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  • Edible mushrooms

    Mushrooms, which are usable for food, are divided into edible and conditionally edible. Edible mushrooms do not contain poisonous substances, have a pleasant smell, taste, do not cause a sense of bitterness. Edible fungi do not need special treatment before consumption, they do not need to be boiled, soaked, it is enough to clean and scald with boiling water.

    Common champignon( Agaricus campestris), or meadow mushroom, or piscina

    Mushroom II category. This kind of champignon( fig.) Grows among grass, meadows, sloping fields, pastures, wherever there is fertile manured soil. It can also be found in ditches in the fields of the middle belt, in the south of Russia. It can be collected from May to October. Usually it grows in large groups.

    Fig. Champignon ordinary( Agaricus campestris), or meadow mushroom, or a chicken

    The cap of the meadow mushroom is flat, white, to the touch silky. Sometimes covered with gray scales. The diameter of the cap can reach up to 12 cm. In young mushrooms, the cap may be spherical. Leg - cylindrical, 4-8 cm high, sometimes dilated in the bases. Smooth to the touch, white. At the base the stem can have a brown tint. Closer to the cap on the mushroom leg is a white foil ring. Champignon smells very tasty, "mushroom" smell. Possessing an elastic, white pulp, pink on the cut, the mushroom is excellent for soups and side dishes. Used in marinated and salted form.

    Field mushroom( Agaricus arvensis)

    Mushroom III category. It grows in the coniferous forests of the foothills, loves mountain spruce forests. You can gather from June to October. Silky to the touch hat at the field mushroom( Fig.) Can be white or cream.

    Fig. Champignon field( A garicus arvensis)

    If you press on the bonnet, it will turn yellow. In the center of the cap may be a tubercle. In young mushrooms, the cap has the shape of a ball, then it straightens and grows to 5-15 cm in diameter. Leg has a cylindrical shape, slightly thickens to the base, easily detached from the cap. The length of the leg is 6-15 cm. A large hanging ring is formed on the stem closer to the cap. Flesh is dense, white, yellowing as the fungus ripens. It has a bright anise odor. Excellent taste and high nutritional properties of the field mushroom allow preparing numerous dishes from it. Used in fresh( cook for 10 minutes), salted and marinated.

    Two-ring champignon( Agaricus bitorquis)

    Mushroom II category. This kind of mushroom grows on logging sites, cuttings, along roads. It can be collected from May to November. The hat of the meadow champignon( Fig.) Is flat, white, bare. The diameter of the cap can reach up to 12 cm. In young mushrooms, the cap may be spherical. Leg - white, cylindrical, 4-8 cm high, sometimes enlarged at the base. Closer to the bonnet on the mushroom leg are two large white foil rings. It has excellent taste qualities. Used in fresh( boil for 10 minutes), marinated.

    Fig. Two-ring mushroom( A garicus bitorquis)

    Champignon forest( Agaricus sylvaticus)

    Mushroom II category. It grows in coniferous forests from July to November. One of the most common mushrooms in Russia( Fig.).

    Fig. Champignon Forest( Agaricus sylvaticus)

    Often grows on anthills. The color of the hat varies throughout the life of the fungus from light ocher to the color of cinnamon, then becomes light brown with brown scales. The spherical hat of young fungi becomes convex, and then flat-spread. In diameter, the cap of this fungus is 40-90 mm. Leg - whitish, smooth, cylindrical, up to 12 cm in height. A solid stem is found only in young fungi. A mature fungus in the leg appears narrow cavity, thanks to which the cap easily separates from the leg. Closer to the hat on the leg is a foil ring. The flesh can blush on the place of the incision. The smell is weak, the taste is excellent.

    Champignon dark red( Agaricus haemorrhoidarius)

    Mushroom IV category. It grows in the mountain spruce forests of the European part of the country, it likes calcareous soils. The color of the hat varies throughout the life of the fungus from light ocher to the color of cinnamon, then becomes light brown. On the head there are thick brown scales. The spherical hat of young fungi becomes convex, and then flat-spread. Leg - fleshy, grayish, smooth, cylindrical. Closer to the hat on the leg is a foil ring. The flesh can blush on the place of the incision. One of the most nutritious mushrooms. Used for food in fresh, pickled and dried form( Fig.).

    Fig. Champignon dark red( A garicus haem orrhoidarius)

    Two-parted champignon( Agaricus bisporus)

    Mushroom II category. A rare mushroom, found in forest belts, parks in Siberia. Does not like grassy places. A round cap 4-8 cm with curved edges

    1 can be of three colors: white, cream, brown. On the hat, thin flakes of the same shade are noticeable. Cylindrical leg has a pronounced ring. Smell and taste are specifically mushroom( Fig.).Perfectly suitable for any dishes.

    Fig. Champignon bisporus( A garicUS bisporus)

    Borovik( Boletus edulis), or white fungus pine

    Recognized as the "king of mushrooms".It is considered a particularly valuable trophy in mushroom pickers. Mushroom I category. Extremely delicious, suitable for cooking any type of food. Most often it grows in the mountain spruce forests of the European part of Russia and Siberia, but it can also occur in mixed forests of Western Siberia. The young boletus hat is white, darkening with age to brown and dark brown color. The light fluff of young fungi soon disappears. Semicircular hat becomes convex, and in mature mushrooms - pronducoid. Dimensions of the cap - 6-25 cm in diameter. The white or creamy leg of the barrel-shaped turns into cylindrical and can reach 20 cm in height. On the leg clearly a reticulum( Fig.).

    Fig. Borovik( Boletus edulis), or pine fungus pine

    It has a pronounced mushroom smell, pleasant taste. The pulp is solid and white, which makes it suitable for billets. Contains vitamins and antibiotics. It is used in fresh, marinated, salted form.

    White fungus, birch form( Boletus edulis f. Betulicola)

    One of the varieties of the fungus. Mushroom I category. Very tasty and valuable mushroom. It grows in the northern regions of the European part and Siberia. He loves birch forests.

    Fleshy pillow-shaped cap of light brown color is kept on a solid barrel-shaped leg whitish. Below the leg is a net pattern( Fig.).Just like the boletus, it has a pleasant mushroom smell, but almost no taste in raw form. Good in fried, boiled, canned.

    Fig. White mushroom, birch form( Boletus edulis f. Betulicola)

    White fungus, mesh form( Boletus edulis f. Reticu l atus )

    Mushroom I category. Distributed in the Caucasus variety of white fungus. He loves oak trees. It grows all summer. Has a pillow-shaped cap of cream, coffee or beige color with a grayish tinge. On the white-brown cylindrical leg, a distinct mesh pattern is visible. Below is a small fluff( Fig.).

    Fig. White mushroom, mesh shape( Boletus edulis f. Reticulatus)

    Thanks to the dense white pulp is suitable for drying, but is especially tasty in fried form. It is the most fragrant in the dried state. Also it is marinated, you can use it fresh. Has a pleasant mushroom smell.

    White fungus, a form of dark bronze( Boletus edulis f. Aereus)

    Mushroom I category. It grows in the Caucasus in oak, hornbeam, beech, chestnut forests from June to October. Pillow-shaped hat reaches 5-20 cm in diameter, very dark in color, with increased humidity slightly slimy, shiny, with dry weather velvety and matte. The leg is always a little lighter than the cap. On the whole leg there is a mesh pattern, darkening below. In young fungi, the stem is tuberous, and during growth it extends( Fig.).

    Fig. White fungus, a form of dark bronze( Boletus edulis f. Aereus)

    It has a pronounced mushroom smell, but it has no taste. The flesh is solid and white. Suitable for any type of processing. It is used for food in fried and boiled, as well as in pickled and salted varieties.

    Boletus brown-yellow( Boletus appendiculatus), or root chopped, boletus reddish

    Mushroom Category II.Delicious mushroom from the family of mushrooms. It grows in broad-leaved forests of the Caucasus. Occurs sometimes on carbonate soils of the Far East. Has a cushion-shaped brown cap from 3 to 15 cm in diameter. With high humidity, the cap is slightly slimy, glistening when dried. The yellowish-brown stem, covered in the upper third by a mesh pattern, reaches 5-15 cm in height. In young fungi, the stem is tuberous, and during growth it extends. On the cut, the yellow flesh turns blue( Fig.).

    Fig. Boletus brown-yellow( Boletus appendiculatus), or a fodder rooted, boletus reddish

    Does not have a smell.

    Boletus fichtneri( Boletus fechtneri)

    Mushroom III category. Just like the boulette is brown-yellow, loves the forests of the Caucasus. It grows from June to September. The hat is silver-brown-white color. Leg, tuberous in young fungi, stretched in maturity, covered with a mesh, in the upper third of yellow, and below - red-brown. Pale red flesh on the cut quickly bluish( Fig.).

    Fig. Bolett fechtneri( Boletus fechtneri)

    Bollet does not have a particular smell.

    Boletus Royal( Boletus regius), or Borovik Royal

    Mushroom II category. A beautiful and tasty mushroom, common in the broad-leaved forests of the Caucasus, is less common in the Far East. You can gather from June to September. The cap-shaped hat shines after the rain, it is painted in a dark pink, purple-red or red color. Very thick leg, barrel-shaped in young mushrooms, in maturity takes the form of a mace, ocher-brown with a mesh pattern in the upper third. At the bottom, the foot is often covered with dark red spots. The yellow flesh on the incision turns blue( Fig.).

    Fig. Boletus royal( Boletus regius), or chowder royal

    Suitable for any type of processing.

    Boletus semi-white( Boletus impolitus)

    Mushroom III category. Delicious mushroom from the family of mushrooms, grows in the central and southern strip. The characteristic pillow-shaped cap of ocher-yellow-beige color is covered with rusty-red spots. The leg is longer than the usual stem of the furovik, slightly thickened below, yellow, sometimes with a red tinge in the lower third( Fig.).

    Fig. Boletus impolitus

    Has an unpleasant smell, similar to the odor of iodoform, so often mushroom pickers undeservedly do not pay attention to it. However, it is easy to get rid of the smell by pre-boiling the mushroom.

    Mossy green( Xerocomus subtomentosus), or a mottle, a pedicle, a grill

    Mushroom II category. It occurs on forest glades of the European part of Russia, on the fringes of the forests of the Urals, the Urals, Siberia, grows along the edges of roads in the Caucasus and the Far East. Loves moss and oak trees. You can gather from June to November. The hat of the green mosswool is distinguished by a dark olive-yellowish color and not peeled off. The bent edges are lowered as they mature. The shape of the cap is cushion-convex, fleshy. To the touch, the cap is velvety, but can be covered with cracks during the drought period. Leg up to 10 cm high, curved, cylindrical in shape, yellow or copper-brown, not separated from the bonnet and has a ribbed surface. Light flesh can turn blue on the cut( Fig.).A pleasant fruity smell, tasty in fried and boiled form.

    Fig. Moss green( Xerocomus subtomentosus), or pestrel, pedicle, grill

    Chestnut chestnut( Xerocomus spadiceus)

    Mushroom II category. It grows in the forests of Siberia and the European part of Russia. From Mojovik green differs a brown-red color of a cap. Leg is thick, mesh( Fig.).

    Fig. Chestnut chestnut

    Delicious and nutritious mushroom. Especially good for drying.

    Mossy reddish( Xerocomus rubellus)

    Mushroom IV category. A rare subspecies of the moss, occurs in the Far East from July to October, very rarely - in the central part of Russia. It is characterized by a red matte hat, a red stalk, dotted with reddish scales( Fig.).

    Fig. Mossy reddish

    A powdery flywheel( Xerocomus pulverulentus), or a flywheel priporoshennyj

    Mushroom III category. It occurs in mixed forests of the European part of Russia, the Caucasus. Has an olive-brown or olive-yellow-brown convex bonnet. The bent edges are lowered as they mature. To the touch, the cap is velvety, sometimes - as if made of fine fibers, 4-5 cm. Leg, up to 7 cm tall, cylindrical in shape, not separated from the cap. The color of the legs is rusty-brown. Sometimes has a reddish scurf on the bottom. Yellow flesh on the cut can turn blue( Fig.).

    Fig. A powdery flywheel( Xerocomus pulverulentus), or a flywheel priporoshennyj

    A fly-wheel variegated( Xerocomus chrysenteron)

    Mushroom III category. This type of moss is found in the forests of the European part of Russia and in Primorye. His time is from July to October. The hat can be brown, reddish, ocher-grayish. Clearly visible pattern of cracks and meshes. Leg is light yellow, in the lower part of a bright red hue. The leg of a mottled mosswort is covered with small reddish scales. The flesh can turn blue with a notch( Fig.).

    Fig. Flywheel variegated

    Good as in salted, and in fresh and dried forms.

    Mokruha purpurea( Gomphildius rutilus)

    Mushroom IV category. It grows in coniferous forests. You can gather from July to November. It is distinguished by a yellow-brown or a wine-red hat. In a young mushroom, the cap looks like a blunt cone, then it becomes convex and flat. In the center of the cap a small fleshy tubercle is formed. The hat shines in dry weather, it feels gluey-mucous to the touch. Cylindrical leg tapering to the base, reaches 10 cm in height, has a yellowish-brown color( Fig.).

    Fig. Mokruha purpurea( Gomphildius rutilus)

    Clearly felt longitudinal fibers. In young fungi, closer to the hat, there is a dry purple ring that falls off with age. It has a pleasant taste.

    Spruce mokruha( Gomphildius g l utinosus)

    Mushroom IV category. It occurs in coniferous forests of the European part of Russia and Siberia. You can gather at the end of summer. Has a slightly depressed in the center, a spread hat, a beautiful chocolate color, sometimes casts a purple hue. The stem is cylindrical in shape, covered with mucus( Fig.).

    Fig. Mokruha spruce( Gomphildius glutinosus)

    Young mushrooms can be seen mucous ring - the remainder of a slimy private veil. These remains sometimes are on the edges of the cap. It is best to marinate it.

    Mokruha pink( Gomphildius roseus)

    Mushroom IV category. It occurs in the pine forests of the Urals and Siberia. Usually grows next to the goat. You can gather in August, September, October. It differs slightly convex hat bright pink color. The edges are wavyly curved. Color in the process of maturation may fade. The touch is sticky to the touch. From the private veil on the leg remains a trace - a wavy circle. The stem is pinkish-brownish, the color is not uniform( Fig.).

    Fig. Pink mokruha( Gomphildius roseus)

    Anise gossip( C / itocybe odora), or govorushka fragrant

    Mushroom IV category. Little-known fungus. Refers to autumn mushrooms. Has a convex, with the edges turned upside down, which at the mature mushroom gradually becomes concave in the center, grayish-green color. The leg, 1 cm thick, is of the same color as the cap, smooth. The fungus has a pronounced anise smell. Pulp is pale, watery( Fig.).

    Fig.45. An anise claw( Clitocybe odora), or a screechy fragrant

    Summer summer( Kuchneromyces mutabilis)

    Mushroom IV category. Mushroom foxtail parasitizes on wood. He loves dampness and shadow. It grows in abundant groups on stumps, pits. Appears in May and grows until October. Extremely widespread throughout Russia. Summer summer has a thin hat, convex in young individuals and flat in ripe mushrooms, brown. After the rain, the bonnet acquires a red-brown color. The edges of the cap are very thin. In the middle - a stupid tubercle. Leg thin and hollow inside, at the top of white, closer to mycelium - dark brown. In the upper third, a florid ring is yellow-brown in color. Under the ring, the scaly leg( Fig.).

    Fig. Summer summer( Kuchneromyces mutabilis)

    The mushroom has a pleasant smell of fresh wood. Only hats are suitable for food. Suitable for soups, sauces, marinades.

    Fall autumn fallow( Armillariella me / lea), or a canopy present

    Mushroom III category. Mushroom, common throughout Russia. It grows in the autumn, unlike the summer gardening, it also likes living trees. The hat of the young fungus has the shape of a ball, as it matures it becomes flat-convex, the edges also straighten, in the center there is a small tubercle. The color may be gray-yellow or dirty-brown. The young mushroom on the hat distinguishable thin scales of brown color, disappearing with age. The hat is held on a long and thin leg, in the upper third there is a fringed white ring that remains after the rupture of the film veil that connects the cap and the foot of the young fungus( Fig.

    Fig.a. Autumn autumn swing,( Armillariella mellea), or a real arbor.

    In the appearance of autumn owl, autumn is similar to summer oatmeal, winter frosting, and also to serratine lamina( Fig. B).

    Fig.b. Lozhnoopenok seroplaceous.

    Highly calorific, has a pleasant smell, especially tasty in fried form, but only hats are used for food.

    Winter swamp( Flammulina velutipes), or winter mushroom

    Mushroom IV category. Mushroom, common throughout Russia. He prefers to grow in large groups on stumps. Appears in late September and grows to frost. With a mild winter, it can grow until March. The small mucous cap has a honey color, flat-convex in the young, and absolutely flat in a mature fungus, barely resting on a cylindrical stalk. At the bottom of the winter leg, the stalk is hollow, elastic, very dark at the base and yellowish nearer to the cap( Fig.).

    Fig. Winter's paddock( Flammulina velutipes), or winter mushroom

    The mushroom has a pleasant taste.

    The meadow( Marasmius oreades), or the non-aspen

    Mushroom IV category. A very tasty mushroom growing in the European part of Russia, in the Altai and Caucasus, and also in Primorye. It can be found on glades, fringes, in the grass. Often forms "witchy circles".You can gather from May to October. The fruity body of this herb does not rot, but withers, with this feature its second name is associated. The hat of yellow color has bell-shaped, conical shape, mature mushrooms have a tubercle, the edges are ribbed. The leg of the same color as the cap is covered with a white coating, cylindrical( Fig.).

    Fig. Marasmius oreades, or non-asynchronous

    Has a nice smell of carnation.

    Chestnut( Gyroporus castaneus), or chestnut mushroom

    Mushroom II category. A rare mushroom. It grows solitary, mostly in the south of Russia, in the Caucasus, in broad-leaved forests of the Far East. Convex velvet cap reddish-brown color becomes flat and smooth in adulthood. When drought, the hat may crack. Leg of chestnut color, slightly lighter than cap, cylindrical, may be hollow or with septa( Fig.).

    Fig. Chestnut( Gyroporus castaneus), or Chestnut fungus

    The flesh of the ripe mushroom is fragile. Special taste is not different. Suitable for drying.

    Bruise( Gyroporus cyanescens)

    Mushroom II category. It grows in the forests of the European part of Russia and Western Siberia. It differs rapidly pulsating in air with flesh. Cream or straw colored hat, covered with numerous tubercles, also turns blue, if it is pressed, as well as the leg. Leg, one color with a hat, the bruise has the form of an irregular cylinder, pointed at the base, below there is a fluff( Fig.).

    Fig. Bruise( Gyroporus cyanescens)

    It can be collected from July to October. It has a pleasant taste, suitable for drying or sauces.

    Hedgehog yellow, or hydnum notched, or hedgehog notched( Hydnum repandum Fr)

    Mushroom growing in the forests of the whole European part of Russia( Fig.).

    You can gather from the middle of summer to November. Never meets one by one, only by large "families" or "witches' circles."The color of the cap varies depending on the weather: if the air is raw, the hat acquires a light ocher or yellowish-brown color, and becomes dull under aridity. At young mushrooms the hat is convex, similar to the glued petals of a flower. With maturity, the hat begins to bend unevenly. At the bottom of the cap there are often located spines, elastic and light yellow. The hat is kept on a solid cylindrical leg, the color can vary from white and cream to yellow-brown. The mushroom has a pleasant smell and sour taste. Suitable for marinades and soups. Mushroom IV category.

    Crochet hedgehog( Sarcodon imbricatum)

    Mushroom is the inhabitant of all forest areas of Russia( Fig.).

    Fig. Yezhovik skull( Sarcodon imbricatum)

    Likes sandy soil and dry conifers. The hat has a slightly funnel-shaped shape. On the surface of the cap, numerous scales are clearly distinguishable, located radial circles similar to tiles. The color of the hat varies from light brown in youth to chestnut in a mature mushroom. Leg is thick and smooth, under the color of the cap. It has a specific spicy smell and taste. Mushroom IV category.

    Hygrophorus early( Hygrophorus marzuolus)

    One of the very first mushrooms.

    Already in March it can be found in dark and wet spruce groves. Pearl-waxy, sometimes blackening in mature mushrooms, the cap is held on a leg of irregular cylindrical shape, subtle at the bottom. In young mushrooms the cap is concave, and the leg is whitish, in mature - the cap curves, becomes fleshy, and the leg is gray( Fig.).

    Fig. Hygrophorus early( Hygrophorus marzuolus)

    Under the very hat the leg is covered with hardly palpable scales. The mushroom does not have a special smell or taste, it is suitable for soups and frying. Mushroom IV category.

    Lacquer pink( Laccaria laccataj

    Common in all of Russia, tasty and beautiful looking mushroom, it can be collected from July to October. The lavender loves meadow soils. It has a pinkish hat and the same color. The hat is convex, in the center there is a hollow( rice)

    Figure Lacquer rose( L accaria laccata)

    The leg is 3-7 cm tall and very thin, only about 4 mm. The fungus's flesh is also pink, but lighter than the hat. Has a soft sweetish taste. Category IV mushroom.

    Violet lacquer( Laccaria amethystea), or amethyst lacquer

    Mushroom IV cat(fig.)

    Figure Lacaria amethystea, or amethyst lacquer

    It can be found in any forest in Russia from July to October. A flat, center-pressed purple hat holds on a high cylindricalA leg of the same color, as if made of a set of twisted fibers, practically does not smell, it has a pleasant taste.

    Delicacy ginger( Lactarius deliciosus), or ginger genuine

    Mushroom I category. Very tasty autumn mushroom. It grows in the mountain coniferous forests of the European part of Russia, the Urals, Siberia. The hat is ocher-orange, covered with concentric circles( Fig.).

