Jun 14, 2018
Alveolar microlithiasis is a rare disease inherited in an autosomal recessive type and characterized by the formation of minute stones in the lung alveoli. There are reports of microlithiasis in children whose parents were related in blood.
It is believed that the formation of stones in the alveoli is associated with impaired production of the alveolar fluid, as well as with the breakdown of the exchange of carbonic acid. A combination of alveolar microlithiasis with the pathology of metabolism( kidney stones, gout) and malformations is described.
Disease occurs in all age groups. Approximately a quarter of patients have alveolar microlithiasis revealed in childhood. The cases of alveolar microlithiasis in newborn children are described, which allows to think about the possibility of the congenital nature of alveolar micro-formations.
The clinical picture of the disease is manifold. Alveolar microlithiasis is characterized by a discrepancy between poor clinical picture and radiographic changes. Clinical symptoms may be absent altogether, and the disease is diagnosed with an accidental X-ray examination. Sometimes patients are disturbed by shortness of breath, cyanotic coloring of the skin and mucous membranes, a decrease in tolerance to the load. As the process progresses, signs of chronic inflammation of the lungs are added: cough, sputum. There is a thickening of the nail phalanges of the fingers like a drumstick.
Radiological examination is crucial for diagnosis. On chest radiographs, small, scattered sections of the darkness of the lung are found, located mainly in the lower and middle sections of the lungs. These signs are often mistaken for miliary tuberculosis.
With progressing course of the disease, patients die when pulmonary heart disease, pulmonary heart disease. For diagnostic purposes, an open lung biopsy is sometimes performed. In the study of lung tissue, the presence of stones is found in 50-75% of the alveoli. Calcinates are found in the lumen of the alveoli, but are sometimes located in the lumen and wall of the bronchi.
Treatment is directed only at elimination of clinical symptoms.