frosts passes. When planting a small number of plants, they are planted in planting pits with a depth of 40 cm and the same diameter. Each pit is filled with 1 / 3-1 / 2 buckets of humus or compost, 50-60 g of ash, 30-40 g of superphosphate and mixed thoroughly with the soil taken from the pit. The soil in the hole must be moistened in advance, sprinkle dry soil on top of the planting. When planting, the root collar is buried: in plants grown from chickens, by 5-6 cm, in cuttings - by 6-8 cm. This contributes to a better development of the root system, in the cut-through dahlias - to the development of the second tier of root crops, as well as to firmer fixationplants in the soil. Before planting tall varieties of dahlia, a stake is driven into the center of the pit, which is immediately tied up with the stem of the plant planted. It is not recommended to drive the stakes after planting - the probability of damage to the roots is too great. Plants tie a soft twine free loop so that when the stem thickens the twine does not crash into it.

    To obtain a beautiful strong plant with good inflorescences, dahlia bushes need to be formed. To do this, during the growth period, periodically remove the shoots growing from the root neck. Regularly break out appearing stepsons - lateral shoots, growing in the axils of the leaves. Stephens are removed as soon as possible in order to less damage the plant. Remaining in the bush, they strongly thicken it, delay flowering and reduce the quality of the inflorescences. The plant leaves only lateral shoots, developing from 1-2 upper pairs of leaves. To obtain a larger number of inflorescences, the main shoot is plucked over the fourth pair of leaves, the upper lateral shoots formed over the 2nd pair. Remove the central bud or central and one of the side. This operation leads to lengthening and strengthening the peduncle, increasing the size of the inflorescence. If the inflorescences were not cut, then they are removed as soon as they begin to fade, since otherwise the development of the buds is delayed and the appearance of the plantings is damaged. In the second half of the summer, the lower leaves are removed on the stem at a height of 30 cm. This is prevented by its excessive thickening in the lower part, which, in turn, contributes to a better overwintering of the nest of tubers. At the end of August, the plants grow to a height of 10-15 cm. This method excludes the possibility of freezing of tubers and replacement buds on the root collar and lower part of the stem, and ensures greater nest storage during winter storage. If there is a possibility, the plants are hibernated in July. Early hilling has another goal - improving the conditions of the club-uneducation and increasing the stability of the escape to breakage. Soil loosening and weeding are conducted as usual.

    The best top dressing for dahlia is slurry( 1: 10), infusion of bird droppings( 1: 20) at the rate of 1.5-2 liters of liquid under the bush. The first fertilizing takes place 10-14 days after planting in the open ground. When there is a lack of organic fertilizers on a nitrogen-poor soil, ammonium nitrate is introduced at a rate of 10-20 g. Under the bush. Top dressing with organic and mineral fertilizers is alternated and is made no more often than 1 time in 10-14 days. Since the period of budding, nitrogen fertilizers have not been used. From the middle of August, superphosphate and sulfuric acid potassium( 10-15 g per bush) are added. The number of fertilizing and fertilizer dosages is changed depending on soil fertility, weather conditions and plant capacity.

    Excavation and storage of tubers. To dig up, proceed immediately after leaf withering from the first autumn frosts or directly in front of them. When tightening with digging, freezing growth shoots, buds of substitution are touched, using the reserves of nutrients accumulated in the tubers. This worsens the storage of tubers during winter storage. Dump the tubers by hand, previously cutting off the stem to avoid breaking it. When extracting the nest of tubers from the ground, when further processing, you can not raise the nest by the stem - at this time, juicy tubers are very easily broken off from the root collar and the entire nest can become worthless. Unsuitable for storage and a nest with broken tubers - they are cut off at the base. The excavated tubers are immediately washed or cleaned of adhering soil. There are various ways of further processing of tubers. According to one recommendation, for the disinfection of stump stems to the buds are covered with lime mortar, in others - to prevent decay of the root collar, which most often begins with the rotting of juicy hemp tissues of the stem, it is recommended to remove these tissues. To do this, a ring cut is made on the stem above the soil zone to the lignified tissue, and then the whole juicy part of the hemp is scraped above the notch. Lignified thus lignified tissues quickly dry up. In addition, it is necessary to remove small rootlets, old, dying, damaged and thin non-mature tubers. If it is supposed to store the roots without removing the hemp stalk and dividing the nest, it is necessary to pierce the septum in the hollow stalk and split it to the base and, turning the nest, pour the water out of the stalk cavity, which accumulates there in wet weather. Water, accumulated in the cavity of the lower internode, is one of the causes of decay of the root neck.

    Excavation of the root of the dahlia

    Dahlia tubers are dug out immediately after the first autumn frost, after which the leaves of the plant die, or just before the approaching frosts, you can not let the tubers froze. Stems before digging must be cut off, when pulling the tubers from the ground do not pull the stem of the stump, it easily breaks off, which traumatizes the nest of the rootstock

    . The root of the dahlia dahlia

    . Dahlia rootstocks are stored in wooden boxes and poured with peat, sand, ash or sawdust

    Before laying on the storage of the corn-stalk for 10-15 days from the day of excavation must be kept in a room with a low positive temperature. In these conditions, the wound surfaces are tightened and the peel of the tubers peels, preventing their drying.

    It is recommended to pickle the tubers in a 0.1% solution of potassium permanganate before laying, and then to soak for 20-30 minutes in any fungicide. After this treatment, allow the tubers to dry out and store them.

    Undivided nests of tubers are stored on racks or in deep boxes, pouring peat or sand. Very good results are obtained by storage with ash, as it is an excellent disinfectant.

    The files are stored in flat drawers. The insulating material, which is sand, peat, sawdust, should fit tightly to the tubers, leaving no voids. With the probability of intensive drying of the tubers, they are placed in plastic bags. When storing tubers in bags it is necessary to make sure that there is a layer of insulating material between the film and the tubers. The moisture vapor, formed during the breathing of tubers, condenses on the walls of the packet and causes decay of the tubers that come into contact with them. It is necessary several times during the storage period to selectively open packages and check the status of the tubers. When the humidity of the substrate appears, the bags are opened for ventilation, when the danger of drying of the stored material is slightly moistened substrate. If a tuber decay is detected, the affected area is cut to a healthy tissue, the shear site is processed and dried in the air for about a day, and then laid back.

    Diseases and pests. The most harmful and most often there are viral diseases: viral mosaic, ring spot, oak-shaped mosaic. Of bacterial - root cancer, cancer growth;from mushroom - black leg on cuttings, powdery mildew, white rot( sclerotinosis), fusarium wilt, dry rot of root crops. Of pests, the most dangerous are sucking insects - carriers of viral diseases: bean and greenhouse aphids, thrips;caterpillars scoop eat up all parts of plants.