    Fig. Deli delicacy( Lactarius deliciosus), or red ginger real

    Sometimes on the hat there may be green areas. The young mushroom's cap is velvety, convex, the edges are turned upside down. In the mature - the bare-headed hat straightens, and in its center a deep funnel-shaped depression is visible. The hat rests on a cylindrical leg of the same color with a hat. The fragile whitish flesh under the incision becomes bright orange, then can turn green. Red has a very pleasant fruity smell, and its spicy taste can be envied by many mushrooms. Especially good for the marinade, but for drying does not fit.

    Euphorbia( Lactarius vo / emus), or asphyxiant

    Mushroom IV category. Forest mushroom, especially common in southern areas. You can collect all summer and early autumn. The yellow-brown velvety cap as it ripens, fissures and becomes naked( Fig.).

    Fig. Euphorbia( Lactarius volemus), or asphyxiation

    In young mushrooms, the hat is convex, and the edges are curved, but the mature hat becomes flat with a funnel-shaped depression in the center. Leg of the milkweed is thick and yellowish-brown, always slightly lighter hats. When breaking out, it emits white milky juice, for which it got its name. Has a specific herring smell. The taste is sweet, but astringent. The surprising property of milkweed is known: it never spoils by insects.

    Raincoat present( Lycoperdon perlatum), or pearl raincoat

    Mushroom IV category. This fungus is not known to all "hunters", nevertheless, it is very tasty and nutritious, and it can be found in summer and autumn in all forest areas of Russia. The raincoat is difficult to confuse with another mushroom: it does not have a hat as such, the leg is false, inseparable from the fruit body, and the fruit body has the shape of a mace or pear( Fig.).

    Fig. Raincoat present( Lycoperdon perlatum), or raincoat pearl

    The top part of the mushroom in the form of a ball, reaches in diameter 2-5 cm. The lower part of the raincoat in youth is white, covered with small spines and warts. In the mature fungus, the lower part turns yellow and bare. Tasty in fried form.

    Head oblong( Calvatia excipuliformis)

    Mushroom IV category. It grows in the forests all over Russia. You can gather almost all the season, from May to October. It has a clavate fruiting body that does not have a distinct bonnet( Fig.).

    Fig. Golovach oblong( Calvatia excipuliformis)

    The fungus reaches 15 cm in height.

    Fruit body of young fungus white, strewn with small outgrowths and warts, and mature - brown and naked. Perfectly suitable for frying, but practically not subject to storage.

    Littercock ordinary( Leccinum scabrum), or obobok

    Mushroom II category. One of the favorite mushrooms of Russian mushroom pickers. Can grow only in symbiosis with birch. It occurs in forest areas and in wetlands of the temperate zone, even in the tundra of the Arctic. Yellowish-red-brown, up to the brown color, the cap shines with a drought, semicircular in young fungi, becomes pillow-shaped in mature underarms( Fig.).

    Fig. Lubcinum scabrum, or obobok

    Leg very long, often curved, cylindrical, narrow at the top and widened at the base. On a dirty white stem, brownish scales are distinguishable. It has a pleasant smell and taste.

    Collibia oily( Collibia butyracea), or money

    Mushroom IV category. It is difficult to find a collibium in the forest. This mushroom is not only rare in the forests of the European part of Russia, but also successfully hides at the base of tree trunks. It can be collected from July to September. Has a large flat hat 10 cm in diameter, in the center of the cap there is a wide tubercle. In young mushrooms, the cap may be bell-shaped. The color of the cap is usually yellowish brown, rarely olive. The spindle-prominent leg of the colibia is long, as if made of long twisted fibers. The upper part of the leg is much lighter than the lower, brown( Fig.).

    Fig. Collibia butyracea.or money

    The mushroom has a weak fruity smell and a delicate taste. Tasty with boiled and fried.

    Collibia leopolobivaya( Collibia dryophila)

    Mushroom IV category. Edible mushroom, growing the entire mushroom season, from May to December. Loves coniferous and deciduous forests of the European part of Russia, for which he got his name. Has a hygrophatous hat, in damp weather changes color from pale cream to light brown( Fig.).

    Fig. Collibia dryophila

    In dry times, the head is smooth and bare to the touch. In young mushrooms, the cap may be bell-shaped, but it becomes flat as it ripens. The leg of the colibia is fine, tall, cylindrical in shape, brownish-red. The fungus's flesh is thin and white, without pronounced taste, the smell, however, is unpleasant, so mushroom pickers often bypass the collibium side.

    Spiderweb yellow( Cortinarius triumphant)

    Mushroom III category. The fungus occurs in the forests of the whole territory of Russia, grows both singly and in groups. You can collect it at the end of summer and in September. The hat, up to 15 cm in diameter, is rounded in the young fungus and becomes convex or even flat with age. The color of the cap is dingy-ocher. After the rain, you can find mucus on the bonnet. The hat is connected to the leg with a cobwebbed cover, from which the name of the fungus. Leg is long, about 2 cm thick. Having a cylindrical shape, it can be slightly thickened to the base. On the leg are clearly visible dark scaly belts, these are the remnants of a cobweb. The color of the legs is yellowish-whitish. The flesh can be white or brown( Fig.).

    Fig. Spider web yellow( Cortinarius triumphans)

    The mushroom has a pleasant taste and smell. Suitable for eating cooked or pickled.

    Spiderweb purple( Cortinarius violaceus)

    Mushroom III category. It grows in the forests of Russia, especially prefers pine forests, from August to September. Pillow-shaped hat of young mushrooms becomes flat, reaching 15 cm. The color of the cap is dark purple, the cap feels like a lot of scales to the touch. Leg is long, 1.5-2 cm thick, one color with a hat. The hat is attached to the leg with a cobweb that is broken as the fungus grows, but its traces remain on the stem( Fig.).

    Fig. Spiderweb purple( Cortinarius violaceus)

    The flesh of the spider webs is thick. It is good in salted and marinated.

    White dung( Coprinus comatus)

    Mushroom IV category. The manure is a fungus-saprotroph, it feeds on the substances of the soil, manure, wood, so it can be found on humus-rich soils of the Volga region, on garbage heaps and even in kitchen gardens throughout Russia. He grows in the beginning of autumn. Life of the dung beet is very short. The scruff appears on the day of rain, he is very fond of moisture. Practically within a few hours the dung beet becomes a mature mushroom. However, under the influence of enzymes, fungi die the next day, becoming a fertilizer for their offspring. In the young mushroom, the cap has an elongated-ovoid shape, with age it becomes bell-shaped, with the edges turned inwards. The hat of the dung is as if woven from a multitude of fibers, threads, scales, white, sometimes yellowish at the very tip of the fungus. The diameter of the cap can reach 10 cm. The unusual hat is held on a straight and long white stalk, which has a noticeable foil ring in the upper part( Fig.).

    Fig. White Coprinus( Coprinus comatus)

    has no particular smell. Tasty only at a young age, good in boiled and fried form, for canning is not suitable.

    Raincoat oblong( Calvatia excipuliformis)

    Mushroom IV category. The mushroom grows all summer and autumn in the forests throughout Russia. He loves glades with thick grass. The raincoat does not have a hat as such, the leg is false, inseparable from the fruit body, and the fruit body has the shape of a mace or pear. The upper part of the fungus in the form of a ball reaches in diameter 2-5 cm. The lower part of the raincoat in youth is white, covered with small spines and warts( Fig.).

    Fig. Raindrop oblong( Calvatia excipuliformis)

    In the mature fungus, the lower part turns yellow and bare. White dense gleba with age becomes a spore powder. Tasty in fried form.

    Podisinovik yellow-brown( Leccinum testaceoscabrum), or boletus reddish-brown

    Mushroom II category. Tasty and valuable mushroom growing in birch groves of the Middle Russia, found in the Far East. Podosinoviki densely grow on any one part of the forest, but in another place they may not meet at all. It can be collected from June to mid-autumn. Mushroom pickers appreciate the boletus for the fact that it is extremely rare to spoil the larva. The hat at the boletus is orange in youth, with age it grows lighter to yellowish. The hemispherical hat of the young fungus gradually becomes cushion-shaped, its diameter reaches 30 mm. After a rain, the cap may be sticky to the touch. The long and thick stalk may be clavate or cylindrical in shape. The color of the legs is dirty white, grayish.

    Numerous black scales clearly visible on the foot( Fig.).

    Fig. Podisinovik yellow-brown( Leccinum testaceoscabrum), or boletus reddish-brown

    The mushroom has a pleasant taste, but the special smell is not different. Very tasty in stew and fried. Used for harvesting for future use, but can dry quickly when drying.

    Podisinovik red( Leccirtum aurantiacum), or aspen, red cap, vanka-vstanka, krasnik, red-head

    Mushroom II category. Often there is a very tasty mushroom. It grows in the forests of the European part of Russia, in the Urals, in Western Siberia and Primorye, prefers the neighborhood of aspen, but it can be found under birch, oak or pine. He loves young trees, small forests. It occurs even in the tundra. Among the pygmy birches. You can collect all summer and early autumn. A red, dark red or orange hat in a young mushroom is semicircular, the edge of the cap is pressed to the foot. The color of the hat served as the basis for the numerous folk names of this fungus. With age, the cap becomes cushion-shaped, the peel may hang slightly on the edge. Leg up to 15 cm tall, 1.5-5 cm thick. The leg has a cylindrical shape, it expands to the base. The color of the legs is gray-white, and on this background frequent white flakes are clearly visible( Fig.).

    Fig. Podisinovik red( Leccinum aurantiacum), or aspen, red cap, vanka-vstance, krasnik, red-eye

    In mature mushrooms, the scales can be brown. Almost does not have a smell. Extremely tasty in fried and boiled form, but good for marinades, salting, drying, but in the latter case it quickly darkens.

    White PodisinoVik( Leccinum percandidum)

    Mushroom Category II.Subspecies of the booster. The fungus is found by large "families" in moist pine forests of the middle belt of Russia, the Urals, and the Far East. The hat is large, in diameter it can reach 25 cm, white or gray-white. Half-spherical in young fungi, with age it becomes cushioned. Leg high and thick, thickened at the bottom. The leg is slightly lighter than the cap, covered with white or brownish scales( Fig.).

    Fig. Booty-bearer white

    Leopard-sausage lizard( Lepista saeva), or Lepista

    Tasty mushroom growing in the grass of meadows and pastures all autumn until December. Mushroom's head is light-pale cream or pale-ocher, sometimes casting brown. The hemispherical hat of the young fungus becomes convex toward maturity, and then turns into a flat and smooth one. The longitudinal fibrous stem has a cylindrical shape, and a thickening at the bottom. Completely justifying its name, the leg of a rowdy violet is dark purple, sometimes with a beige tint( Fig.).

    Fig. Leopard-dowager series( Lepista saeva).

    Thick pulp does not have a pronounced taste and smell. In cooking it is used for cooking of side dishes, it is especially tasty in marinated form. Mushroom IV category.

    Lepista violet( Lepista irina)

    Edible mushroom in the middle zone of Russia, prefers meadows, it can be collected all fall. A pale-brown pillow-shaped hat sits on a cylindrical leg of pale ocher color( Fig.).

    Fig. Lepista violet( Lepista irina)

    The fungus is very similar to the lepistu lilac-legged. A distinctive feature of it is the strong smell of violets. Mushroom IV category.

    Accumulated lumber( Lyophyllum decastes)

    Distributed in the European part of Russia, in the Far East, the Urals. It occurs in forests, pastures, meadows. You can gather in the autumn. Always grows in large groups. Sometimes a whole "family" can grow from one common hemp. The cap of medium size( 4-10 cm) is brownish-gray in color, in the center of the bonnet it is always slightly darker. In young fungi, the shape of the cap is hump-shaped; in mature mushrooms, it is spread. A low, thick toe, thickened to the bottom, white at the top, becomes slightly darker in the lower part( Fig.).

    Fig. The rowdy is bored( Lyophyllum decastes)

    White flesh has a pleasant smell and taste. Good for cooking, and for harvesting for future use. Mushroom III category.

    Mushroom umbrella variegated( Macrolepiota prococa), or large umbrella mushroom

    A delicious large mushroom, which is often visited by mushroom pickers due to its unattractive appearance. It grows in the forests all over Russia, loves the sun and dense grass. Often forms "witchy circles".You can gather from July to October. In the young mushroom the cap is ovate, brownish-brown, with large "bricks" of scales of dark brown color. In mature mushrooms, the bonnet looks like an open umbrella, with a brown tubercle, similar to a wart, in the middle of the cap. The edges of the cap are uneven, whitish, as if they were pubescent. The surface of the cap of a mature umbrella fungus is cracked, with large lagging flakes. The long cylindrical leg strongly thickens to the bottom. In young mushrooms, the stem is cotton-like to the touch, easily separates from the cap. The brown surface of the leg is covered with cracks, near the bonnet there is a double, white and brownish, mobile foil ring, which remains from the rupture that connects the leg and the cap of the veil( Fig.).

    Fig. Mushroom umbrella variegated( Macrolepiota proceca), or large umbrella mushroom

    The mushroom has a pleasant smell and taste, but only a hat is used for food. Often used for the preparation of mushroom concentrates. Mushroom IV category.

    Mushroom umbrella blushing( Macrolepiota rhacodes)

    A tasty mushroom spread throughout Russia. He prefers thickets of acacias, where he can be found from July to October. In a young mushroom, the cap has the shape of a ball, the mature one has the shape of an open umbrella, and in the middle of the cap there is a dark tubercle. In aging mushrooms, the bonnet becomes quite flat. The diameter of the hat of an adult fungus can reach 15 cm. The entire surface of the cap is covered with cracks and brown scales, similar to tiles. With age, scales darken. Cylindrical leg has a thick tuberous base. In young fungi, the color of the leg is light - whitish, cream-beige, to maturity the stem becomes brownish-ocher. In the upper part of the leg there is a movable fibrous ring, similar to flakes of cotton wool, this is the rest of the veil that connects the leg and the head of the young fungus( Fig.).

    Fig. Mushroom umbrella blushing( Macrolepiota rhacodes)

    White flesh can blush when cut. The mushroom has a pleasant odor. Mushroom IV category.

    Mushroom umbrella girl( Macrolepiota puellaris)

    This mushroom is very similar to its "relatives" - an umbrella mushroom blushing and a mushroom umbrella mottled. However, his hat is lighter than the mushroom umbrella blushing( Fig.).

    Fig. Mushroom umbrella girlish( Macrolepiota puellaris)

    It grows in coniferous forests throughout Russia. You can collect it from August to October. Mushroom Category II.

    Garlic Common( Marasmius scorodonios)

    A little-known fungus, which often passes mushroom pickers, not noticing because of the small size of the garlic. Nevertheless, garlic is very common throughout Russia - in the Middle Belt, in the Caucasus, in the northern latitudes, in the Altai. It can be found in brushwood and pine needles, most often it grows in very large colonies at the end of summer and in September.

    The cap is small, up to 3 cm in diameter, convex in the young fungus, it becomes flat at maturity. The hat is very thin and fragile, concentric circles are visible on the yellowish or brownish surface. Leg in garlic is thin and long, reddish in color, in upper third light( Fig.).

    Fig. Garlic Common( Marasmius scorodonios)

    Brown flesh has a pronounced garlic smell. Good for frying, cooking sauces, as a seasoning. Mushroom IV category.

    Triton gray-yellow( Laetiporus su l phureus)

    Edible specific fungus. Trutovik grows on softwood or hardwood, high in the crown. Distributed in the European part of Russia, where it can be found on oaks, in Siberia, the fungus prefers larch, while in the Far East it grows on elms and walnut trees. You can find it in the beginning of summer. Fruit body dies quickly enough, until the end of one season. In youth, the fungus is fleshy, but to maturity it becomes firm and tasteless. Fruit body bright yellow-orange, with a diameter of up to 30 cm. The fungus is located on the tree in layers, as if superimposed on each other by tile layers( Fig.).

    Fig. Tritovik sulfuric yellow( Laetiporus sulphureus)

    It has a special smell. Mushroom IV category.

    Sheep cowhide( Albatrellus ovinus)

    The fungus grows on the soils of coniferous forests in the temperate zone of Russia. Distributed in the taiga. It grows always in large colonies. The sheep trot is rare, however, since it grows from late summer to December, it is of interest in the absence of other fungi. In contrast to the ternitus sulfur yellow, has a bonnet and a leg. The hat is white, covered with bright spots. In young fungi it is convex, but, as the fungus ripens, it acquires a weakly expressed shape of the bowl. Leg low and plump, inseparable from the cap, to the base may taper( Fig.).

    Fig. Tinder sheep( Albatrellus ovinup)

    Mushroom IV category.

    Oyster( Pleurotus ostreatus), or Oyster Oyster

    Delicious, beloved by many fungus, growing large colonies on stumps and wood. It can be found throughout the European part of Russia and in the Caucasus throughout the entire season until late autumn. With a mild winter, the oyster is able to grow until the spring. The hat is rounded or has the shape of a wide funnel, sometimes in the shape of a shell, for which it received a second name, can reach 30 cm in diameter or, on the contrary, be very small, about 5 cm. In young mushrooms, the cap has a dark brown color that brightensto ashen to maturity. In old mushrooms, the cap may be dark yellow. Low, up to 4 cm, the leg has a cylindrical shape, at the base can be hairy. The leg can not be separated from the cap( Fig.).

    Fig. Oyster( commonwealth) vulgaris( Pleurotus ostreatus), or oyster mushroom Oyster

    Often the stem of the oyster is absent altogether. White flesh has a pleasant smell. Good in boiled form. Often grown artificially on the farm. Mushroom IV category.

    Oyster mushroom( Pleurotus sa l ignus)

    A delicious mushroom growing in large colonies on aspen, poplar, willow. It can be found in the autumn in the whole of the European part of Russia and in the Caucasus. The hat is eared, it can reach 25 cm in diameter. In young mushrooms the cap is more dark, brownish in color, the old mushroom cap may be gray-brown. Low, up to 3 cm, eccentric, yellow-brown, at the base may be pubescent. The leg can not be separated from the cap( Fig.).

    Fig. Oyster( fallow) autumn( Pleurotus salignus)

    Loose flesh has no special smell. It is good in fresh form for frying and cooking, it is tasty in marinated form. It is also considered an industrial culture. Mushroom III category.

    Oyster mushroom( Pleurotus eryngii)

    It grows in the southern steppes, it is rare in the Volga region. Prefers dead stems of umbellate plants, where it can be found from August to October. Has a thick-boned hat up to 10 cm in diameter. Flat gray-red with a young fungus, to maturity the cap becomes yellowish, blunted in the center, growing at an inclination. The whitish leg is low, plump, eccentric, tapering to the base( Fig.).

    Fig. Oyster mushroom( Pleurotus eryngii)

    The dense white pulp has a pleasant smell. Can be used for cooking any dishes. Often grow artificially on a farm. Mushroom III category.

    Oyster mushroom abundant( P l eurotus cornucopiae)

    This species of oyster mushroom grows on birches of the European part of Russia and is found in the deciduous forests of Siberia. You can collect it all season until October. The hat has the shape of a wide funnel, can reach 30 cm in diameter. The hat is yellowish in color. Low, up to 4 cm, leg lateral, white, pubescent. The leg can not be separated from the cap( Fig.).

    Fig. Oyster mushroom( Pleurotus cornucopiae)

    White flesh has a pleasant smell. Good for soups, cooking, marinades. Mushroom IV category.

    Deer fungus( Plufeus cervinus)

    A little-known fungus growing on stumps, windmills, rotten stems. It can be found in the forests of the temperate zone of Russia in summer and early autumn. The gray-brown hat is shiny and soft. In younggrasses, the bonnet has the shape of a bell, in mature it spreads out. The leg is long, as if twisted from a multitude of fibers( Fig.).

    Fig. Deer fungus( Plufeus cervinus)

    The mushroom has a specific sweet smell of potatoes. White flesh is delicious. Suitable for any blanks, tasty in soup. Mushroom IV category.

    Rozites caperata

    Occurs in the central and western regions of the European part of Russia. Loves mossy places of coniferous forests. You can gather from July to September. Has a light brownish hat with a pink or bluish tint, up to 10 cm in diameter. In young fungi it is semicircular, with age it becomes flat-convex, with cracked striped edges. In the center there is a powdery coating. Leg long, 1-2 cm in height, cylindrical, as if woven from a multitude of longitudinal fibers, slightly scaly. The leg extends slightly to the base. On a light brown-yellow background, a well-markedly lagging yellowish ring remained after the rupture of the veil that connects the leg and the cap( Fig.).

    Fig. Roofs caperata

    White pulp has a soft taste, not inferior to the taste of fats. The smell is not expressed. Good in fried, boiled, salted, pickled. Mushroom IV category.

    Raw Food( Russula vesca), or raspberry edible

    Delicious, common mushroom. He is particularly fond of mushroom pickers. Raward grows in any weather, in any forests of the European part of Russia and the Far East, is not afraid of either drought or torrential rains. The hat has a specific light-ocher or brownish-red color, rarely - the color of raw meat, with pinkish or purple areas. Young hats are hemispherical, with smooth edges. With age, the hats become convex and flat. In the center of the adult mushroom head there is a noticeable funnel-shaped depression. The edges of the cap become slightly striped. The leg up to 6 cm in height has the shape of a cylinder narrowed to the base. The foot of the russula is white, but in the lower part it acquires a yellowish shade( Fig.).

    Fig. Rustic edible( Russula vesca), or Rustic edible

    It has a specific aroma, similar to the herring smell, and a pleasant nutty taste. It is especially tasty in boiled and stewed form. After pickling, the mushroom is usable almost on the next day, for which it got its name. Mushroom III category.

