Fungus of the nails of the hands, feet( onychomycosis) - Causes, symptoms and treatment. MF.
Jun 11, 2018
Onychomycosis is a group of fungal diseases that affects the nails of both hands and feet. According to the authors, nail fungus is found in 10-20% of the population. In the elderly, this percentage is higher, in younger people, respectively, is lower.
Causes of nail fungus
The main causes are fungi - dermatophytes, of which T. rubrum and yeast are the first. Infection with the fungus occurs through contact, through household items( general shoes, sneakers), in baths, swimming pools. Often they come from the skin affected by the fungus or vice versa. The provoking factors of onychomycosis are: work in tight shoes, work with water, excessive sweating, violation of blood flow in the limbs. In general, as I wrote in the article on fungal infections: the pathogen multiplies where it is damp, dark and warm. After all, the fungus can be on the skin and not cause pathology.
Symptoms of nail fungus
There are several forms of onychomycosis:
1) the normotrophic form of the disease, when the color of the nail changes, most often it is a yellow or dull color.
2) hypertrophic, characterized by thickening of the nail plate with discoloration.
3) hypotrophic, respectively, with its decrease.
First, the upper part of the nail is affected, and then the process also enters the germ zone. The patient does not experience subjective sensations. In case of yeast lesion, a combination with candidiasis paronychia( inflammation of the peri-osedal cusp with its soreness) occurs most often.
Nail fungus on the legs
Diagnosis of the nail fungus
Differential diagnosis will be with psoriasis of the nails, onycholysis, when the nail suffers from other conditions, the nail trauma. The treatment of these conditions will be different from the treatment of onychomycosis and therefore it is necessary to undergo a diagnosis by a dermatologist or a mycologist.
In addition to the examination, a small part of the nail is taken for microscopic examination. If there are conditions in the clinic, conduct a culture and a study with the definition of the type of fungus.
Treatment of nail fungus
Treatment is prescribed depending on the stage of onychomycosis. At an initial stage it is medical varnishes( betrafen, exoderil).Treatment with ointments and solutions( 5% iodine, spray lamizil), I use very rarely, since they do not penetrate the nail plate because of its density.
If the process is in the growth zone, then the treatment includes tablets( lamizil, rumikoz, mycosyst).They are the least toxic compared to the same drugs of the previous generation, but still need to examine the liver, making a biochemical blood test.
Very important is the processing of shoes( myostop), a daily change of socks with their boiling. You need to have your own towel. Remember that nail fungus is a contagious disease and very often recurs.
When appointing tablets, you need to limit the amount of alcohol consumed in order to reduce the load on the liver.
For the prevention of relapses, the treatment of nail plates is prescribed for a while, but only if they look healthy and no fungus, 5% iodine solution, is detected in the analyzes.
If we talk about folk remedies, then my attitude to them is the same as to treatment with ointments and solutions. I often get patients who used these techniques. Such products as juice of onions, garlic, have an antifungal effect, but do not penetrate the nail plate and the process extends to the growth zone. It is necessary to prescribe tablets, and they are not very cheap. Conclusion: the earlier the treatment of the nail fungus has begun, the cheaper it will cost you. With this you can save money on other important purchases.
Complications of fungal infection
Onychomycosis can, due to its foreignness and allergization, provoke such a disease as eczema. In consequence of a violation of the growth of the nail - an ingrown nail, when it grows into the skin tissue, with severe inflammation and soreness. In this case very often one has to resort to its removal.
Prevention of nail fungus
Prevention is personal hygiene( do not use common shoes, use slippers in baths, thoroughly wipe your feet after bath and shower), timely treatment of fungal infections of the skin, vascular diseases of the extremities.
Consultation of a doctor for onychomycosis
Question: How do you feel about surgical removal of nails with onychomycosis?
Answer: Honestly, it's bad. This is an old technique, and removing the nail, exhausting this patient, we can remove the fungus from the growth zone? At the present stage, new drugs have appeared with good penetration into the foci of infection.
Question: Which shoes should I use in bathhouses?
Answer: Shale or beach.
Question: How long does it take to take tablets from a nail fungus?
Answer: Differently. For example, lamizil for about 3 months.
Doctor dermatologist Mansurov A.S.