    Rush blue-yellow( Russu l a cyanoxantha)

    It is considered the most delicious among russules. It grows in summer and autumn in the lowlands, forests, mountains of the European part of Russia and the Far East. Occurs in the Caucasus. Loves pine forests, birch groves, aspen trees. A convex or flat cap with a noticeable depression in the center can be of a variety of colors: gray-green, blue-gray, violet, dark gray, sometimes with a pink or yellowish tint. The scarred edge is well visible. Leg is plump, white, cylindrical, with a wrinkled surface( Fig.).

    Fig. The russula is blue-yellow( Russula cyanoxantha)

    Sometimes the leg can have a purple tint. Elastic and juicy pulp has a pleasant nutty taste. Young mushrooms are especially good for marinade. However, the mushroom is very tasty and boiled. Mushroom III category.

    Ripe ruffle( Russula palumbina)

    Mushroom III category. It grows from June to October in the deciduous forests of the European part of Russia and the Far East. A convex or flat hat has a noticeable depression in the center.color varies from dark gray to violet-gray. The scarred edge is well visible. Leg is plump, white, cylindrical, with a wrinkled surface. Sometimes the leg may have a purple or pink tint( Fig.).

    Fig. Russula palumbina

    It has a pleasant taste, the smell is poorly expressed.

    Rush green( Russula virescens)

    One of the most delicious kinds of russules. The whole season is growing on the fringes in the forests of the European part of Russia, the Caucasus, and the Far East. He likes to hide near oaks and birches. A hard and thick bonnet is usually copper-green or olive-ocher, often covered with rusty stains, slightly grooved to the touch. The edge is thick and noticeably wavy. In young mushrooms, the cap has the shape of a ball, it becomes flat with age, with a noticeable depression in the center. Leg high and plump, cylindrical in shape, white in the place of pressure can turn yellow, darkens at the base. Young hat is hard, made, mature mushrooms become brittle, spongy( Fig.).

    Fig. Rye greenish( Russula virescens)

    White flesh has a sweet nutty taste. In mature mushrooms the flesh is very fragile. It has no pronounced smell. Greenish russet is perfect for any kind of cooking, but it is especially tasty in fried, boiled, salted form. Mushroom III category.

    Rush green( Russula aeruginea)

    It grows in the forests of the European part of Russia, the Caucasus and the Far East all season. Grows in small mushroom "families", likes the neighborhood of oil and birch. The hemispherical cap of the young fungus becomes more flat with age. In the center of the cap is a noticeably small depression. The color of the cap is uneven, from green to yellow-green, always slightly darker in the area of ​​the depression. To the touch, the hat is slightly gluten. The leg up to 8 cm high and 1-2 cm thick has a cylindrical shape( Fig.).

    Fig. The russula is green( Russula aeruginea)

    With age, the firm leg becomes porous.

    The surface of the legs is shiny white, at the base there may be dark spots, to the touch - silky. Fragile white flesh has a specific burning taste. It has no pronounced odor. Mushroom IV category.

    The russet is green-brownish( Russula heterophylla), or the russule is versatile

    It grows in deciduous forests predominantly of the Far East. The hemispherical cap of the young fungus becomes more flat with age. In the center there is a noticeably small depression. The color of the hat varies from green to olive green, in the center it is noticeably brown. Leg is low, plump, has a cylindrical shape. With age, the firm leg becomes porous. The surface of the legs is shiny white, with rusty spots at the base( Fig.).

    Fig. The russet is green-brownish( Russula heterophylla), or the russet is versatile

    It has no pronounced smell and taste. The mushroom is delicious in boiled, fried, salted form. Mushroom III category.

    The yellow russet( Russula claroflava), or the russet light yellow

    Unlike other russules, it does not have special taste qualities. It grows in small colonies in the European part of Russia, in Western Siberia in the summer and in the autumn. He loves raw places with abundant grass, swamps, hides under a birch, poplar, alder. The semicircular head of the young fungus gradually becomes flat. The bright yellow hat is usually naked and matte. Leg is of low, cylindrical shape. In young fungi the whole leg is smooth, smooth and white; with age, it becomes grayish, wrinkled, and is streaked with small cavities( Fig.).

    Fig. Rye yellow( Russula claroflava), or Rye yellow light yellow

    Fragile white flesh has a soft, slightly astringent taste. Has almost no smell. Mushroom pickers do not particularly like this kind of russula, as it quickly breaks and crumbles in the basket. However, the mushroom is tasty in boiled and salted form. Mushroom III category.

    Russula decolorans

    It grows from early summer to September in damp pine forests, found in the Urals. The semicircular orange or dark red hat of the young fungus gradually becomes flat. The diameter of the cap reaches 20 cm. The pedicle is cylindrical, 6-10 cm high, 2-5 cm thick. In young fungi the whole leg is smooth, smooth and white; with age, it becomes grayish, wrinkled( Fig.).

    Fig. Russula decolorans

    It has a pronounced smell and taste. Mushroom III category.

    Rush olive( Russula olivacea)

    Delicious fleshy mushroom. Mushroom pickers love him not only for his size, but No. For the fact that it appears early, when there are still few mushrooms in the forest. The hat of the young fungus is naked, it has the shape of an almost perfect ball, but with age it becomes more and more flat and velvety. In the center of the cap there is a small depression. Color uneven, can be purple, wine red, purple, ocher. Diameter of the cap 10-20 cm. Purple with a shade of cream or red stem has the shape of a cylinder or spindle. At the base, the stem becomes brownish-yellowish( Fig.).

    Fig. Rye olive( Russula olivacea)

    The young fungus has a whole leg, the mature one has a porous one. Juicy white flesh has no pronounced smell and taste. Mushroom III category.

    The russet is green-red( Russula alutacea), or the russet's husky

    It grows all season, loves the deciduous forests of the European part of Russia. The hat of the young fungus is naked, it has the shape of an almost perfect ball, but with age it becomes more and more flat and velvety. In the center of the cap there is a small depression. The color is uneven, it can be brown-red, wine-red, purple. The diameter of the cap is 10-20 cm. The white leg has the shape of a cylinder. The young fungus has a whole leg, the mature one has a porous one( Fig.).

    Fig. The russet is green-red( Russula alutacea), or the Rude little girl

    . White flesh has a pleasant smell and taste. Mushroom III category.

    Russula aurata

    A delicious mushroom, but mushroom pickers prefer not to put it in their basket, as it quickly and easily crumbles. It grows all summer both in coniferous and deciduous forests of the European part of Russia and the Far East. The hat is flat-spread, in its middle a noticeably uneven indentation, the margin of the cap is ribbed. At young mushrooms the cap is cinnabar-red, glabrous, glossy. With age, the hat acquires a yellow or orange color, becomes covered with red spots, becomes velvety. White leg with a yellowish tint has the shape of a cylinder or mace, up to 8 cm tall( Fig.).

    Fig. Raisula golden( Russula aurata)

    Can be slightly curved. In youth, the whole leg, becomes porous with age. Fragile white flesh does not have a pronounced smell and taste. It is good in fried and salty form. Mushroom III category.

    Ruffle russet( Russula xerampelina)

    Tasty mushroom, growing all autumn in the woods. In young mushrooms, the cap is semicircular, slimy. With age, the hat becomes flat, gently velvety. The color of the cap directly depends on the tree under which this mushroom grows. So, if a russula grows brown under a pine or spruce, its hat will be bright carmine, wine red, purple. At the russula growing near to an oak, the hat is painted in pink or olive color, sometimes - reddish-brown. If a russula is hiding in the birch forest, its hat is likely to be yellow or yellow-green. Often the hat has a purple edge. The diameter of the cap can reach up to 12 cm. The white leg with a reddish shade is smooth, has the shape of a cylinder, 4-8 cm tall, 1.5-3 cm thick( Fig.).

    Fig. The russula is boring( Russula xerampelina)

    In youth, the whole leg, becomes porous with age. Creamy white flesh has a sharp taste and a specific herring smell. The mushroom is delicious in fried and boiled form. Mushroom III category.

    A russet honey( Russula melliolens)

    A mushroom can be harvested all summer in the oak forests of the European part of Russia. A hat of 6-12 cm in diameter is painted in red or reddish-brown color. Leg is white, cylindrical, up to 8 cm high, glabrous and smooth. In youth, the whole leg, becomes porous with age. Sometimes the leg may have a weak reddish tide( Fig.).

    Fig. Rye honey( Russula melliolens)

    Used fresh. Mushroom III category.

    A whole rump( Russula integra)

    A common fungus. It grows from July to September in the forests of the European part of Russia, the Far East, the Caucasus, Western Siberia, the Altai. The hemispherical hat of the young fungus becomes

    with age. Fig. Ruffle whole( Russula Integra)

    prostate, 6-12 cm in diameter. In the center, there is a deepening. The dark red hat in the middle casts olive or brown color, usually sticky to the touch, shiny, the edges are wavy, slightly cracked( Fig.).A small, plump white leg may have a pinkish coating. White delicate pulp has a sweetish-island taste. Tasty fried, boiled, salty. Mushroom 3 categories.

    Mushroom russet( Russula paludosa)

    The mushroom grows in the forests of Siberia, it likes raw pine forests, swamps, peat bogs. You can gather from July to September. It occurs in small colonies or singly. The hat, up to 15 cm in diameter, convex, becomes flat-depressed with age, with a noticeable depression in the middle. Most often the head is bright red, it can be covered with brownish spots. To the touch the hat is smooth. Leg long, white, may have a reddish tide( Fig.).

    Fig. Ruddy marsh( Russula paludosa)

    White brittle pulp has a delicate taste. Has no smell. The mushroom is delicious in boiled, fried form, suitable for salting and marinades. Mushroom III category.

    Stropharia aeruginosa

    An exotic fungus that many mushroom pickers undeservedly bypass, taking it for a poisonous specimen because of an unusual bright color. However, strypharia is a really tasty mushroom. You can find it in August and in fir groves all over Russia. Usually it grows in small mushroom "families".An unusual bell-shaped gluey cap of a blue-green color with age becomes flat-spread. In adult mushrooms, white flakes are visible on the edges of the cap, the remains of bedspreads. Leg of the same color as the cap, cylindrical in shape, slimy. On the stalk clearly visible foil ring, below the ring on the leg are several flake flakes( Fig.).

    Fig. Stropharia blue-green( Stropharia aeruginosa)

    The mushroom is delicious in boiled, fried form, suitable for marinade. Stropharia is often bred on household plots as an ornamental plant. This fungus belongs to the IV category. In the US it is considered poisonous.

    Goat( Suillus bovinus), or grill

    Mushroom IV category. Often found fungus, grows in pine forests and swamps in the European part of Russia, in Siberia, in the Urals. He loves places with high humidity. "He meets the roads, after the rain he appears in large colonies, he can be collected in August and September. The flat-convex cap( in young cushion-like fungi) is reddish or yellowish-brown, sometimes red-ocher, mucous to the touch.the leg up to 2 cm thick has a cylindrical shape, slightly narrowed to the base( Fig.)

    Fig kozljak( Suillus bovinus), or grate

    Sometimes it can be slightly bent, the same color with a hat. The dense yellowish flesh has a pleasant taste, the smell is weakThe fungus is good in therennet, boiled form, suitable for salted pickle and marinade

    Orchis oil( Suillis lutens), or yellow buttercup, late oiler, oiler present

    Mushroom Category II.Delicious, easily digested, common mushroom. It occurs in pine forests, mixed forests of the European part of Russia, the Caucasus, the Far East, and Siberia. Abundantly grows in forest glades, fringes, along roads, meets on the fumes. You can gather all the season, until late autumn. Hat from 4 to 12 cm in diameter, hemispherical in youth, rounded-convex in mature mushrooms, with increased moisture, mucous to the touch. In the middle of the cap there is a small tubercle. The color of the cap varies from brown to dark chocolate, sometimes it is yellowish brown. In young mushrooms, the edges of the cap are joined to the leg with a white, dense coverlet. As maturing, the veil breaks, and in mature mushrooms, a ring ring is clearly visible on the leg, white or brown, less often dirty-violet.

    Leg low, up to 2.5 cm thick, cylindrical in shape. The leg can be yellow or whitish in color( Fig.).

    Fig. An ordinary oil( Suillis luteus), or a yellow oilie, a late buttercup, an oiler present.

    . White soft pulp has a weakly fruity smell and a pleasant apple taste. The mushroom is especially tasty in fried and salted form, but it is also suitable for marinades. Absolutely not subject to drying.

    Seed oil gray( Suillus aeruginascens)

    Mushroom IV category. Distributed in the European part of, in Siberia and the Urals fungus. It occurs in forests, plantings. Usually grows large colonies. You can gather from July to September. The hat is yellow-gray or olive-gray, sometimes with a purple tint, up to 14 cm in diameter. In young mushrooms the cap is flat-convex, in mature - flat. On the surface of the cap may be a flocculent raid. The low leg has a cylindrical shape, it thickens to the bottom. Leg is solid, one color with a hat. In the upper third, a felt white ring is clearly visible, which disappears as the fungus ripens. The leg above the ring has a distinct mesh pattern( Fig.).

    Fig. Red-red ointment( Suillus tridentinus) Fig. Seed oil( Suillus aeruginascens)

    Good in fried and boiled form, and in salty.

    Red-red ointment( Suillus tridentinus)

    Mushroom II category. On the territory of Russia is found only in the Altai, in the coniferous forests. You can gather from July to October. Cap up to 15 cm in diameter, pillow-shaped, yellow-orange. The hat is studded with reddish scales. On the edges of the bonnet, the remains of the white veil are clearly visible. The young fungus has a fruiting body of unusual shape, with a semicircular cap connected to the foot with a whitish coverlet. Leg 4-11 cm in height, spindle-shaped, of one color with a cap. In the upper third there is a ringed ring( Fig.).Dense yellowish flesh has a weak mushroom smell and a pleasant taste. Tasty in fried, salted, marinated.

    Larch Lard( Suillus grevillei)

    Mushroom II category. A common fungus is found in the forests and plantings of the European part of Russia, in Siberia, the Urals and the Caucasus. You can gather from July to September. Hat up to 15 cm in diameter, in young mushrooms has the form of a blunt cone, in mature - flat. The color of the cap is lemon-yellow, orange-yellowish. The low leg is solid, cylindrical in shape, yellowish-orange. In the upper third there is a white sticky ring that disappears with maturation. When drought, the veil can dry at the edges of the cap. Above the ring the leg is lighter, mealy-mesh. Dense light yellow pulp has a pleasant taste and smell. Tasty in fried, boiled, salted, suitable for marinades.

    Siberian oily( Suillus sibiricus)

    Mushroom II category. Tasty mushroom, found in the territory of Siberia and the Far East from July to September. Loves cedar neighborhood. It is found next to the cedar stlanik. A small hat of 5-10 cm in diameter has a cushion-convex shape, a golden-brown color, to the touch sticky. Young fungi along the edges of the bonnet are visible remnants of the veil that connects the bonnet and the leg. The leg up to 8 cm in height is painted in the same color as the hat. In the upper third, the ring is noticeable, the rest of the veil, on the stalk are clearly visible small light warts( Fig.).

    Fig. Siberian oily( Suillus sibiricus)

    Dense whitish flesh has a pleasant taste and a pronounced mushroom smell. Tasty in fried, boiled, marinated, suitable for pickling.

    Granular oiler( Suillus granulatus)

    Mushroom Category II.Delicious mushroom spread in coniferous forests throughout Russia. You can gather from July to November. He likes to hide in the grass on the fringes, can grow large colonies on logging and along forest roads. Yellow-reddish, tawny hat 5-10 cm in diameter can darken up to brownish-brown. On the reverse side, the hat is strewn with brown grains of dried milky droplets. Rounded-convex hat holds on a low stalk up to 1.5 cm thick. The pedicle is solid, cylindrical. In young fungi the leg is yellow-whitish, in mature it is dotted with dark dots, brown in the lower third( Fig.).

    Fig. The granular oil( Suillus granulatus)

    There are no rings for this kind of oiler. Dense yellow flesh has a pleasant smell and mushroom taste. Good in fried and boiled form, suitable for pickling.

    White ointment( Suillus placidus), or soft buttery

    Mushroom IV category. Tasty mushroom, found in pine forests of the European part of Russia, Siberia, the Far East. It prefers the neighborhood of five-pine pines. However, mushroom pickers do not like this mushroom for the fact that it quickly deteriorates. Small, 5-12 cm in diameter, rounded-convex cap, sticky to the touch. The color of the hat varies from white to yellow-olive. In adult mushroom cap can have a purple tide. A small foot up to 2 cm thick has a cylindrical shape, often slightly curved. The leg is painted in the same color as the hat, often on it are numerous red-brown warts, collecting rollers( Fig.).

    Fig. White oily( Suillus placidus), or a butterfly soft

    There are no rings for a white oiler. White flesh has a pleasant smell and taste. Tasty in fried, boiled, salted form, suitable for marinades, salting, but requires immediate treatment.

    Yellow-brown ointment( Suillus variegatus), or yellowish-brown flywheel

    Mushroom III category. Distributed throughout the territory of Russia, except the Far East, a mushroom. It grows in pine forests in large colonies from June to October. Pantile ocher-brown hat reaches up to 14 cm in diameter, dry to touch, small flakes visible on the bonnet. The stout leg is 3-9 cm tall and has a cylindrical shape and is slightly widened at the base. The leg is yellowish in color( Fig.).

    Fig. Oily yellow-brown( Suillus variegatus), or yellowish-brown flywheel

    Yellow dense pulp has a pleasant mushroom taste. Pleasant in fried, boiled, marinated, suitable for pickling.

    Redheaded oil( Suillus fluryi)

    Mushroom II category. It occurs in pine forests, mixed forests of the European part of Russia, the Caucasus, the Far East, and Siberia. You can gather all season. Hat from 4 to 12 cm in diameter, hemispherical in youth, rounded-convex in mature mushrooms, with moisture mucous to the touch. In the middle of the cap there is a small tubercle. The color of the cap varies from brown to dark chocolate, sometimes it is yellowish brown. The leg is low, up to 2.5 cm thick, cylindrical in shape. The leg can be yellow or whitish in color( Fig.).

    Fig. Red carrot( Suillus fluryi) Fig. Cedar Oil( Suillus plorans)

    No Rings. White soft flesh has a pleasant taste. It is especially good in fried and salted form, but it is also suitable for marinades. Absolutely not subject to drying.

    Cedar oil( Suillus plorans)

    Mushroom II category. A delicious mushroom, but rarely found. It grows next to the cedar. Small, 5-12 cm in diameter, a round-convex dark red hat can have a brownish tinge, sticky to the touch. A small foot up to 2 cm thick has a cylindrical shape, often slightly curved. Leg is yellow-ocher or brownish, often on it are numerous specks( Fig.).There are no rings. White flesh has a pleasant smell and taste. Tasty in fried, boiled, salted form, suitable for marinades, salting.

    Pepper Pepper( Chalciporus piperatus)

    It occurs in the forests of the European part of Russia, in Siberia, in the Urals. You can gather from July to November. A small flat-convex cap( in young mushrooms a pillow-like one) differs in red, the mucous to the touch. A small foot up to 2 cm in thickness has a cylindrical shape, slightly narrowed to the base( Fig.).

    Fig. Chamomile pepper( Chalciporus piperatus)

    Sometimes the leg can be slightly bent, the same color with a hat. The flesh has a bitter taste. It is often used in sauces, soups as a seasoning. Mushroom IV category, some researchers are considered inedible.

    Zelenushka( Tricholoma flavovirens)

    A tasty mushroom growing in pine forests throughout Russia, is especially common in the northern part of the country. Mushroom pickers love him because he grows in late autumn, until January, when almost no other mushrooms remain. However zelenushka often grows among moss and coniferous needles, exposing only the hat outside, which is why many mushroom pickers pass by it. Convex in young fungi, flat at maturity, the cap has a yellow-brown or greenish-yellow color. In the middle of the cap there is a dark tubercle. On the surface of the cap, the rays are clearly visible, extending to the edges of the cap. The diameter is 4-12 cm. The edge of the cap is often wavy, cracked. The solid leg of yellow color has a cylindrical shape, in young fungi the stem is distinctly fibrous. The leg is very often completely in the ground( Fig.).

    Fig. Zelenushka( Tricholoma flavovirens)

    Fragile white flesh has a specific floury smell and nutty taste. Mushroom IV category. It is especially delicious in soups, suitable for frying, cooking, marinades. Extract of green leaf has the ability to fight staphylococcal pathogens.

    Rowing yellow-red( Tricholomopsis rutlilans)

    Mushroom IV category. Edible mushroom, common throughout Russia. Usually grows in small colonies, prefers the neighborhood of pine stumps. You can gather from August to October. Has a yellow-orange hat, convex in youth, and flat, sometimes concave in adulthood. The surface of the cap is covered with small reddish scales. The hat is kept on a leg up to 11 cm tall, which has a cylindrical shape, often thickened to the base. A leg of the same color with a hat, occasionally it can be a little lighter. In young fungi on the foot clearly visible lilac scales( Fig.).

    Fig. Rowing yellow-red( Tricholomopsis rutlilans)

    Mushroom IV category. Yellow flesh has a sweetish taste. Tasty fried.

    Thick gray( Tricholoma portentosum)

    Tasty mushroom, growing in pine forests throughout Russia, is widespread in the northern part. Mushroom pickers love him because he grows in late autumn, until January, when almost no other mushrooms remain. Pale gray or dark hat in diameter up to 10 cm, in young mushrooms - conical, with age it becomes flat. In the center of the cap there is a noticeable blunt tubercle. The edge of the cap is wavy, sometimes cracked. The hat feels smooth to the touch, after the rain it's mucous. Cylindrical leg up to 10 cm high is painted white, often casts yellowish or grayish color( Fig.).

    Fig. Gray( Tricholoma portentosum)

    Sometimes flakes are clearly visible on the stem. White flesh has a pleasant taste and floury odor. The fungus belongs to the IV category. Suitable for all types of processing.

    Earthy rowing( Tricholoma terreum)

    An edible mushroom, but it does not differ in its taste. The whole autumn is growing in the European part of Russia, in Siberia. Pale gray or dark hat in diameter up to 10 cm, in young mushrooms - conical, with age it becomes flat. In the center of the cap there is a noticeable blunt tubercle. The edge of the cap is wavy, sometimes cracked. On the head there are clearly visible scales.

    Fig. Earth-rowed rowing( Tricholoma terreum)

    Cylindrical leg up to 10 cm high is white, often casts yellowish or grayish color( Fig.).Sometimes on the leg clearly visible flakes. Suitable for drying, marinade. Mushroom IV category.

    VOLVARIELLA beautiful( Volvariela speciosa)

    Little-known mushroom. Special taste characteristics are not different. It grows throughout the territory of Russia at the end of spring in the gardens, in gardens, on manure piles. The campanulate cap of young fungi becomes flat at maturity, a blunt tubercle is visible in the center. The hat is dirty white. In the middle, the hat can darken. After a rain the dry hat becomes mucous. White peduncle cylindrical, high - up to 15 cm tall, at the base tuber-shaped, thickened, with wide volva( Fig.).

    Fig. VOLVARIELLA beautiful( Volvariela speciosa)

    White flesh has no pronounced odor. The mushroom is delicious in boiled and fried form. It belongs to the IV category.

    Volvariella silky( Volvariella bombycina)

    Little-known fungus. It grows on deciduous trees. A bell-shaped cap of white or white-yellowish color in young fungi becomes flat at maturity, in the center there is a blunt tubercle. In the middle, the hat can darken. The hat reminds silk to the touch, for.that got its name. White peduncle cylindrical, high - up to 15 cm tall, at the base - tuberiform-thickened( Fig.).

    Fig. Volvariella silky( Volvariella bombycina)

    Volva is free. White flesh does not have a special smell. It is eaten in fried and boiled form. Mushroom IV category.

    Polish mushroom( Xerocomus badius)

    Tasty mushroom growing in the European part of Russia, in Siberia, occurs in the Caucasus, on the island of Kunashir in the Far East. Prefers coniferous forests, likes to grow near stumps. You can gather from June to October. It is characterized by increased nutritional value. Hat up to 15 cm in diameter in young fungi is cushion-convex, in maturity - flat, fleshy. The hat is painted brown, it feels like a suede. The knee is not removed. The thicker leg has a cylindrical, rarely tubular shape, often slightly curved( Fig.).

    Fig. Polish mushroom( Xerocomus badius)

    The color varies from light brown to yellow-brown. In the upper quarter and at the base of the leg lightens. Cream pulp has a mushroom smell. The fungus belongs to category II.Tasty in fried, boiled, salted. Suitable for drying.

    Chanterelle present( Cantharellus cibarius), or chanterelle ordinary

    Common and delicious mushroom of the third category. It grows in large families in forests throughout Russia, likes to hide in moss or in fallen leaves, prefers the neighborhood of pines. You can gather all the season, until late autumn. Mushroom pickers especially love him for the fact that the fungus is never damaged by the larvae. The young mushrooms have a bright yellow cap, convex. With age, the color of the hat turns pale, it becomes flat, and later - funnel-shaped. The edge is wavy. The leg up to 6 cm in height is in the form of an irregular cylinder, tapering at the bottom and widening upwards( Fig.).

    Fig. Chanterelle present( Cantharellus cibarius), or chanterelle ordinary

    The color of the leg is yellow. Light yellow pulp has a spicy smell and pleasant taste. Young mushrooms are delicious marinated, boiled, fried. The mushroom is rich in vitamins B1, PP, contains zinc, carotene and copper. To drying and salting is not suitable.

    Chamomile gray( Craterellus cornucopioides), or spiny cone, craterellus funnel-shaped

    Ugly, but tasty mushroom IV category. Distributed throughout the territory of Russia, except for northern regions. You can gather all fall. Hat up to 8 cm in diameter has the form of a deep funnel, which goes into a leg 5-12 cm high. The edge of the cap is bent outwards. The color of the cap varies from gray-brown to dark-smoky. The leg, tapering to the base, is darker than the cap( Fig.).

    Fig. Chamomile gray( Craterellus cornucopioides), or coronoid sparse, craterellus funnel-shaped

    Thin pulp has an unpleasant odor. The mushroom is delicious in boiled, fried, dried form. Attention! After cooking it becomes black. The mushroom is rich in vitamins B, C, PP.To drying and salting is not suitable.

    Obaki blacking( Leccinum nigrescens)

    It grows in the oak forests of the Caucasus. Half-spherical in youth, in adulthood, the cap becomes a pillow. The color of the cap varies from yellowish to brownish. After the rain, the surface of the cap is slippery. Leg up to 12 cm high has a cylindrical shape, colored yellowish color. On the stalk clearly visible brown scales, located in vertical rows( Fig.).

    Fig. Obecky blacking( Leccinum nigrescens)

    Tasty in fried, boiled, marinated. Suitable for drying.

    White whiting, or whiting( Lactarius pubescens( Krombh.) Fr.)

    Mushroom grows in birch or mixed forests. It forms mycorrhizas with birch, loves moist soil. Fruit fructifies from July to September.

    The mushroom hat is about 4-9 cm in diameter. It is flat, in the center a little depressed. The edges of the cap are wrapped fluffy. The hat is dry, fluffy-silky, white or cream-white, in the middle the color is pinkish-pale.

    Hat plates are adherent, frequent, narrow, pale yellow, white or pink.

    Feet of mushroom 2 to 4 cm long, cylindrical, hollow, white or light pale pink. The flesh is white( Fig.).

    Fig. White whip, or whiting Lactariuspubescens( Krombh.) Fr.)

    Mushroom II category. European mycologists consider this mushroom to be poisonous and inedible.

    Pinkish pink, or volnyanka( Lactarius torminosus)

    Pink is pink in mixed with birch or in birch forests from the end of July. Most often it grows in small groups.

    The mushroom hat is 4 to 12 cm in diameter, at first it is convex, but then it becomes flat. In the center of the cap there is a noticeable depression, the edges of the cap are lowered.

    The hat is covered with thick and rather coarse villi, which are arranged in circles.

    The pulp of the fungus is white, dense, with a sharp taste.

    Feet of mushroom 3-6 cm high, cylindrical, hard and strong. In young mushrooms it is continuous, in mature mildew, pale pink. The leg narrows to the base. Sometimes the surface of the foot is covered with fuzz or pits( Fig.).

    Fig. Pink or volnjanka( Lactarius torminosus)

    Mushroom belongs to category II.

    Hyperforum brown, or brown moss( Hygrophorus hypothejus)

    Hyperforum brown grows in pine forests, but is especially common in young forests. Actively fructifies from September to October. Mushroom is the most numerous among all the late mushrooms that can be eaten.

    The mushroom head is olive or olive-brown, mucous. The diameter of the hat is 3-5 cm. The plates are descending, thick, sparse. Pulp of white or yellowish mushroom.

    Leg olive-white, solid, cylindrical. Young mushrooms have a mucous ring on the leg, mature mushrooms do not have it( Fig.).

    Fig. Hygrophor brown, or brown mocrita( Hygrophorus hypothejus)

    Mushroom IV category. At a young age, this mushroom is marinated, and it is also used fresh for first and second courses.

    Mellow yellow( Lactarius scrobiculatus)

    The fungus grows mainly in spruce forests, but it can also be found in deciduous forests on clay soil. In the Far East the fungus grows in fir-spruce forests.

    Hat in young fungi is round-convex, in mature - spreading, funnel-depressed, golden-yellow color. The edges of the cap are wrapped. The diameter of the cap is 7-10 cm.

    Fig. Mackberry yellow( Lactarius scrobiculatus)

    Aspatic mushroom( Lactarius controversus)

    Aspen mushroom grows in damp aspen and poplar forests. Occurs rarely, fructifies, usually in small groups from July to October.

    The mushroom hat is rather fleshy, dense, flat-convex, slightly depressed in the center. In young mushrooms, the edges of the cap are bent down and slightly fluffy. In mature mushrooms, the edges straighten out and become wavy.

    The cap color can be white or with pink and purple umbrellas. The mushroom of the mushroom is whitish, brittle and dense, with a sharp taste and a slight smell of fruit.

    The pulp of the fungus is white, turning yellow or yellow when it breaks or touches. Leg short, thick, yellow, with irregularly rounded or more often oblong brownish spots( Fig.).

    Fig. Aspatic mushrooms( Lactarius controversus)

    Mushroom I category.

    Mushroom real, or white( Lactarius resimus)

    Class I fungus grows in deciduous and mixed forests. It does not occur so often, it is abundant, it grows, as a rule, in large groups from July to September, in the southern strip - from August to September.

    In young mushrooms the cap is flat-convex, later it becomes funnel-shaped. The edges of the cap are wrapped inwards and lowered. The mushroom skin is mucous, milky white or pale yellow.

    The mushroom foot is cylindrical, smooth, often white or yellow.

    In old mushrooms the leg becomes more dense, the plates turn yellow. On the bonnet may appear brown spots.

    Fig. Gnats present, or white( Lactarius resimus)

    The leg is sturdy, up to 8 cm high, dense, white or pink in color( Fig.).Mushroom Category II.Used in salted form with soaking in 1-2 days.

    Mackberry black, or blackberry( Lactarius necator)

    The mushroom appears at the end of August and grows all September. It is quite large. The mushroom hat in diameter can reach 20 cm. The coloring can be the most diverse: from greenish-brown or dark brown to black. The hat is dense and fleshy.

    The height of the stem reaches 3-8 cm. The fungus grows mainly in mixed and birch forests( Fig.).

    Fig. Masticium black or blackberry( Lactarius necator)

    In many areas, a fungus is called a black mushroom.

    The occurrence of fungi is promoted by frequent, but not too abundant rains. If the earth is oversaturated with moisture, the mushrooms cease to grow. The fungus belongs to category III.

    Oak, poddubovik, or bruise( Boletus luridus Fr.)

    The second category fungus grows in the forests on the European territory of Russia. It can be found in July-October in coniferous and mixed forests, as well as in birch groves and oak forests.

    Mushroom cap 20 cm in diameter, semicircular in young fungi; in mature, they become cushioned with a velvety surface. The hat is usually dark brown, olive-brown or yellowish-brown color. The tubular layer of the fungus is red and purple.

    Leg of an oak tree up to 15 cm long, 5 cm thick. At the base it is thickened, whitish-yellow with a mesh pattern of red color( Fig.).

    Fig. Oak, poddubovik, or bruise( Boletus luridus Fr.)

    Spores of fungus ovate-ellipsoidal, yellowish-brown in color.

    Mushroom pulp is strong, lemon-yellow in color, it quickly blushes, without taste and smell.

    Umbrella shaggy, or blushing( Macrolepiota ghacodes)

    Mushroom grows in the forests to humus from July to October. It can also grow in greenhouses if spores have been introduced into them together with soil.

    The umbrella is shaggy in its size somewhat inferior to the umbrella of the colorful. A mushroom hat with a diameter of up to 18 cm. In young mushrooms it is spherical, and then it looks like an umbrella.

    Color of the cap grayish-brownish or grayish-yellow-ocher, and in the center of color a little darker.

    The surface of the cap is cracked, covered with rare large wide scales of brown color.

    Mushroom fungus is thick, loose, in more mature mushrooms it becomes dense and white. At the break, it turns red.

    The mushroom foot is from 10 to 25 cm in length, up to 2 cm in thickness. Whitish or light brown in color, upwardly narrowed, below tuberiform-swollen, with brownish mobile ring( Fig.).

    Fig. Umbrella shaggy, or blushing( Macrolepiota rhacodes)

    Mushroom IV category. Used in salted form.

    Ivine, or potato( Clitopilus prunulus) This fungus is also called mushroom "sweet meat" or "miller."

    An edible mushroom, although in appearance it is very similar to several poisonous mushrooms, such as a whitish whorl( Clitocybe dealbata).The mushroom has a mealy taste and aroma.

    The hat is whitish-gray, pink or gray with a dry surface, the edges are wavy. Plates that cut the stem at maturity become pinkish. Diameter of the cap from 3 to 12 cm. Leg 3-8 cm in length, smooth, white or pale gray. The flesh is white( Fig.).

    Fig. Yvesheni, or hierophant( Clitopilus prunulus)

    The ivens grow alone, scattered by a colony or a dense family under needles or deciduous trees in summer and autumn. Especially the fungus is widely distributed on the North American continent. Mushroom IV category.

    Pulverized pit( Helvetia lacunosa), or helvella pit, lobustnik black

    The fungus grows in deciduous forests in the grass from June to August, sometimes you can find it in September. Usually it grows in small groups. Large mushroom, reaching a height of 10 cm. Hat and leg gray. The mushroom hat is dissected into separate blades that do not integrate fully with the foot. The diameter of the cap is 2-5 cm, the length of the leg is 2-6 cm. The foot of the fungus consists, as it were, of intergrown parallel tubules( Fig.).

    Fig. Pulverized pit( Helvetia lacunosa), or helvella pitted, lobster black

    Mushroom belongs to the IV category. The pulp is brittle without any taste or smell.

    Liver common( Fistulina hepatica)

    Fruit body 10-30 cm fleshy and dense, sitting or on short thick stalk. The young mushroom, in its shape and color, resembles a bull tongue, the edges are blunt. Skin moist red shades, rough.

    The cap is nodular, spatulate or linguiform-elongate. The upper side of the cap is reddish-brown, and the underside is tubular.

    The flesh of the fungus is fleshy, juicy, like fresh meat. Has a faint fruity smell. Mushroom IV category.

    The fungus usually grows near the roots or the lower part of the trunk, in small groups or one. It grows from late summer to autumn( Fig.).

    Fig. Common pediculum( Fistulina hepatica)

    White load( Russula deliosa), or biscuit, dry mushroom

    At first the hat is convex, later funnel-shaped with a wavy or straight edge. White or with brownish-yellow spots. The diameter of the cap is from 7 to 15 cm. The plates are narrow, white. Leg short, white( Fig.).

    Fig. The hoist is white( Russula delica), or biscuit, dry mushroom

    The mushroom flesh is also white. The mushroom has a pleasant smell.

    Podgruzdok grows in coniferous and mixed forests, mainly in large groups in the period from July to October.

    In the Caucasus, this fungus forms mycorrhizas with oak and hornbeam. The fungus belongs to category II.

    Float yellow-brown( Amanita fulva)

    The mushroom cap is of a golden brown or orange-brown color, mainly with a dark spot in the center. The diameter is from 4 to 8 cm. The edges of the cap are distinctly furrowed. Plates are free, white or cream colored.

    The leg is hollow, without a ring, whitish or whitish-brown in color from 8 to 14 cm in height( Fig.).

    Fig. Float is yellow-brown( Amanita fulva)

    Flesh is whitish, soft, has no taste and smell.

    Mushroom can be found in coniferous and mixed forests on acidic soils and wetlands. Forms mycorrhizas with birch and other trees.

    It grows from June to October, singly or in small groups. Mushroom IV category.

    The Mayan row( Calocybe gambosa)

    The mushroom hat is hump-shaped, first cream, then white. If the mushroom is old, then its hat can acquire a ocher shade.

    Plates are frequent, first whitish, then creamy or light-ocher. Leg in length from 40 to 90 mm, whitish or yellow, at the base ocher or rusty-ocher.

    Mushroom flesh is thick, dense, white in color. It smells and tastes like fresh flour( Fig.).

    Fig. Calyx gambosa( ASG94) A mushroom can be found in forests, meadows and pastures from late April to June. The fungus belongs to the IV category.

    Violet series( Lepista nuda), or blue tiles

    Mushroom III category. The cap is brownish-violet with a bent-down edge, fading with age. The diameter is 6-10 cm. The plates are light purple. The flesh is dense, has the smell of fresh flour, the color is light violet. The mushroom foot is cylindrical, thickened to the base, also light-violet in color( Fig.).

    Fig. Leopard violet( Lepista nuda), or blue tulips

    The ryadovka grows mainly in pine forests on the forest litter, sometimes forms witchy circles. The fungus can be found between September and October. It is widely distributed in the European part of Russia, the North Caucasus and Primorsky Krai.

    Winter turtleneck( Polyporus brumalis)

    The leather cap is 1 to 10 cm in diameter. Yellow, grayish-brown or black, often dirty-brown or yellowish-brown. The underside of the cap is tubular. Leg is cylindrical, dense, yellowish-grayish or brown in color( Fig.).

    Fig. Winter Trout( Polyporus brumalis)

    The mushroom grows on trunks, roots and stumps of alders, mountain ash, willow, hazel and mountain ash, and also other hardwoods. You can meet in the period from spring to late autumn, before the first frosts.

    Entoloma garden( Rhodophyllus clypeatus), or entoloma edible

    The mushroom hat has a different color from gray to rusty-brown, fibrous-striped or dark-spotted. Diameter from 4 to 10 cm. In youth, it has a bell-shaped form, later extended with a tubercle. Plates whitish or pink.

    Leg fleshy, whitish, from 4 to 12 cm in height( Fig.).

    Fig.141. Entoloma garden( Rhodophyllus clypeatus), or entoloma edible

    The flesh of the fungus is white, has a floury odor.

    Growing in floodplain forests, next to Rosaceous plants in June.

    May grow next to edible mushroom. During the collection, you need to be vigilant, since entolom garden can be confused with the entolom of poisonous.

    Gold scales( Phaeolepiota aurea)

    The mushroom cap is convex, hemispherical, then flat-convex, golden brownish-yellowish in color. Diameter from 10 to 17 cm. The edges are bent downwards, later the bonnet becomes straight, one-piece. The surface of the cap is smooth, matte with a brownish coating. Plates are frequent, light yellow in youth, then rusty-brown. Leg length from 10 to 15 cm straight or curved, to the base thickened, pale yellow, has a wide membranous ring( Fig.).

    Fig. Golden scaly( Phaeolepiota aurea)

    The flesh of the fungus is fleshy, dense, whitish or yellowish in color. Has a mushroom taste and smell.

    It grows on open glades, on humus-rich soil in October. The mushroom can be found growing large groups, in witch rings or randomly.

    Mushroom IV category.

    Fennel pine, or hogweed( Lactarius deliciosus( Fr.) S. T. Gray var. Pini Vassi / k.)

    The fungus grows in young pine or deciduous forests from late July to October. It grows on sandy soil.

    A mushroom hat with a diameter of up to 17 cm. In young mushrooms it is round-convex, and then broad-flanked, orange-red, with concentric, dark zones. At the edge of the hat at first bent, and then becomes straight.

    The mushroom flesh is dense, rather fleshy, orange. At the break, it becomes green. The taste is fresh.

    The mushroom plates are attached to the leg, yellow-orange, they become green when pressed.

    Spore powder of yellow color. Spores wide-oval, light cream.

    The stem of the fungus is cylindrical, 2-6 cm long, 2 cm thick, the same as the hat of color( Fig.).

    Fig. Lynx pine, or red boron( Lactarius deliciosus( Fr.) S. T. Gray var. Pini Vassilk.)

    When touched, the stem becomes green, a white flesh is found inside.

    Mushroom belongs to the I category. In food can be used as fresh or salted, canned or marinated. When pickling, the mushroom retains its vivid color.

    Fir, spruce( Lactarius deliciosus( Fr.) S. T. Grayvar.pini Vassilk.)

    The fungus grows in young spruce forests, quite often large colonies. Under favorable weather conditions, the collection of mushrooms in the same place can be done every 3-4 days.

    Unlike a pine hog, these mushrooms have a thinner hat, a reddish-orange or a bluish-green color. Zones on the cap are not noticeable( Fig.).

    Fig. Red fir, or larvae( Lactarius deliciosus( Fr.) S. T. Gray var. Pini Vassilk.)

    The pulp of the mushroom is loose, brittle, tasteless.

    The mushroom foot is color-coded or somewhat lighter than the cap, or the one with the color.

    Mushroom belongs to the I category. In food can be used in the same way as a pine saffron, but becomes salty with a saline.

    Walnut tree, brown( Lactarius ligniotus Fr.)

    It grows most often in deciduous and mixed forests under birches, pines or firs. Fruiting in August-September.

    The cap is small, about 3-4 cm in diameter, with a papilla that is located in the center of the cap. To the touch, the cap is velvety, wrinkled, chestnut, brown or black-brown.

    Fig. Walnut tree, brown( Lactarius ligniotus Fr.)

    Flesh white or slightly yellow, on the cut becomes reddish-saffron. Milky juice is watery white, it turns pink in the air.

    Mushroom plate descending on the stem, sparse. Initially white, and then ocherous. With a slight pressure become red.

    Mllechnik dark brown( Lactarius fuliginosus( Fr.) Fr.)

    The fungus grows in oak forests singly or in large groups, fructifies from August to September.

    Mushroom hat with a diameter of up to 10 cm, funnel-shaped, velvety, wrinkled, dark brown or dark chocolate in the center, sometimes fading to a dirty white color. The edges of the cap are sinuous and uneven.

    Spore powder ocher-yellow, spores round, prickly.

    Feet of fungus 0.5 to 2 cm thick, up to 12 cm long, of the same color with a hat( Fig.).

    Fig. Mlichnik dark brown( Lactariusfuliginosus( Fr.) Fr.)

    The fungus belongs to category II.In food can be used in both fresh and salted form.

    Flesh white, but turns yellow. Milky juice of white color, on contact with the air becomes orange, the taste is slightly sharp, not very bitter.

    The plates are descending along the stalk, rare, first white, and then ocher-yellow.

    Spore powder ocher-yellow, spores round, prickly. The mushroom foot is up to 7 cm long, about 1.5 cm thick, velvety-mealy, the same color with a hat( Fig.).

    Mushroom Category II.It is used for food both in salty and fresh.

    Camphoric mamma( Lactarius camphoratus( Fr.) Fr.)

    Mushroom can be found in damp coniferous forests, on the outskirts of marshes. It often grows in large groups, fruiting from July to October.

    The hat is small, up to 5 cm in diameter, flat or funnel-shaped, sometimes with a small tubercle, reddish-brown or dark reddish.

    The pulp of the mushroom is reddish, it smells of a dry sweet clover. Milky juice is watery white, unleavened or bitter in taste. The color of the juice does not change in the air.

    Mushroom plates descending along the stem or accreted to it, often located, yellowish-red in color.

    Leg small, up to 3 cm long, about 1 cm thick, cylindrical in shape, one color with a hat, but darkening towards old age( Fig.).

    Fig. Lactarius camphoratus( Fr.) Fr.)

    Mushroom of the fourth category. In food, the mushroom is used in fresh or salty form.

    Podgruzok black, or russula black( Russula adusta( Fr.) Fr.)

    The fungus grows mainly in deciduous, coniferous and mixed forests. It grows in small groups, fruiting from July to October.

    The hat reaches a diameter of 15 cm, at first it is convex, then impressed, dirty-gray, brown or black. The edges of the cap are curved, the surface of the cap is sticky.

    The flesh of the fungus is white, brittle, milky juice is absent. At the break, the flesh turns red, then turns brown, and then blackens. The taste of the pulp is sweetish.

    The plates are either attached to the stem, or descending along it. Spore powder of white color, spores of rounded shape, warty.

    Leg about 5 cm long, smooth, dense, identical with a hat color( Fig.).

    Fig. Podgruzok black, or russula black( Russula adusta( Fr.) Fr.)

    The fungus belongs to category III.Can be eaten in salty and fresh.

    This is a mushroom found in deciduous and coniferous forests, as well as in mixed forests with an admixture of birch. It grows in large groups, fruiting from July until late autumn.

    The hat at the padding is quite large, reaching 15 cm in diameter. In young mushrooms it is round, spherical and looks like a clenched fist. In more mature mushrooms, the flattened flattened cap. It has ridge-striped edges. By color, the cap can be either ochristo-yellow or yellow-brown. In wet weather, mucus appears on it, it is shiny in the dry.

    Flesh of the fungus is dense, in young fungi is white, in the old - yellowish, burning-bitter, with an unpleasant odor.

    Plates accreted to the stem, they start white, and then - yellow or rusty-yellow.

    Spore powder of white or pale yellow color. Spores spherical, spiny.

    Mushroom leg about 10 cm long, up to 3 cm thick. Sometimes the mushroom's leg in the center is somewhat thickened. It is white, loose and hollow inside( Fig.).

    Fig. Valui, or goby, snot, cam, dumpling( Russulafoetens( Fr.) Fr.)

    Mushroom III category. The food is used in salted and marinated form.

    Rush related( Russula con sorbin a( Fr.) Fr.)

    This fungus grows in spruce and mixed forests from August to September.

    The hat reaches 12 cm in diameter. At first it is hemispherical, then it becomes spread, convex or depressed. The cap of this russet is dark gray with an olive shade. Its surface is sticky, slimy. The peel is easily removed to half the cap.

    The flesh of the fungus is white, under the skin it is grayish. The taste of the flesh is burning hot.

    Plates first white, then grayish. They are thick, often located and adherent to the stem.

    Spores are warty, roundish. Spore powder of cream color.

    The mushroom foot is up to 8 cm in length and up to 2.5 cm in thickness. In young mushrooms it is white, and in mature grayish color( Fig.).

    Fig. Rustula related( Russula consorbina( Fr.) Fr.)

    Mushroom belongs to category III.In the food can be used only a hat, both in fresh and salty form.

    Rye bilious russet( Russula fellea Fr.)

    Mushroom can be found in deciduous forests, mainly in birch forests. It grows from July to the end of September.

    The hat reaches a diameter of 10 cm. In young fungi it is convex, then it becomes half-spread, in the center the hat is pressed, straw-yellow or whitish, but in the middle is darker. The edges of the cap are at first smooth, but then striped. Peel is easily separated only at the edges.

    Pulp is yellowish-white in color, it tastes bitter-acrid, bitter.

    Plates whitish or light yellow, frequent, thin and adherent to the stem.

    Spores are roundish, prickly, spore powder is yellowish.

    Leg up to 6 cm in length and 2.5 cm in thickness, flat, loose, in old mushrooms with a hollow( Fig.).

    Fig. Rye bilious( Russula fellea Fr.)

    Mushroom III category. In food can be used only in a salty form.

    Rough ruff( Russula furcata( Fr.) Fr.)

    The mushroom is fruit bearing from August to September, it can be found in deciduous, mainly oak forests.

    The diameter of the cap is about 12 cm. It is flat, in the center somewhat depressed, smooth, dark green, but in the middle of the brown. The edges of the cap are thin, ribbed, and the skin is easily separated( Fig.).

    Fig. Ruffle forked( Russula furcata( Fr.) Fr.)

    Flesh white, but under the skin of the cap yellowish-brownish, with a rather pleasant mushroom smell, it tastes fresh.

    Spore powder of white color, mushroom spores spherical, small-pitched.

    Leg cylindrical, up to 1.5 cm in thickness and about 12 cm in length, silky white, slightly greenish in color.

    Mushroom III category. In food can be used in fresh or salty form.

    Rush blue( Russula azurea Bres.)

    The mushroom grows in small groups in coniferous forests from August to September.

    The mushroom hat is up to 8 cm in diameter, quite fleshy. In young fungi it is convex, then flat, in the middle dented, blue or blue-purple, in the center is dark, and at the edges light.

    The peel is easily separated from the cap.

    The flesh is white, strong, odorless and non-corrosive.

    The plates of this russule are white, straight, mostly forked-branched.

    Spores almost spherical, warty-prickly, spore powder white.

    Leg length up to 5 cm, thickness about 2 cm, white, in young fungi it is flattened, in old hollow( Fig.).

    Fig. Rush green( Russula azurea Bres.)

    Mushroom III category. It has rather high taste qualities. In food can be used in both fresh and salted form.

    Raisula golden yellow( Russula lutea Fr.)

    Mushroom grows in broadleaf forests, but can also be found in conifers. It grows in small groups from July to October.

    The hat is small, with a diameter of up to 5 cm. Golden-yellow, along the edge of a pinkish color. The surface of the cap is sticky, when it dries it becomes shiny. The skin is very easily separated from the cap.

    Mushroom pulp is loose, white, sweet to taste, with a pleasant smell of fruit.

    Records free. In young mushrooms they are cream-yellow, in more mature - ocher-yellow.

    Spore powder ocher-yellow, spores spherical, spiny.

    Leg about 4 cm long, 1.5 cm thick. Leg flat, but slightly thickened at base, white, hollow inside( Fig.).

    Fig. Raisula golden yellow( Russula lutea Fr.)

    Mushroom belongs to the IV category. The food is used fresh.

    Raisula golden-red( Russula aurata Fr.)

    The golden-red russet grows singly or in small groups in coniferous or deciduous forests. Fruits from July to September.

    The hat is quite large, about 13 cm in diameter. At first it is convex, and then spread out, orange-red, orange-yellow or cinnabar-red, with yellow spots.

    Peel Easy to remove up to half the radius of the cap.

    Flesh white, under the skin bright yellow. It tastes fresh, without a pronounced smell. The plates are pale ocherous, with yellow edges, attached to the stem.

    Spore powder yellow, spores warty.

    The length of the leg is up to 10 cm, the thickness is 3 cm. The foot is pale yellow or bright yellow, inside it is a cotton-like( Fig.).

    Fig. Raisula golden red( Russula aurata Fr.)

    Mushroom III category, for food can be consumed both fresh and salted.

    Ruffle pale yellow( Russula ochroleuca( Seer.) Fr.)

    The fungus grows in damp coniferous and deciduous forests with an admixture of birch. The mushroom season begins in August and lasts until October.

    Hat about 10 cm in diameter, flat-spread, in the center a little depressed, light-ocher-yellow, smooth, sticky. The edges of the cap are ribbed. Peel is easily removed only from the edges.

    Flesh white, under the skin it is yellowish, with a pleasant smell and bitter-sharp taste.

    In young fungi the plates are adherent to the stem, in mature they are loose, white or slightly yellowish in color.

    Spores almost spherical, spiny, spore powder cream.

    Leg up to 12 cm long. It is white, even or slightly thickened at the base. Inside the leg is hollow( Fig.).

    Fig. Rye yellow pale yellow( Russula ochroleuca( Seer.) Fr.)

    The mushroom is edible, but little known. In food can be used in a salty form.

    Russula puellaris Fr.

    Mushroom is found in deciduous and coniferous forests from August to September.

    The ruffle of a russet's russet reaches 7 cm in diameter. The hat is flat, centered, darker, ribbed and striped along the edge, lead-gray with a purple or yellowish hue.

    The pulp of the fungus is white, with a pleasant mushroom smell, sweet and slightly spicy in taste.

    Plates sprouted to the stem. In young mushrooms they are white, in mature - cream, ocherous, thin and frequent.

    Spores are light-ocher, spherical, warty.

    Leg up to 1 cm long, about 4-5 cm long, flat, thickened below, white, at the base brownish-yellow, loose, hollow( Fig.).

    Fig. Ruddy maiden( Russulapuellaris Fr.)

    The mushroom is edible and little-known. In food can be used in both fresh and salted form.

    Rush red( Russula olivacea( Schaeff.) Fr.)

    Growing mainly on sandy soil, and therefore can be found in various forest plantations from August to October.

    The mushroom hat has a diameter of about 10 cm, is fairly fleshy. In young fungi it is convex, while in more mature mushrooms it is flat or funnel-shaped. In the center the hat is bright red, the edges are lighter. The edges of the cap are wavy.

    Flesh white, under the skin pinkish, the taste is sharp enough.

    Plates accreted with a tooth to the stem, frequent, white, but later light-ocher.

    The spores are almost spherical, thin-hued, white.

    Leg length up to 6 cm, thickness about 2 cm. It is dense, first white with a reddish tint, and then gray( Fig.).

    Fig. Red russet( Russula olivacea( Schaeff.) Fr.)

    Mushroom is little-known, it is used in the salt form for food.

    Violet raspberry( Russula lilacea Quel.)

    Mushroom grows in purple and coniferous forests from July to October.

    The mushroom hat reaches 8 cm in diameter, light pinkish-lilac color, rather thin with a light striped edge.

    The pulp is white, with a purple hue under the skin, slightly sweet to taste, with a pronounced apple smell.

    Blades are forked-branched, white, frequent, adherent to the stem.

    Spore powder of white color. Spores spherical, warty.

    The length of the foot is about 6 cm, the thickness is 1.5-2 cm. The leg of the russule is lilac, hollow, white, but at the base it has a pinkish-violet hue( Fig.).

    Fig. Russula lilacea Quel.

    The mushroom is edible and little known. In food can be used in both fresh and salted form.

    The russet black-purple( Russula atropurpurea Krombh.)

    The mushroom grows from August to October, mainly in coniferous and deciduous forests.

    The hat of young mushrooms is hemispherical, in mature - spreading, up to 15 cm in diameter, pressed into the center, dark red or purple-violet.

    Pulp is thick, dense, whitish, but under the skin is purplish-reddish, with a pleasant taste and sweet smell.

    The plates are descending along the stem or attached to it by a tooth. In young fungi, they are white, and then become slightly yellowish.

    Spore powder white, spores almost spherical.

    The length of the stem is about 10 cm, the thickness is up to 3 cm. The foot is smooth, smooth, whitish; at the base it is yellow-clayey-brownish; in the middle - pinkish, and at the top - mealy( Fig.).

    Fig. The russet black-purple( Russula atropurpurea Krombh.)

    The fungus belongs to the III category. The food is used fresh.

    Rush pink( Russula rosea Quel.)

    The mushroom season begins in August and lasts until October. The fungus grows in pine forests on sandy soil.

    Caps up to 10 cm in diameter, rather fleshy. At first it is convex, and then spread out, cracked, pink, fading to a pinkish-white color. The edges of the cap are slightly pubic.

    Flesh white, but under the skin is pink, it tastes bitter.

    White or cream colored plates, often forked and branched and adhered to the stem.

    The length of the foot is about 5 cm, the thickness is 2 cm. The mushroom foot is strong, thickened at the bottom, dense or hollow, blurry pink, powdery, and becomes yellow when touched( Fig.).

    Fig. Ruddy rose( Russula rosea Quel.)

    Mushroom belongs to the III category. In food can be used in a salty form.

    Rush gray( Russula grisea( Seer.) Gill.)

    The fungus grows mainly in coniferous or mixed forests from June to September.

    The hat of young mushrooms is convex, and then flat, pressed into the middle, up to 15 cm in diameter, gray, pale gray or greenish-gray in color. The edges of the cap are smooth or ribbed. The peel is quite easily separated from the cap. Pulp with a pleasant mushroom smell, not caustic, white. Plates thick, white, whitish-yellow, adhered to the cap, but branched at the base.

    Spores are ellipsoidal, spiny. Spore powder cream. Leg of cylindrical shape, white, smooth, shiny, wrinkled and striped, up to 6 cm long, about 3 cm thick( Fig.).

    Fig. Gray rump( Russula grisea( Seer.) Gill.)

    Mushroom belongs to category III.Used in fresh and salty form.-

    Russula pulchella Borszcow

    Growing mainly under birch in mixed and broadleaf forests in solitary or small groups. Fruits from June to September.

    The hat is smooth, hemispherical, up to 9 cm in diameter. In mature mushrooms it spreads out, curved, with a rugate margin, whitish with washed out dirty-pink or cherry-red spots.

    Pulp with a fruity smell, white or greyish, caustic.

    Plates cream or grayish color, adhered to the stem.

    Spore powder is yellowish. Spores are broadly oval, fine-grained.

    The foot is cylindrical, up to 6 cm long, about 3 cm thick, thickened at the base, grayish, longitudinally fibrous( Fig.).

    Fig. Rusty russet( Russulapulchella Borszcow)

    Mushroom is little-known, edible. It is used fresh and salty

    Ruffle purple-red( Russula obscura RomelI)

    It grows singly or in not very large groups from August to October.

    Hat in diameter from 4 to 12 cm. In young mushrooms it is hemispherical, in older plants it is spread, funnel-shaped, purplish-red. The skin lags behind the pulp to half the cap.

    Flesh of mushroom whitish with a pinkish tint, with a pleasant smell and taste.

    The plates are white at first, then buffy-yellow, almost free.

    Spore powder creamy, spores widely oval, spiny.

    Leg is cylindrical, up to 8 cm long, 1-2.5 cm thick.

    Leg is white or dirty white, longitudinally wrinkled( Fig.).

    Fig. The russet is purple-red( Russula obscura Rom ell) Fig. Hygrophor brown, or hygrophor late( Hygrophorus hypotheus( Fr.) Fr.)

    Mushroom edible, belongs to the I category. It is used fresh and salty.

    Hyperforum brown, or hygrophor later( Hygrophorus hypotheus( Fr.) Fr.)

    Mushroom can be found in coniferous forests in mosses and thickets of heather. The mushroom season begins in September and lasts until October. The fungus grows in groups.

    A hat with a diameter of about 6 cm, olive or olive brown. In the center, the cap is slightly depressed. In young mushrooms, the edges of the cap are turned upside down, the surface is sticky, the edge of the head is yellowish.

    The pulp is not too thick, white or slightly yellow in color, without pronounced taste or odor.

    Plates thick, yellow, descending on the stem. In young fungi, they are covered with a flaky fibrous coverlet.

    Spore white powder, spores ovate-ellipsoidal.

    The foot is cylindrical, up to 10 cm long and up to 1 cm thick. The surface of the foot is flat, solid, olive-brown in color( Fig.).

    Mushroom IV category, edible. In food can be used in fresh and marinated. The mushroom is suitable for drying.

    Hygrophorus white( Hygrophorus eburneus Fr.)

    Mushroom occurs late autumn in deciduous and mixed forests. If the year turned out to be favorable and yielding, the hygrophor white grows quite large colonies.

    In young mushrooms the hat is convex, in mature - spread, with a tubercle, diameter from 2 to 10 cm, cream or white. In dry weather, the surface of the bonnet is shiny, in the damp mucus appears on it.

    The flesh is white, waxy, slightly bitter, with a pleasant mushroom smell. The plates are cream or white, sparse, thick, descending along the stem.

    Spore powder white, spores ellipsoidal, unequal.

    Leg length up to 12 cm, thickness up to 1.2 cm, dense, even or slightly narrowed downwards. Above the stem, it is pricked with dotted scales of white color( Fig.).

    Fig. Hygrophorus white( Hygrophorus eburneus Fr.)

    Mushroom edible, belongs to the IV category. It is used fresh, pickled and salted.

    Hygrophorus oak( Hygrophorus nemoreus( Lasch.) Fr.)

    The fungus grows mainly in deciduous and mixed forests from August to October.

    The mushroom hat reaches 10 cm in diameter, it is thickly hanging. In young mushrooms, the hat is convex, in older mushrooms it is spread, orange-yellow, gluey, in the center is hump-like.

    Flesh yellowish, slightly darker under the skin;dense, with a pleasant taste and smell.

    Single-color plates with a hat, descending along the stem, rare, thick and wide.

    Spores are wide-ellipsoid, spore powder of white color.

    Leg length up to 8 cm, thickness about 1.8 cm. Straight or narrowed to the base, dense, powdery, pale or yellowish above( Fig.).

    Fig. Hygrophorus oak( Hygrophorus nemoreus( Lasch.) Fr.)

    Mushroom is little-known, but edible. In food can be used as fresh, or pickled or salted. Suitable for drying.

    Hygrophorus fragrant( Hygrophorus agathosmus( Fr.) Fr.)

    The fungus grows in broad-leaved and coniferous forests. Mushroom season from September to October.

    The mushroom's cap is first convex, then becomes prostrate, with a tubercle. The diameter of the cap is up to 10 cm. The surface is gray or gray-brown, umbrella, sticky, in dry weather is silky.

    The plates are thick, sparse, descending along the pedicle; sometimes they are mesh at the base.

    Spore powder white. Spores are granular or ovate.

    The foot of the fungus is flat, 4-7 cm long. At the base it is slightly thickened, whitish, above grainy-mealy, with small dot-like scales of gray color( Fig.).

    Fig. Hygrophorus fragrant( Hygrophorus agathosmus( Fr.) Fr.)

    Mushroom is little-known, edible. Used for food in fresh, salted or marinated.

    Hygrophorus golden( Hygrophorus chrysodorr( Fr.) Fr.)

    The fungus grows in broad-leaved forests, mainly among oaks and lindens, from August to October.

    In young mushrooms the hat is convex, in mature - spreading, up to 8 cm in diameter.

    Pulp without pronounced taste and odor.

    Plates are rare, thick, cream-colored, descending on the stem. Spore white powder, spores ovate-ellipsoidal.

    The mushroom's leg is thin, curved, up to 6 cm long. Flake flakes of yellow color are located along the entire length of the leg( Fig.).

    umra

    This is a valuable edible little-known fungus that can be eaten fresh.

    Hygrophorus coccinea( Fr.) Kumga.)

    Mushroom grows in groups in fields and meadows, from September to October.

    In young mushrooms the cap is ringed, in mature males it is semisurgical, convex, up to 6 cm in diameter, cinnabar-red or crimson-red. In the center it is bright. First the cap is covered with mucus, then dry, silky and yellowing.

    Pulp yellowish-red, without taste and odor.

    Plates accreted with a tooth to the leg, yellow with a sirenovato-pink shade, rare and wide.

    Spore powder is white, spores can be either ellipsoidal or ovate.

    Feet is hollow, brittle, 3-7 cm long, up to 1.2 cm thick. Under the bonnet, the foot is red, at the bottom - yellow( Fig.).

    Mushroom belongs to the IV category. It is used fresh.

    Hygrophorus variegated( Hygrophorus psittacina( Fr.) Karst.)

    The fungus grows in meadows, forest edges, pastures and glades in fairly large groups, from August to September.

    Hat in young mushrooms is conical in shape, in mature - broad-rooted, 2-5 cm in diameter. Hat is ocher-yellow in color, in addition, it is covered with greenish mucus.

    The pulp is white, but it becomes yellow or green when touched. A pronounced smell is missing, the taste is pleasant.

    Leg is cylindrical, hollow, 4-7 cm long, narrowed at the base, yellow, in the upper part of the leg covered with greenish mucus( Fig.).

    Fig. Hygrophorus variegated( Hygrophorus psittacina( Fr.) Karst.)

    Mushroom is little-known, edible. It is used for fresh food.

    Hygrophorus virgneus( Fr.) Karst.)

    It grows on pastures, meadows and forest edges and glades, beginning in August and ending with October.

    The hat in young fungi is convex, in mature - spread, with a tubercle in the center, diameter from 2 to 8 cm, white, sometimes with pink spots.

    The flesh is white, without a special smell. Plates are rare, thick, slightly descending along the stem.

    Spore powder white, spores of ellipsoidal shape.

    Leg cylindrical, narrowed at the base, dense, but hollow in old fungi( Fig.).

    Fig. Hygrophorus virgneus( Fr.) Karst.)

    Mushroom is little-known, edible. It is used fresh.

    Hygrophorus white( Hygrophorus niveus( Fr.) Karst.)

    The habitat of the fungus is broad-leaved forests, meadows, pastures. Mushrooms can be harvested from July to October.

    First the mushroom cap is convex or campanulate, then flat, pressed into the center, up to 3 cm in diameter, snow-white, but the mature mushrooms are creamy. In wet weather, mucus appears on the bonnet.

    Flesh white, thin, odorless, it tastes fresh.

    The plates are descending along a leg, thin, wide, white and sparse. Spore powder white, spores ellipsoid, yellowish.

    Leg length up to 6 cm, thickness about 0.2-0.4 cm, cylindrical, narrowed at the base. In young fungi the stem is dense, in mature fungi it is hollow( Fig.).

    Fig. Hygrophorus white( Hygrophorus niveus( Fr.) Karst.)

    The fungus belongs to the IV category. It is used fresh.

    Hygrophorus olivaceoalbus( Fr.) Fr.)

    The fungus is found most often in coniferous forests, but it can also be found in deciduous forests among mosses. Mushroom season - from August to September.

    The hat is at first hemispherical, and then flat, with a diameter of 3 to 10 cm, light olive, mucous and sticky, but it becomes shiny and smooth when it dries.

    Pulp without special taste and smell, thin and white.

    The plates are rare, waxy, wide, descending along the stem, in color can be white or cream.

    Spore powder white. Spores ovate, colorless.

    Leg flat, straight or slightly bent, up to 10 cm long, 0.6 to 1 cm thick. Upper leg white, covered with olive-white scales, which are arranged in rings( Fig.).

    Fig. Hygrophorus olive-white( Hygrophorus olivaceoalbus( Fr.) Fr.)

    Mushroom IV category, edible, fresh.

    Hyperflower reddish, or hygrophor blushing( Hygrophorus erubescens)

    The fungus grows in coniferous, mostly pine, forests. Fruits from July to October. The mushroom cap is at first hemispherical, and then spread out, impressed or with a mound, 3-10 cm in diameter, white or spotted pink.

    Flesh white, in mature mushrooms - yellowing, bitterish, without pronounced odor.

    Plates are rare, whitish with red spots, descending.

    Spore powder white, spores ellipsoidal.

    The mushroom foot is cylindrical, 4 to 8 cm long, about 2 cm thick. At the base it is narrowed, whitish with blushing spots, dense, with a yellowing on the incision( Fig.).

    Fig. The hygrophor is reddish. Hygrophorus erubescens

    Mushroom III category, edible. It is used fresh and pickled.

    Hygrophorus russula( Fr.) Quel.)

    Mushroom is rare, grows in broad-leaved forests from August to September.

    A hat with a diameter of 10-15 cm, convex( but there are mushrooms and with a depressed head), fleshy, slimy, sticky, dark pink or dark red. The edges of the cap are bent downward.

    The fungus's flesh is thick, white or slightly pink, slightly bitter, but odorless.

    The plates are descending along a leg, white or cream with red spots of color.

    Spore powder white, spores ellipsoidal.

    The foot is flat, dense, up to 12 cm long, about 2 cm thick, pinkish with red spots( Fig.).

    Fig. Hygrophorus russula( Fr.) Quel.)

    Mushroom is edible, belongs to the IV category, it is eaten fresh.

    Oyster oyster( Pleurotus dryinus( Fr.) Kumm.)

    This fungus grows mainly on oak or elm tree trees or stumps. Fruiting in July-August.

    The cap is irregularly rounded, up to 10 cm in diameter, dense, fleshy, whitish, with fibrous scales of dark color. The edges of the cap are wrapped, with the hanging remains of the veil.

    The pulp of these mushrooms is thick, thick, white, with a pleasant taste and smell.

    Spore powder white. The spores are cylindrical, colorless.

    Leg length up to 5 cm, thickness about 1-3 cm, dense, white, scaly( Fig.).

    Fig. Oyster oyster( Pleurotus dryinus( Fr.) Kitt.)

    Mushroom edible, little known, used fresh.

    Mushroom IV category.

    Rabbit cone ovine( Pleurotus cornucopiae( Pers.) Rolland)

    The fungus grows on dead tree trunks and stumps of elms and maples. The mushroom season begins in the third decade of May and lasts until mid-August. Growing mushroom in large groups.

    The hat of young fungi is convex, then funnel-shaped or coronoid, up to 12 cm in diameter, white or yellowish in color, but in mature mushrooms it darkens to a light brown color.

    Flesh is thick, thick, white, taste and smell are pleasant.

    The plates are descending along the stalk, rarest, white or slightly yellow in color.

    Spore powder white. Spores of an elongated-oval shape.

    The leg is short, only 0.5 cm long, 1.5-2 cm thick, dense, white or pale. Sometimes the leg is missing( Fig.).

    Fig. Oyster cone( Pleurotus cornucopiae( Pers.) Rolland)

    Mushroom IV category, has high taste qualities. It is used fresh, young mushrooms can be salted or marinated.

    Panus rough( Panus rubils Fr.)

    The mushroom grows on stumps of deciduous and coniferous trees from June to August. Mushroom cap in diameter from 2 to 7 cm, lateral, funnel-shaped or cup-shaped, yellowish-reddish or light-brown in color, covered with villi. Flesh white, without taste and smell. The plates of young mushrooms are pale pink, then turn yellowish, rare and descending along the stem.

    Spore powder white. Spores of round-cylindrical shape.

    Leg length up to 2 cm, thickness about 2-3 cm, fairly dense, the same color with a hat: The leg is also covered with dense hairs( Fig.).

    Fig. Panus rough( Panus rubils Fr.)

    Mushroom little-known, edible. Young mushrooms can be eaten fresh.

    Panus conchatus( Fr.) Sing.)

    The mushroom grows on fallen trees and stumps of deciduous trees, from July to October.

    Hat with a diameter of up to 10 cm, eccentric, ear-shaped, shell-shaped, brownish in young fungi and pale in mature. Pulp of white color with a pleasant smell and taste( Fig.).

    Fig. Panus conchatus( Fr.) Sing.)

    Plates descending along the stem, whitish-pink, then yellowing, frequent.-Spores ovate, spore powder white.

    Little-known edible fungus, used in food both fresh and marinated.

    Lacquer is slender or large( Laccaria proximo( Boud.) Pat.).

    The fungus grows in damp mossy or peaty places, as well as in deciduous and mixed forests. Fruits from July to October.

    Mushroom cap conical, up to 12 cm in diameter, with a blunt tubercle, hygrophant, orange-brown or reddish-buffy.

    Pulp without special taste and odor, reddish color.

    The plates are rare, adherent to the stem, pale pink, the old fungi turn yellow.

    Spore powder white, spores ellipsoidal.

    Leg cylindrical, up to 0.8 cm in thickness, about 5-15 cm long, cartilaginous, hollow, of the same color with a hat( Fig.).

    Fig. The lacquer is slender. Lacquer large( Laccariaproxima( Boud.) Pat.)

    Mushroom IV category, the food is used fresh.

    Govorushka goblet( Clitocybe cyanthiformis( Fr.) To umm .)

    The fungus grows in coniferous, mixed and broadleaf forests, on litter and rotten wood. You can collect it from August to October.

    The mushroom cap is goblet or bag-shaped, up to 8 cm in diameter, grayish-brown in color. The surface of the cap is shiny, silky.

    The mushroom flesh is thin, watery, the same color with a hat, the taste and smell are pleasant.

    The plates are descending along the stem, sparse, light brown or grayish-brown, lighter than the hats.

    Spore powder white, spores ellipsoidal.

    The leg is somewhat lighter than the cap or one color with it, from 3 to 10 cm long, about 0.6 cm thick, hollow inside, at the base fluffy( Fig.).

    Fig. Golovoroshka goblet( Clitocybe cyanthiformis( Fr.) To umm )

    Little-known edible fungus. In food can be used fresh, salted and pickled.

    Govorushka bent, red( Clitocybe, geotropa( Fr.) Quel.)

    Often in broad-leaved and coniferous forests, from August to October, one can meet a govorushku bent, red. The fungus grows in large groups.

    The hat of young fungi is convex, in more mature it becomes funnel-shaped, with a mound, up to 20 cm in diameter. The surface of the cap is smooth, reddish or the color of melted milk, its edges are fluffy and curled.

    The flesh is rather dense, thick, first white, and then pale, the taste and smell rather pleasant.

    Plates are creamy or white, frequent, descending along the stem. Spore powder is white, spores are colorless, ovate. Leg dense, thickened at the base, light yellow, up to E 15 cm long, about 3 cm thick( Fig.).

    Fig. Govorushka bent, red( Clitocybebeotropa( Fr.) Quel.)

    Mushroom III category. In the food used hats of young mushrooms in fresh form.

    Smoothing head( Clitocybe fragrans( Fr.) To umm .)

    Grows in fairly large B groups in coniferous and broadleaf forests from September to October.

    Hat mushroom up to 6 cm in diameter, funnel-shaped, yellowish-gray, pale yellow or ocher, translucent, watery.

    The pulp is brittle, thin, white in color, with a pleasant taste and smell.

    The plates are whitish or light gray, slightly descending along the stem. Spore powder white. The spores are smooth, ellipsoidal.

    Leg of one color with a cap, slightly curved, in the upper part - mealy, in the lower part - hairy-pubescent, rather dense. The length of the leg is 3-7 cm, the thickness is from 0.5 to 1 cm( Fig.).

    Fig. Golovushka fragrant( Clitocybe fragrans( Fr.) To umm .)

    Mushroom edible, little-known. In food can be used in pickled and fresh.

    Sinichka, or lepista dirty( Lepista sordida( Fr.) Sing.)

    These mushrooms can be found in forests, gardens, meadows and gardens from July to September. It grows in bundles, growing together with the bases of the legs.

    Diameter of the cap - 3-8 cm. In young mushrooms it is spherical, then spread out, with a tubercle and striped margin. The color of the cap is brownish-lilac or lilac.

    The flesh is watery, thin, greyish-violet, with pleasant taste and smell.

    Plates are frequent, dirty-violet, adhered to the stalk teeth.

    Spore powder pinkish. The spores are ellipsoidal, rough.

    The mushroom foot is cylindrical, thickened at the base, 4 to 6 cm long, about 1 cm thick, fibrous; in young fungi it is dense, in mature fungi it is hollow( Fig.).

    Fig. Sinichka, or lepista dirty( Lepista sordida( Fr.) Sing.)

    Mushroom edible, little known. It is used marinated and fresh.

    The reds are red, or red dawn( Tricholomopsis gutitans( Fr.) Sing.)

    Grows large colonies on the stumps of pine trees and near them. Collect these mushrooms from August to October.

    The hat of young mushrooms is convex, then spread out, up to 15 cm in diameter, reddish-yellow or yellow-orange with a lilac shade.

    Flesh is yellow, rather thick, but soft, with an acidic odor and sweet taste.

    The plates are golden yellow, adherent to the stem. Spore powder is white, the spores are almost round.

    The stem of these fungi is either cylindrical or thickened at the base, up to 10 cm long, about 2 cm thick, yellowish, with flake-like scales of red color, sometimes hollow inside( Fig.).

    Fig. The rider is red, or reddish red( Tricholomopsis rutilans( Fr.) Sing.)

    The fungus belongs to the IV category. Can be used both fresh and salty.

    Poplar poplar( Tricholoma populinum Lange)

    The fungus grows in poplar stands, in deciduous forests, it can be used in both parks and along highways. It grows in fairly large groups from August to September.

    The hat is from 8 to 15 cm in diameter. In young mushrooms it is hemispherical, mature - convex-spread, old boned, indefinite, yellowish-grayish brown, then dark brown with a red tint. The edges of the cap are fibrous-scaly, wavy, light.

    Flesh white, thick, fleshy. Under the skin it is grayish-brown, on the fracture becomes brown, sweetish to the taste, it smells of fresh flour.

    Plates accreted to the stem or loose, frequent, wide. First they acquire a whitish or pale pink shade, in mature and old mushrooms the plates are brown and covered with rusty spots.

    Spore powder white, spores oval or spherical.

    The mushroom leg is dense, cylindrical, slightly flattened, up to 8 cm long, 1.5 to 4 cm thick( Fig.).

    Fig. Poplar rowing( Tricholoma populinum Lange)

    Mushroom III category. The food is used fresh, pickled or salted.

    Thundercloth( fl.) To umm .)

    Mushroom can be found in coniferous forests, especially in young plantations of pine trees. It grows from the end of July to October in fairly large groups, sometimes forming "witch circles".

    A hat with a diameter of up to 10 cm. In young fungi, it is round-ringed, with a curved edge; in more mature mushrooms, it is flat-clipped, dark brown, sometimes with a red tint.

    Pulp first white, and later brownish, fairly thick and thick, without a pronounced smell, but with a pleasant taste.

    Plates attached to the stem or loose. First they have a white tone, then they are covered with patches of red-brown color.

    Spore powder white, spores ellipsoidal, smooth.

    Leg up to 2 cm long, about 10 cm long, cylindrical, fairly dense, sometimes hollow. Upper leg is white, brownish at the bottom, longitudinally fibrous, and mealy( Fig.).

    Fig. The fluke is squamous, or sweets( Tricholoma imbricatum( Fr.) Kitt.)

    Mushroom edible, little known. The food is used fresh, pickled or salted.

    Seed streak( Tricholoma columbetta( Fr.) To umm .)

    A row of greens can be found in deciduous and mixed forests, on pastures. A fungus is rare enough, most often singly or in small groups. The mushroom season lasts from August to September.

    The hat is about 10 cm in diameter. In young fungi it is convex, then becomes half-spread, with a small tubercle. The surface of the cap is fibrous, white, there are mushrooms, on the hats there are bluish or reddish spots. The edges of the cap are felt.

    Flesh white or brownish, with a rather pleasant taste and mealy odor.

    The plates are either almost free, or are attached to the stem by a tooth. In young mushrooms they are white, in mature mushrooms they are reddish brown.

    Spore powder white, spores ellipsoidal.

    The foot is flat, thin and bluish-green from below, up to 10 cm long, 1 to 3 cm thick( Fig.).

    Fig. Seed-streaked( Tricholoma columbetta( Fr.) Kitt.)

    Mushroom is little-known, edible. It is used in fresh, marinated or salted form.

    The isolated row( Tricholoma sejunctum( Fr.) Quel.)

    The fungus grows in deciduous and coniferous forests from August to September.

    The hat is convex, with a diameter of up to 10 cm. It has a conical shaped tubercle. The color of the cap is darkish-olive, in the center the color is darker. In wet weather, mucus appears on it. The edges of the cap are slightly bent down, pale green in color.

    Flesh white, but under the cap of the cap and yellowish in the stalk. The taste of mushrooms is bitter, the smell of fresh flour.

    The plates are loose, white or grayish, wide, rare, forked-branched.

    Spore powder white, spores round, smooth.

    Feet dense, covered with small scales, at the base swollen. The length of the stem is about 8 cm, the thickness is up to 2 cm( Fig.).

    Fig. Private isolated( Tricholoma sejunctum( Fr.) Quel.)

    Mushroom is little-known, edible. Used salty.

    Earth-gray series( Tricholoma terreum( Fr.) To umm .)

    This mushroom can be found in coniferous and deciduous forests. It occurs quite often, it grows in small groups from August to September.

    In young mushrooms the cap is wide-cotted, mature - spreading, diameter up to 8 cm. The edges of the cap are wavy, sinuous, cracking. The color of the cap is dark-mouse. From above it is covered with hairy scales.

    Pulp is thin, white, later grayish, with a light sharp taste and pleasant smell.

    Plates are frequent, adherent to the stem, first whitish, and then gray.

    Spore powder white, spores smooth, ellipsoidal.

    Feet is hollow, white or grayish, fibrous; on the upper part of the foot there is a powdery plaque. The length of the stem is about 8 cm, the thickness is from 1 to 1.5 cm( Fig.).

    Fig. Earth-gray series( Tricholoma terreum( Fr.) To umm .)

    Mushroom edible, little-known. It is eaten in fresh, salted, marinated, and also suitable for drying.

    Accumulated lyadovka( Lyophyllum connatum( Fr.) Sing.)

    Fused series can be collected from September to October. It grows in forests, parks and gardens in fairly large groups, growing together at the base of the legs.

    The hat is first convex, later - flat, with a diameter of up to 8 cm. In the middle, the hat is weakly pressed, white, but in old mushrooms the cap turns yellowish brown.

    Pulp is rather thick, white in color, elastic, with a mealy odor.

    Plates are frequent, with a tooth attached to the stem, white or cream colored.

    Spores are smooth, round, spore powder white.

    Leg is white, cylindrical, sometimes with a slight thickening at the bottom. The length of the leg is from 4 to 8 cm, the thickness is up to 1 cm( Fig.).

    Fig. Accompanying ranks( Lyophyllum connatum( Fr.) Sing.)

    Mushroom is little-known, edible. It is eaten fresh, pickled and salted.

    Lyophyllum ilmium( Lyophyllum ulmarium( Fr.) Kiihner)

    The fungus grows in forests, parks, mainly on tree trunks and stems of the elm and elm. Fruiting from September to October.

    The cap is convex, later spreading, up to 15 cm in diameter, with a small tubercle, whitish-yellowish or pale brown.

    The flesh is dense, hard, yellowish, pleasant to smell and taste.

    The plates are light-ocher or white, thick, accreted to the stem.

    Spore powder white, spores almost spherical, rounded.

    Leg up to 10 cm long, about 1.5 cm thick, dense, whitish, eccentric, may be curved( Fig.).

    Fig. Lyophyllum ilmium( Lyophyllum ulmarium( Fr.) Kiihner)

    Mushroom edible, little known. Suitable for drying, but can be used in fresh, salted and marinated.

    Lyophyllum dirty( Lyophyllum immundum( Berk.) Kiihner.)

    Mushroom, as a rule, grows in groups in mixed and coniferous forests. Collect these mushrooms from August to September( fig.).

    Fig. Liofyllum dirty( Lyophyllum immundum( Berk.) Kiihner.)

    The hat of young fungi is convex, in more mature - flat-spread, cracked, with a diameter of up to 10 cm, gray-brown in color.

    Pulp light, thin, on a cut becomes dark.

    The plates are whitish, then they acquire a gray-brown hue, from the slightest touch they turn dark. Plates accreted to the stem.

    Spore powder is whitish. The spores are smooth, almost spherical.

    The leg is dense, lighter than the cap, up to 10 cm long, about 1.2 cm thick.

    Mushroom edible, little known. Used for food fresh, pickled or salted.

    Collabia chestnut( Collybia buturecea( Fr.) Quel.)

    The fungus grows in coniferous and deciduous forests, it can also be found on pastures. It can be collected from July to September.

    The fungus is fairly widespread, often growing in large groups.

    The hat is fleshy, the young mushrooms are convex, the more mature ones are spread, chestnut or brown, and in the center it becomes somewhat darker.

    The flesh is watery, soft, pale brown with a light, reddish tinge, without any taste or smell.

    The plates of young mushrooms are adhered to the stem; in mature and old ones, they are loose, thin, white or yellowish in color.

    Spore powder white, spores smooth, ellipsoidal.

    Leg length up to 9 cm, thickness about 1 - 1.5 cm, expanded at the base, solid and dense, the same with a hat color( Fig.).

    Fig. Collybia chestnut( Collybia buturecea( Fr.) Quel.)

    Mushroom edible, little known. It is consumed fresh, salted and pickled.

    Gray Coprinus( Coprinus atramentarius)

    Gray spruce( manure sprig) is a fungus of the genus of plate-shaped fungi. Although considered edible at a young age, however, misuse( use in conjunction with alcoholic beverages) and storage causes severe poisoning.

    Hat up to 3 cm in diameter, in young fungi cylindrical or ovoid in shape, in mature - broadly-capped, hairy, ribbed, gray. The plates are white at first, then turn black. Leg white, up to 10 cm long, 3-5 mm thick, hollow, slightly thickened downwards( Fig.).

    Fig. Gray dung( ordinary manure)

    Best grows on manure and fertilized soil. Fruiting time is from May to October. Very often found on urban lawns and dumps, in forests: willow, alder, aspen.

    The duster gray is similar to an edible manure white, for which a white, delicate, fibrous-scaly hat is characteristic. It should be remembered that all types of dung, and, above all, the dung gray can be stored for no more than 3-4 hours, as the fungi quickly deteriorate and can cause severe vomiting.

    The poison of the gray donkey has a negative effect on the human body when consuming a mushroom with alcohol. Signs of poisoning appear immediately after consuming alcohol-containing beverages. Moreover, regardless of whether mushrooms were used simultaneously with alcohol in the form of snacks or a drink was consumed 2-3 days after the mushrooms were eaten. In case of toxicity, reddening of the face, swelling and redness of the eyes, rapidity of the pulse, a feeling of heat and heaviness in the head, transferring to the chest, abdomen and back. Although the poisoning is serious enough, but with the provision of medical care, all these phenomena quickly pass.

    A special substance was obtained from the gray manure - the antabuse, which was used for a long time for the treatment of alcoholism. However, at the present time this compound is synthesized chemically.

    Colibia bored( Collybia acervata( Fr.) To umm .)

    Colibia bogs grow in mixed or coniferous forests, on wood that is in the soil. Often it grows with accoupled groups. Fruits from June to October.

    The hat in young mushrooms is convex, later becomes half-spread, with a diameter of up to 8 cm. In the center, the cap is hump-shaped, yellowish-reddish, when it dries, it fades.

    Pulp is thin, pale and watery, without taste and smell.

    Plates first adherent to the stem, and then loose, frequent, narrow, yellowish-whitish.

    Spore powder white, spores ellipsoidal.

    Leg cylindrical, narrowed at the bottom, red-brown, but at the base of the mycelium whitish. The length of the stem is up to 10 cm, the thickness is 0.2-0.6 cm( Fig.).

    Fig. Colibia bored( Collybia acervata( Fr.) To umm .)

    The fungus belongs to the IV category. It is used fresh.

    Spring dumpling, Colibia dubolubivaya( Collybia dryophila( Fr.) Quel.)

    Mushroom occurs quite often. It grows mainly in moist coniferous or deciduous forests, on the soil, in large groups. Fertonitis from May to October.

    Caps in diameter from 2 to 6 cm, at first it is flat-convex, later spreading, yellowish, reddish or light brown.

    Mushroom pulp is thin, rusty in color, with the smell of freshly chopped wood, with a rather sharp taste. The plates are narrow, frequent, loose, yellowish or whitish. Spore powder white. The spores are smooth and oval.

    Leg length up to 5 cm, thickness about 0.5 cm, cartilaginous, hollow inside( Fig.).

    Fig. Spring dumpling, Colibia dubolibivaya( Collybia dryophila( Fr.) Quel.)

    Mushroom edible, little known. It is used fresh.

    Garlic oak( Marasmius prasiomus( Fr.) Fr.)

    This mushroom can be found in mixed forests and oak forests. It grows on fallen leaves from August to October.

    The mushroom hat is small, up to 3 cm in diameter. In young fungi it is campanulate, in mature males it is flat, somewhat dulled in the center, wrinkled, dirty-pale yellow, or whitish in color, striped along the rim.

    Mushroom pulp is thin, white, with the smell of garlic, taste of mushroom.

    Plates accreted to the stem, but weakly. In young fungi, white plates, in mature - pale yellow.

    Spore powder is white, spores are uneven, ovate.

    The leg is cartilaginous, fairly dense, pale yellow. The length of the stem is up to 8 cm, the thickness is about 0.3 cm( Fig.).

    Fig. Garlic oak( Marasmiusprasiomus( Fr.) Fr.)

    Mushroom is little-known, edible. The food is used fresh or pickled.

    Garlic large( Marasmius alliaceus( Fr.) Fr.)

    The mushroom can be found on fallen leaves or near stumps in forests. It grows in large groups, it occurs quite often. Fruits from June to October.

    The hat is either bell-shaped or half-prostrated, with a wide and protruding hillock, up to 5 cm in diameter. The color of the cap is whitish; it is striped at the edges, and the cap grows old mushrooms.

    Mushroom pulp of white color, with garlic-onion smell and mushroom taste.

    The plates of young mushrooms adhered to the stem, later become loose, sparse, whitish in color.

    Spore powder white. The spores are elongate-ovate, unequal.

    Leg length up to 10 cm, thickness about 0.2-0.3 cm, cartilaginous, dense, at the base thickened( Fig.).

    Fig. Garlic large( Marasmius alliaceus( Fr.) Fr.)

    Mushroom is little-known, edible. It is consumed fresh and dried as a seasoning instead of garlic or onions. Mushroom IV category.

    Amanita ruby-gray, or amanita rubescens( Fr.) S. F. Gray)

    The fungus grows on humus soils, and therefore it can be found both in deciduous and mixed forests, and in parks. Fruits from June to October. It grows, as a rule, singly or in small groups.

    A hat with a diameter of up to 12 cm, dirty red or gray-pink in color, on top it is covered with flakes of dirty gray color. In young mushrooms the cap is round-ovoid, in mature mushrooms it spreads. In wet weather, mucus appears on the bonnet.

    Pulp without taste and odor, white in color, reddens at fractures.

    The plates are loose, white. In mature mushrooms, spores are blushing, covered with spots.

    Spore powder white, spores smooth, ellipsoidal.

    The mushroom's leg is rather long, up to 15 cm, the thickness is about 2.5 cm. Inside the leg is hollow, thickened at the base. First the leg is white, then reddish( Fig.).

    Fig. Amanita is gray-pink, or amanita rubscens( Fr.) S. F. Gray)

    In addition, it has fibers.

    Mushroom belongs to the IV category. It is used fresh.

    Float gray, or pusher gray( Amanitopsis vagipata Roze)

    The fungus grows, as a rule, solitary in forests and thickets of shrubs. The mushroom season lasts from July to the end of August.

    In young mushrooms the cap is campanulate, in mature ones it is practically flat, with a diameter of up to 10 cm, gray or grayish-brownish in color, with a tubercle in the center, with a ribbed edge. The cap of the cap is dry, covered with white flakes.

    The pulp of the fungus is white, rather thin, sweet to the taste, but odorless.

    The plates are white, loose, fairly wide.

    Spore powder white, spores spherical, smooth.

    Leg about 15 cm long, 2 cm thick, hollow inside, white, fluffy-scaly or smooth( Fig.).In addition, the pedicle at the base is enlarged and located in the sack-shaped volva, which is located deep beneath the ground.

    The fungus belongs to the IV category. It can be used in fresh, pickled or salted form.

    White float, or white pusher( Amanitopsis alba Gill.)

    The fungus is quite rare, but it can be found in birch or coniferous forests with an admixture of birch. It can be collected under favorable conditions from August to September.

    The hat is first campanulate, later semisolid, up to 10 cm in diameter. In the center it is light ocher, with white flakes.

    The flesh is white, thin, odorless, but with a pleasant taste.

    The plates are white, loose.

    Spore powder white, spores ellipsoidal, their surface smooth.

    Leg up to 10 cm long, hollow, clavate, bloated at the base( Fig.).

    Fig. The float is white, or the pusher is white( Amanitopsis alba Gill.)

    The mushroom is edible, little known. Suitable for drying, can also be used fresh.

    Floating yellow-brown( Amanitopsis fulva IV, G. Smith.)

    A yellow-brown float grows in birch and coniferous forests, on the outskirts of swamps. It often occurs, grows either singly or not in very large groups. The mushroom season lasts from June to August.

    Hat of mature mushrooms is flat, young - ovoid-campanulate, up to 8 cm in diameter.

    Pulp is thin, white, with pleasant taste and smell.

    The plates are loose, white.

    Spore powder white. Spores are ellipsoidal, smooth.

    Leg length up to 10 cm, thickness about 1.5 cm, inside hollow, clavate, blown at the base( Fig.).

    Fig. Float yellow-brown( Amanilopsisfulva W. G. Smith.)

    Mushroom IV category. The food is fresh, but also suitable for drying.

    Float saffron( Amanitopsis ogosea( Quel.) Gill.)

    It grows in mixed and deciduous forests, it can be collected from July to October.

    Caps with a diameter of up to 7 cm, flat, with a mound in the center, orange-buffy with a ribbed striped edge.

    Flesh white, slightly yellowish, thin, without taste and odor.

    The plates are free.

    Spore powder white. The spores are white, globose, smooth. Leg is hollow, up to 12 cm long, 0.5 to 1 cm thick, white, fibrous-scaly, with winding ocherous bands( Fig.).

    Fig. Float saffron( Amanilopsis crocea( Quel.) Gill.)

    Mushroom edible, little known. It is used for fresh food.

    White Pluteus( Pluteus pellitus( Fr.) To umm .)

    The fungus grows on dead wood from May to September, but sometimes it can be found on rotting sawdust.

    The mushroom hat is spread out, up to 6 cm in diameter, white with a tubercle of dark color in the center.

    Flesh is dense, thin, white, without pronounced taste and smell.

    The plates of young mushrooms are white, mature - pink, loose, frequent.

    Spore powder pink. Spores ovoid or ellipsoidal.

    The leg is dense or hollow, up to 6 cm long, about 0.7 cm thick, cylindrical, but thickened from below, white with fibers of gray color( Fig.).

    Fig. Plyutei white( Pluteus pellitus( Fr.) Kitt.)

    Mushroom is little-known, edible. The food is used fresh, pickled or salted.

    Plutus umbrosus( Fr.) To umm .)

    The fungus grows most often in broad-leaved or coniferous forests on old and fallen branches under the soil layer, as well as on stumps and near them. Mushrooms can be harvested from July to September.

    The mushroom hat can be convex or spread, with a diameter of up to 10 cm, with a tubercle located in the center. The color of the cap is dark brown, umber, with fibrous floccula on it.

    The flesh is thin, white in color. The taste of the flesh is somewhat bitter, the smell is rare.

    Plates are frequent, loose. In young mushrooms they are whitish, while for older mushrooms they are pinkish.

    Spore powder pink. Spores oval-ellipsoidal, pink and smooth.

    Leg with a thickness of up to 0.8 cm, about 10 cm long, fairly dense, even( Fig.).

    Fig. Pluteus umbrosus( Fr.) To umm .)

    There are mushrooms, whose peduncle at the top is slightly narrowed. The color of the legs is dirty-white or straw-yellow, in addition, the foot is covered with fibrous flakes of brown color.

    Mushroom is little-known, edible. The food is used fresh.

    Plutus levino-yellow( Fr.) To umm .)

    The fungus grows on wood in deciduous and coniferous forests. The mushroom season lasts from July to October.

    The hat of young mushrooms is wide-wedged, in mature - spread, with a tubercle in the center, diameter up to 12 cm. The color of the cap is brownish-yellow or honey-yellow, it is ribbed and striped at the edges.

    Pulp with a pleasant smell and taste, white.

    The plates are loose, wide and frequent. Spore powder pink, spores broadly ellipsoidal.

    The mushroom leg is dense, cylindrical in shape, smooth, pale yellow( Fig.).

    Fig. Luteau-yellow plait( Pluteus leoninus( Fr.) To umm .)

    Leg length - up to 10 cm, thickness - 1 cm.

    Mushroom is little-known, edible. In food can be used in fresh, salted or marinated, it is suitable for drying.

    Melanoleuka black and white( Melanoleuca telalisa( Fr.) Murr.)

    The mushroom grows among the grass in forests and parks, usually solitary, but occurs in small groups. Fruiting from the end of July to September.

    The hat is first convex, then spread out, up to 10 cm in diameter, dark gray, olive-brown or dark brown.

    Pulp is loose enough, whitish, later grayish, sweetish, but odorless.

    Plates accreted to the pedicle, center wide, frequent, white.

    Spore powder white. Spores are rough, ovate-ellipsoidal. Leg is dense, cylindrical, up to 10 cm long, about 1 cm thick. Leg under thickened, dirty white, with longitudinally arranged fibers( Fig.).

    Fig. Melanoleuka black and white( Melanoleuca melaleuca( Fr.) Murr.)

    Mushroom is little-known, edible. Can be used and salty, and fresh.

    Melanoleuca streaky( Melanoleuca grammopodium( Fr.) Quel.)

    The fungus grows singly or in small groups. It settles, as a rule, on the fringes, near roads and in deciduous forests near shrubs. Mushrooms can be harvested from July to October.

    The mushroom cap is wide-woven, then spread out, up to 12 cm in diameter, with a mound that is located in the center of the cap. The color of the cap is grayish-brown, grayish-brown or reddish, fading, the surface is smooth.

    In the center of the cap the flesh is thickened, white or grayish-brownish, the smell is strong, mealy.

    Plates accreted to the stem, frequent, white or cream. Spore powder white. Spores ovoid or ellipsoidal, rough.

    Leg cylindrical, thickened from below, elastic, whitish, with dark brown strips longitudinally( Fig.)

    Fig. Melanoleuca grammatopodkovaya( Melanoleuca grammopodium( Fr.) Quel.)

    Mushroom edible, little known, can be eaten freshly

    Melanoleuca brevipes( Fr.) Pat.)

    Mushroom can be found on pastures, in gardens and forests. Collect it should be from July to October.

    First the mushroom cap is convex, later becomes horizontally spread, with a diameter of 8 to 12 cm, in the center of the cap there is a tubercle. The hat is dirty yellow or walnut.

    Pulp is soft, brownish, has a pleasant taste and smell of fresh flour.

    Plates accreted to the stalk, frequent.

    Spore powder white. Spores are rough, ellipsoidal.

    Feet brownish or brown, tuberiformly thickened from below, under the head of the head is powdery( Fig.).

    Fig. Melanoleuca brevipes( Fr.) Pat.)

    The length of the leg is from 1 to 5 cm, thickness - 1-3 cm.

    Little-known edible mushroom, it is used in the diet for salty or fresh.

    Mushroom umbrella mastoid( Macrolepiota mastoidea( Fr.) Sing.)

    The fungus grows in coniferous and deciduous forests, on fringes, forest glades and parks from August to October.

    The hat of young fungi is annulate, later semisurgical, 8-12 cm in diameter, white, with brown flakes in the center.

    Flesh is white, with a pleasant smell and taste of hazelnut. Plates are frequent, loose, white in young fungi and light yellow in mature.

    Spore powder white. The spores are smooth, ellipsoidal. Leg is long enough, up to 16 cm, thickness - up to 0.7 cm. Inside the pedicle is a hollow, cylindrical shape, covered with scales of brown color.

    There is also a white ring on the leg, it is movable( Fig.).

    Fig. Mushroom umbrella mastoid( Macrolepiota mastoidea( Fr.) Sing.)

    Mushroom IV category. In the food should be consumed only hats of young mushrooms in fresh form. The mushroom is suitable for drying.

    Mushroom umbrella white( Macrolepiota excoriata( Fr.) Mos.)

    Mushroom is found in forest glades, in old parks, it grows along roads in small groups. The mushroom season lasts from July to September.

    A hat with a diameter of up to 10 cm, white with a brown center, covered with small scales. The cap of the cap is cracked. Flesh white, soft.

    The plates form a cartilaginous projection around the legs.

    Spore powder white, spores ellipsoidal, smooth.

    Leg up to 10 cm long, about 1 cm thick, hollow, white, with membranous mobile ring( Fig.).

    Fig. Mushroom umbrella white( Macrolepiota excoriata( Fr.) Mos.)

    Leg is thickened at the base.

    Mushroom IV category. Suitable for drying, can also be used fresh.

    Lepiota scaly yellowish( Lepiota ventriospora Reici)

    This fungus can be found in oak-pine, pine-birch and cedar-broad-leaved forests. Grows, as a rule, singly or in groups from June to October.

    The hat is from 3 to 8 cm in diameter. In young mushrooms it is broad-conical, in the center it is thickly muscled. In more mature - convex, with a tubercle in the center, yellowish, pale ochristaya, with a disc of brown color.

    The pulp is whitish, with a pleasant mushroom smell and taste.

    The plates are white, frequent, almost free.

    Spores are white, fusiform.

    Leg up to 9 cm long, about 0.8 cm thick, cylindrical, slightly widened at the base, hollow inside, pale brown( Fig.).

    Fig. Lepiota scaly yellowish( Lepiota ventriospora Reici)

    Edible little-known fungus, used fresh.

    Red umbrella( Cystoderma cinnabarinum( Seer.) Fayod)

    It grows mainly in mixed and pine forests, fruiting from July to October.

    The mushroom cap is first convex, later flat, with a diameter of up to 8 cm, bright cinnabar-red color, covered with scales with white fibrous flakes located on the edge.

    Flesh is yellowish pink, with pleasant taste and smell.

    Plates accreted to the stalk, frequent, rather thin. First they are white, later they acquire a cream shade.

    Spores are white, ellipsoidal, smooth.

    Leg up to 6 cm long, about 0.9 cm thick, hollow, cylindrical, even, broadened at the base with a reddish ring( Fig.).

    Fig. Parasol red( Cystoderma cinnabarinum( Seer.) Fayod)

    Mushroom IV category, for food is used in fresh, salty and marinated.

    Chamomile( Agaricus silvicola)

    Hat in young mushrooms is ovoid, semicircular, then convex-spread, later convexly spread, white or grayish white, turns yellow with touch.

    The plates are loose, frequent, at first a light brownish color, then a dark brown color.

    The leg is cylindrical, extending to the base, white. The ring is white with a yellowish coating( Fig.).

    Fig. Chamomile( Agaricus silvicola)

    The length of the leg is 6-8 cm.

    The flesh is white or creamy, has a sharp taste and anise smell.

    The fungus grows in mixed, broad-leaved, spruce, oak and birch forests, as well as in parks, singly or in groups from July to October.

    Edible mushroom. It belongs to the IV category.

    Champignon August( Agaricus august! Is)

    The mushroom cap is almost sharpovidnaya, then semi-prostate, dark brown or dark orange. Its diameter reaches 15 cm.

    The plates are loose, light, then pinkish-red, later dark brown.

    The leg is dense, white, with a white ring, turns yellow( Fig.).

    Fig. Chardonnay Augustus( Agaricus augustus)

    The length of the leg is 5-10 cm.

    The flesh of the fungus is fleshy, whitish, with a pinkish red on the fracture, has an almond smell and a sharp taste.

    Mushroom can be found in coniferous forests, mainly near anthills, from August to October. Edible mushroom.

    Champignon rosewood, or champignon elegant( Agaricus rusiophyllus)

    Hat in young mushrooms hemispherical, later plano-convex, whitish or brownish with a violet-pink hue. Plates are frequent, loose, reddish-pink, later purplish-brown. Leg is whitish with a yellowish hue, hollow, cylindrical, to the base thickened( Fig.).

    Fig. Champignon rosewood, or champignon elegant( Agaricus rusiophy llus)

    Length of the leg - 2,5 cm.

    Flesh of mushroom thin with a narrow whitish ring, yellowish or white, has an almond smell and a sharp taste;

    Mushroom can be found in broadleaf and mixed forests, in pastures, kitchen gardens, in parks in the period from July to October. Little-known edible mushroom.

    Leucoagaricus rouge( Leucoagaricus leucothites)

    The mushroom cap is campanulate, later protuberant with a tubercle, white, in the center - darker. Diameter - 4-10 cm.

    Plates are frequent, loose, first white, later pink. Leg is hollow, cylindrical, white( Fig.).

    Fig. Leucoagaricus rouge( Leucoagaricus leucothites)

    The length of the leg is 4-8 cm. The ring is white, simple, eventually disappearing. The pulp is thick, white, has a pleasant taste and smell.

    The fungus grows mainly in orchards, pastures, gardens and parks, separately or in groups from August to September.

    Copper cinnamon gray( Coprinus cinereus)

    Hat is egg-shaped or cylindrical, later broadly-columned, hairy, then wrinkled. The diameter is up to 3 cm.

    The plates are loose, white, later black, blooming

    The leg is hollow, with a thickened bottom, white, without a ring( Fig.).

    Fig. Copper cinnamon gray( Coprinus cinereus)

    The length of the foot reaches 10 cm.

    The flesh is white, then darkens, has a pleasant smell and taste.

    Little-known edible mushroom.

    Coprinus micaceus(

    ) The cap is thin, the young fungus is ovate, in the mature bell-colored, yellow-brown color, the surface is covered with shiny scales. Diameter - 1-3 cm

    Plates are frequent, loose, first white, then darkening, even later black.

    The leg is hollow, silky( Fig.).

    Fig. Shadow Coprinus( Coprinus ticaceus)

    Length 8-10 cm.

    The mushroom flesh is thin, whitish or pale yellow, has a soft taste and a mushroom smell.

    The mushroom can be found in large groups in pastures, gardens, in orchards, near rotten stumps and at the base of tree trunks from the second half of May to October.

    Little-known edible mushroom.

    Psatyrella gray-brown( Psathyrella spadiceo-grisea)

    The mushroom cap is wide-capped with a blunt tubercle. Diameter - 3-7 cm. Plates are frequent, adherent to the stem, grayish-brown in color. Leg 4 to 10 cm long, cylindrical, whitish in color( Fig.).

    Fig. Psatyrelcha gray-brown( Psathyrella spadiceo-grisea)

    The flesh is dark, watery, then whitish, with a pleasant taste and smell.

    The fungus grows in broadleaf forests on or near stumps between August and September.

    Refers to little-known fungi.

    Psathirella chestnut( Psathirella spadicea)

    The mushroom cap is convex, then spread, brownish-brown or chestnut-colored. Diameter from 3 to 12 cm. The plates are frequent, almost free, first whitish, later brownish-brown. Leg is cylindrical, hollow, silky-white, 3 to 7 cm long( Fig.).

    Fig. Psatirella chestnut( Psathirella spadicea)

    The pulp of the mushroom is brownish, watery, has a mushroom taste. It grows singly or in groups on hardwood, at the base of the stumps between July and October.

    Refers to little-known edible fungi.

    Scallop fleecy( Pholiota squarossa)

    The hat is fleshy, saffron-yellow or yellow-brown-ocher colored, covered with thick, brown scales. Diameter of the cap - from 5 to 15 cm. Plates accreted to the stalk yellowish in young fungi and greenish or dark brown in mature.

    The stem is densely cylindrical, the same color as the hat, up to 12 cm long( Fig.).

    Fig. Scaly pile( Pholiota squarossa)

    The flesh of the fungus is white, then yellowish, has a pungent odor and taste.

    It grows on stumps and trunks of deciduous trees, quite often in large groups in the period from August to November.

    Is a little-known edible fungus.

    Scaly bog( Pholiota spumosa)

    The hat of the young fungus is hemispherical, mature - spreading golden yellow, in the center - yellow-brown. Plates are frequent, adherent to the stem, first greenish-yellowish color, later light-brown. Leg is cylindrical, dense, the same color as the cap( Fig.).

    Fig. Scale borax

    Its length is from 4 to 10 cm.

    Mushroom fungus is watery, thin, light yellow, not having a special smell and taste.

    Growing in forests, on forest litter, less often on stumps, mostly by groups, from August to October. Little-known edible mushroom.

    Webbing Bracelet( Cortinarius arm Hiatus)

    The hat is firstly wide-camped, then spread out brick-red in color. The diameter of the cap is from 5 to 15 cm.

    The plates are rare, light brown with wavy edges, attached to the stem.

    The leg is thick, with a thickened bottom, with 2 or 3 brick-red bands( Fig.).

    Fig. Webbing Bracelet( Cortinarius armillatus)

    The length of the leg is from 6 to 15 cm.

    The fungus grows in coniferous and mixed forests, in humid places in small groups or singly between the end of July and September. Little-known edible mushroom.

    Scalloped web( Cortinarius pholideus)

    The mushroom cap is campanulate, tuconus or convex brownish-brown, with a purple hue on the edge, with a lot of dark-brown scales. The diameter of the cap is 4-9 cm. The plates are frequent, loose, in young mushrooms they are light purple-bluish, and in mature ones they have a brownish-brown coating.

    Leg is solid or hollow, to the base is enlarged, brownish-brown color, with concentric bands of dark-brown scales( Fig.).

    Fig. Spiderweb Scale( Cortinarius pholideus)

    The length of the stem can reach 12 cm. The pulp of the mushroom is brownish in color.

    The mushroom grows in groups under birches from July to October.

    Is a little-known edible fungus. Mushroom IV category.

    Perfect web( Cortinarius praestans)

    The mushroom hat is fleshy, at first hemispherical, dark purple in the middle, with ohristy shade, later chestnut color with a violet shade of the edge. The plates of young specimens are whitish with a violet hue, the mature ones are light brown, adherent to the stem.

    The leg is dense, at the base with an unclear tuber, at first bluish-violet, then ochristo-yellow( Fig.).

    Fig. Perfect web( Cortinarius praestans)

    Leg length - 10-15 cm

    Flesh is whitish, dense, has a pleasant taste and smell.

    The fungus grows in deciduous forests, mainly around birches, between August and October.

    Is a little-known edible fungus. Mushroom Category II.

    Spiderweb mucosa( Cortinarius mucosusj

    Mushroom cap of medium size, hemispherical or campanulate in young fungi, mature - slightly convex, from clay yellow to luscious dark brown, diameter of the cap - 5-10 cm. The surface of the cap is covered with transparent mucus.

    The plates are wide, young mushrooms dull gray, later rusty-brown, slabosrosshiesya

    foot cylindrical, regular shape, light, dark base( fig.)

    Figure cortinarius slimy( Cortinarius mucosus)

    leg length -... 6-12see

    be thick, whitish with a gentle scent.

    Fungus can be found in coniferous and mixed forests in the period from mid-August to late October. It forms mycorrhiza with pine. Does not form large groups.

    is a little-known edible mushrooms. Mushroom category III.

    cortinarius diverse(Cortinarius multiformis)

    The hat in young fungi is convex, with age - spreading, with a broad tubercle of ocher-brown or light-clayey-yellow color. The plates are rare, whitish, later pale-ocherous in color, adherent to the stem. Leg is dense, white with a nodule in the base( Fig.).

    Fig. Spider web multiformis( Cortinarius multiformis)

    Leg length - 4-16 cm

    Flesh white, later yellowish, has a honey smell, but without much taste.

    The fungus grows in deciduous and coniferous forests between August and October.

    Is a little-known edible fungus.

    Spider web abnormal( Cortinarius anomalus)

    The cap of the young fungus is hemispherical, to maturity it becomes flat, grayish-brown with a bluish-violet hue. The diameter of the cap is up to 7 cm. Plates are frequent, lilac in young fungi, in mature - rusty-brown, adherent to the stem.

    Leg cylindrical, dense, in young mushrooms purple, in mature - brownish-white( Fig.).

    Fig. Spiny web is abnormal( Cortinarius rufoolivaceus)

    Leg length is 10-11 cm.

    Flesh of mushroom is friable, watery, bluish-violet, not having a special taste and smell.

    Mushroom can be found in coniferous and deciduous forests among mosses from September to October.

    Is a little-known edible fungus.

    Spiderweb reddish-olive( Cortinarius anomalus)

    Mushroom's cap first convex, later becomes spread, brown-magenta,

    red wine or reddish-purple with a purple hue on the edge. The diameter of the cap is 6-12 cm.

    The plates of young mushrooms are yellow and yellow-green, mature - brown, adherent to the stem.

    The leg is dense, at the base with a nodule, bright purple( Fig.).

    Fig. Spiderweb reddish-olive( Cortinarius rufoolivaceus)

    Length - 5-11 cm.

    Flesh is dense, light purple, in the middle it is pale yellow, has no special taste and smell.

    Mushroom can be found in deciduous and coniferous forests in the period from September to October.

    Is a little-known edible fungus.

    Crepedot mild( Crepidotus mollis)

    The cap is reniform or irregularly rounded, white, yellow or pale in color, wavy at the edges. The diameter is 3-7 cm.

    The plates are narrow, fan-shaped, at first yellowish, then light brown in color.

    The leg is short or absent( Fig.).

    Fig. Crepedot mild( Crepidotus mollis)

    The pulp is thin, has a pleasant taste and smell.

    Mushroom can be found in deciduous forests and on felling, trunks and fallen branches of lindens from May to October.

    Is a little-known edible fungus.

    Spruce mokruha( Gomphidius glutinosus)

    Hat in young mushrooms is convex-conical gray-lilac, in mature - spreading, with slight tubercle, brown or blackish, first mucous, then sticky and shiny. Diameter - 4-14 cm. The plates are rare, wide, descending along the stem, whitish-gray in color, in mature mushrooms - blackening.

    The stem is cylindrical, sticky, at the base of lemon-yellow color, thickening is observed on it. Young mushrooms have a thin film between the pedicle and the cap, consisting of thin fibers. As the fungus grows, the film breaks and forms a brownish, fused ring( Fig.).

    Fig. Spot moss IGomphidius glutinosus)

    The pulp is tender, odorless, but has a sour taste.

    Mushroom can be found in coniferous forests, more often in spruce, solitary or in groups from mid-summer to mid-autumn.

    Is an edible fungus. It belongs to the IV category.

    Spotted mokruha( Gomphidius maculatus)

    In young mushrooms, the cap is conical, mature is flat-convex, slimy, greyish-ocherous with dark spots. Diameter - 3-6 cm

    Plates thick, young mushrooms light gray, in mature - blackening, descending on the stem.

    Leg straight or curved, dense, slimy. The top is dirty white with dark spots, bottom of bright yellow( Fig.).

    Fig. Spotted mokruha( Gomphidius maculatus)

    The pulp is whitish at first, blushing at the break, has no special smell and taste.

    Mushroom can be found in coniferous and mixed forests in the period from July to September.

    Is an edible fungus. It belongs to the IV category.

    Chanterelle yellowing( Cantharellus lutescens)

    The cap is funnel-shaped, thin, yellowish-brown in color. The diameter of the cap is 2-5 cm.

    The plates are thin, yellow or orange, later gray, descending along the stem.

    Leg is hollow, tapering to the base, golden-yellow in color. The length of the leg is 5-10 cm( Fig.).

    Fig. Chanterelle yellowing( Cantharellus lutescens)

    Pulp is light yellow, does not have a particular taste or smell.

    Mushroom can be found in spruce forests in groups of several dozen copies between August and September.

    Is an edible fungus. It belongs to the IV category.

    Chubby hunchbacked( Cantharellus umbonata)

    The young mushrooms have a flat hat; in mature mildew they have a weakly convex head with a blunt tubercle in the middle. Color ash gray to black with a bluish tinge. Diameter - up to 4 cm

    Plates are frequent, descending, white.

    The foot is flat, cylindrical, dense, the same color as the hat, or lighter( Fig.).

    Fig. Chubby hunchback( Cantharellus umbonata)

    At the base is covered with white flakes.

    Mushroom can be found in pine forests in groups or alone in the period from August to October.

    Is an edible fungus. It belongs to the IV category.

    Sparse sphagnum( Craterellus cornucopioides)

    Fruit body tubular, funnel-shaped, tapering from below, edges bent outward. The outer surface is wrinkled, grayish-gray in color, the inner surface is blackish-brown.

    Leg very short, cylindrical, the same color as the hat( Fig.).

    Fig. Sparse beak( Craterellus cornucopioides)

    The mushroom fungus is thin, has no pronounced taste and smell. The fungus grows in mixed and deciduous forests in dense groups during the period from August to September.

    The mushroom is edible. It belongs to the IV category.

    Chaga( Inonotus obliquus), or black birch fungus

    Chaga is formed as a result of infection of the tree with a parasitic fungus. Spores of this fungus germinate only if they fall on the damaged parts of the tree. As a result, a built-up edge of irregular shape appears, with a diameter of up to 40 cm( Fig.).

    Fig. Chaga( Inonotus obliquus), or black birch fungus

    Black color growth, covered with cracks. On the cut, the color is dark brown. After the host tree dies, the fruit body of the fungus appears on the opposite side of the trunk.

    This mushroom is found in birch forests. The broth of this mushroom is used instead of tea.

    Tender peat-flax( Pleurotus tigrinus)

    Young mushrooms have a convex head, mature - funnel-shaped with a folded down edge, white, cream or yellowish with fibrous brown scales. The diameter is 3-10 cm.

    The plates are narrow, descending, whitish-cream color.

    Leg Thick, white, at the bottom it is dark-brown, scaly.

    The pulp of the fungus is dense, white in color, crimson at the break.

    Mushroom can be found in deciduous forests in groups on stumps and fallen trees in the period from July to September( Fig.).

    Fig. Tincture of peeler( Pleurotus tigrinus)

    The mushroom is edible.

    Peeler flake( Lentinus lepideus), or sleeper mushroom

    The hat in the fungus is first convex, later becomes funnel-shaped, dry, dirty white or light brown with brown scales. The diameter is 3-12 cm.

    The plates are dirty white or yellowish, descending. Leg of cylindrical form, narrowed at the bottom, whitish with reddish-brownish scales( Fig.).

    Fig. Pilostistus scaly( Lentinus lepideus), or sleeper mushroom

    Length of the leg - 2-8 cm

    Flesh is rigid, white.

    Mushroom can be found on softwood, fallen trees, stumps, as well as on processed wood, telegraph poles, sleepers between June and September.

    Is an edible fungus. Refers to the III category.

    White oak mushroom( Boletus edulis f. Quercicola Vassilk)

    The cap is brownish, gray in color. Leg whitish with a brownish mesh pattern, long, thick( Fig.).

    Fig. White oak mushroom( Boletus edulis f. Quercicola Vassilk)

    Mushroom can be found in oak forests from early July to mid-October. It belongs to the IV category.

    White fungus fungus( Boletus edulis f. Edulis)

    The hat is brown, reddish-brown or chestnut-brown, dry, smooth.

    Leg long, thickened to the bottom, with brownish net( Fig.).

    Fig. White fungus fungus( Boletus edulis f. Edulis)

    Fungus can be found in fir groves in the period from the second half of July to the third decade of August.

    Can be confused with inedible bile fungus. Refers to the I category.

    Light-cured oxidizer( Leccinum scabrum f. Oxydabile( Sing.) Skirgiello)

    The cap is yellowish-brown or light-spotted in color, small in size. Leg of white with thick black-brown scales, short. The flesh at the break is pinkish, then darkens( Fig.).

    Fig. A fungus can be found in wet birch, pine-birch forests on peat soil between August and October.

    Refers to category II.

    Marsh spoon( Leccinum scabrum f. Chioneum( Fr.) Skirgiello)

    The mushroom head is dirty white with a greenish-brown tinge. Its diameter is up to 7 cm.

    Leg is thin, white with dirty-white scales( Fig.).

    The flesh is pale yellow, watery, does not have a special smell and taste.

    Mushroom can be found in wetlands for the period from July to September.

    Refers to category II.

    Fig. Marshmallow worm( Leccinum scabrum f. Chioneum( Fr.) Skirgiello)

    Black trimmer( Leccinum scabrum f. Melaneum( Smotl.) Skirgiello)

    Black-brown hat, up to 8 cm in diameter. Leg with dark brown scales( Fig.).

    Fig. Black podberezovik( Leccinum scabrum f. Melaneum( Smotl.) Skirgiello)

    Pulp flesh, tubules are dark gray.

    Mushroom can be found in damp pine-birch forests in the period from July to September.

    Refers to category II.

    Semi-white mushroom( Boletus impolitus)

    The hat is first convex, later semispread, light grayish-brown, yellow-brown in color, flaky-fibrous. Diameter of the cap is 20 cm. The tubular layer is first bright yellow, then greenish-yellow.

    Leg tuber-blown, yellow, brownish-reddish at the top. The length of the leg is 10 cm( Fig.).

    Fig. Semi-white mushroom( Boletus impolitus)

    The flesh is thick, pale yellow, and has a faint smell of carbolic acid in old fungi.

    Mushroom can be found in deciduous forests, in particular in oak forests, in small groups from August to September.

    Refers to the IV category.

    Seedlings are late( Suillus luteus( Fr.) S. F. Gray)

    The cap is at first hemispherical, then flat-convex, sometimes with curved upward edges, yellowish-brown in color, sometimes with a purple hue. The diameter of the cap is up to 10 cm.

    The tubular layer is pale yellow, in young specimens it is covered with a white film, which, as the fungus grows, forms a ring on the stem.1 Leg is cylindrical, dense, above the ring of white, beneath - pale yellow( Fig.).

    Fig. Late oatmeal( Suillus luteus( Fr.) S. F. Gray)

    The young fungus has a white ring, the mature one is dirty-violet.

    Pulp is thick, young mushrooms soft, mature - watery, white or yellowish, has a pleasant taste, but almost no odor.

    Mushroom can be found in pine forests, on forest edges, clearings, near roads. Grows in large groups from June to October.

    Refers to category II.

    Swamp oil( Suillus flavidus( Fr.) Sing.)

    Hat is tubular-convex, grayish-yellowish or yellowish-greenish in color, slimy. Diameter - up to 7 cm.

    Leg is dense, cylindrical with an adhesive white or greenish ring. The length of the stem reaches 8 cm( Fig.).

    Fig. Swamp oil( Suillus flavidus( Fr.) Sing.)

    The pulp of the fungus is dense, yellowish in color, blushes on the cut, has a pleasant taste and smell.

    The mushroom can be found in swampy pine forests between August and September.

    Refers to the IV category.

    Peppermint( Suillus piperatus( Fr.) O. Kuntze)

    The cap is round, convex, fleshy, yellow-brown, copper-red or orange-brown. The diameter of the cap is up to 8 cm. The leg is dense, smooth, straight or bent, light above, yellow below. The length of the leg is 0.8 cm( Fig.).

    Fig. Pepper mushroom( Suillus piperatus( Fr.) O. Kuntze)

    The pulp of the mushroom is friable, sulfur yellow, has a mushroom smell and bitter peppery taste.

    Mushroom can be found in dry coniferous, mixed and deciduous forests from July to October.

    Is a little-known edible fungus of low category.

    Rhizopogon yellowish( Rhizopogon luteolus Fr. et Nordh)

    Fruit body round or tuber-shaped, up to 5 cm in diameter. Outside dirty-yellow-brown color, covered with black-brown cords of mycelium. The skin is thick( Fig.).

    Fig. Rhizopogon yellowish( Rhizopogon luteolus Fr. et Nordh)

    Mushroom fungus is white at first, then greenish brown and finally almost black. Does not have a special smell and taste.

    Mushroom can be found in pine, spruce, mixed and deciduous forests between August and September.

    Little-known edible mushroom.

    Rhizopogon pinkish( Rhizopogon roseolus( corda))

    Fruit bodies are irregularly rounded or tuberous, first white, then yellowish, then olive-brown in color. The diameter is 1-5 cm( Fig.).

    Fig. Rhizopogon pinkish( Rhizopogon roseolus( corda))

    The pulp of the fungus is dense, fleshy, first white, then yellow and olive-green. Has no special taste and smell.

    The fungus grows in coniferous and mixed forests, less common in deciduous forests from July to October.

    Little-known edible mushroom. Used for food in fresh form.

    Melanogaster ambiguous( Melanogaster ambiguus)

    Fruit bodies underground tuberous, in diameter reach 2-4 cm, olive-brown in color( Fig.).

    Fig. Melanogaster ambiguous( Melanogaster ambiguus)

    The pulp of the fungus is hard-grained, black, with a bluish tint. Has a spicy taste and a garlicky smell.

    Mushroom can be found in coniferous, mixed and deciduous forests on calcareous soils. It grows in groups from May to October. Is mycorrhiza forming of hardwoods.

    Little-known edible mushroom. It belongs to category II.

    Round head( Calvatia utriformis), or saccate-shaped

    Fruit bodies large, ovoid or broadly pierced, with a sterile base in the form of a false peduncle, flattened from above( Fig.).

    Fig. Round head( Calvatia utriformis), or sap-like sacs

    The flesh of the fungus is white, later greenish-yellow and brown. It has a pleasant mushroom smell, but without a particularly pronounced taste.

    The mushroom grows in deciduous and mixed forests, in meadows, arable land, in orchards singly or in small groups from May to September. Mushroom IV category.

    Uburny raincoat( Lycoperdon umbrinum Pers)

    Fruit body whitish, ocher, with age - brownish, olive brown, umber-brown with dark spines, which are grouped in spherical, pear-shaped, with short stem. The skin is olive-brownish( Fig.).

    Fig. Raincoat umbrella( Lycoperdon umbrinum Pers)

    Flesh white, subsequently darkens and becomes brownish-purple. Smell and taste does not.

    Mushroom can be found in coniferous and deciduous forests on rotten wood singly or in small groups in the period from July to September. Mushroom IV category.

    Lead-gray lead( Vovista plumbea)

    Fruit body spherical, outer shell white, internal - lead-gray. In diameter it is 1.5-3.5 cm( Fig.).

    Fig. Povovka gray lead( Bovista plumbea)

    The pulp of the mushroom is loose, first white, then brown, does not have a special taste and smell.

    The mushroom grows in forests of different types, in open spaces solitary or in groups from the second half of June to September. Mushroom IV category.

    Blackening( Bovista nigrescens)

    The fruit body is spherical in shape without a leg, in diameter - 2-8 cm. In youth it is completely white.

    The pulp of the mushroom is loose, first white, then purple-brown, not having a special taste and smell( Fig.).

    Fig. Blacksmithing( Bovista nigrescens)

    The mushroom can be found in deciduous, coniferous and mixed forests, in meadows, pastures and felling alone or in groups from June to September.

    Mushroom IV category.

    Fescue common( Phallus impudicus Pers), or morel stinky, gouty arthritic

    The young fruiting body of the fungus is white or creamy, has an ovoid shape, less often globular.

    When maturing, the shell is broken into 2 or 3 blades and a leg appears from it, at the top of which there is a hat. The hat is brownish-green, bell-shaped, covered with mucus.

    When the fungus ripens, it starts to emit an unpleasant smell of carrion.

    The stem is cylindrical, loose, hollow, white or yellowish( Fig.).

    Fig. Pheasant( Phallus impudicus Pers), or morel stinky, gouty arthritic

    The length can reach 22 cm.

    The fungus grows in deciduous forests among shrubs singly or in small groups from July to October.

    Little-known edible mushroom.

    Rogatik reed( Clavariadelphus Ligula)

    Fruit body clavate, flat-bunovid or linguiform with rounded or thickened apex, first creamy, then ocher-yellow( Fig.).

    Fig. Rogatik reed( Clavariadelphus ligula)

    In height it reaches 10-15 cm, inside the hollow.

    The fungus pulp is elastic, creamy, has no smell and taste.

    The fungus grows in coniferous( spruce, pine), less often in deciduous forests solitary or in small bundles from the middle of July to September.

    Mushroom IV category.

    Ragatik yellow( Ramaria flava), or Ramaria yellow

    Fruit bodies highly branched, cream, lemon-yellow or gray-yellow in youth, mature mushrooms are golden-ocher or orange. Branches of the same length with blunted ends. Height - up to 20 cm.

    Feet dense, at the base whitish, with pressing reddens( Fig.).

    Fig. Rogatik yellow( Ramariaflava), or Ramaria yellow

    Length - up to 8 cm.

    Flesh is fragile, watery, white or yellowish.

    The fungus grows in coniferous and deciduous forests from August to September.

    Mushroom IV category.

    Rogatik groinlike( Ramaria botrytis)

    Fruit body massive, strongly branched, white, matured brownish or ocher in adulthood. The height of the fruit body is from 8 to 15 cm. The branches are thick, short, the tips are colored purple.

    The leg is dense, whitish( Fig.).

    Re. Rogatik groin-like( Ramaria botrytis)

    Flesh is brittle, yellowish color, it becomes red with pressure. Does not have a special smell and taste.

    The fungus grows in mixed and deciduous forests from June to September.

    Little-known edible fungus of the IV category.

    Amatyst fossa( Clavulina amethystina), or clavuline amethyst

    Fruit body strongly branched, purple-violet, at the base more pale. The branches are cylindrical with a blunt or dentate ending.

    The leg is dense, short. If it is absent, the fruit body is branched to the base( Fig.).

    Fig. The amatyst rhyatite( Clavulina amethystina), or clavuline amethyst

    The mushroom white flesh, when dried, becomes purple, has no special taste and smell.

    Mushroom can be found in the deciduous forest alone or in groups from late August to October.

    Little-known edible fungus of the IV category.

    Collar ridge( Clavulina cristata), or clavuline comb

    Fruit bodies highly branched, pale yellowish or pinkish in color. Their height is 2-10 cm. The branches on the

    ends are sharp, comb-toothed. The leg is dense, short or completely absent.

    The flesh is dense, whitish, has no special flavor and odor.

    Mushroom can be found in deciduous and coniferous forests, sometimes on rotten wood in the period from August to September( Fig.).

    Fig. Rogatik cristata( Clavulina cristata), or clavuline cristate

    Little-known edible fungus of the IV category.

    Diluted venous( Disciotis venosa)

    Fruit body fleshy, young mushrooms saucer-shaped, mature - cup-shaped. The external surface is whitish, felt, the inside is ocher, then brown, wrinkled. The leg is short.

    Mushroom can be found in coniferous and mixed forests, along the coast, on logging sites singly or in small groups from April to May( Fig.).

    Fig. Dishyard venous( Disciotis venosa)

    Little-known edible mushroom.

    Dishware pink-red( Discina andlis)

    Fruit body large, saucer-shaped, smooth outside, pink-red first, then yellowish white in the future. The leg is deep-seated, the folds from the stem pass to the fruiting body. The length and width of the foot are 0.5-1 cm.

    The fungus can be found in coniferous and mixed forests on the litter during the period from May to June( Fig.).

    Fig. Saucer pink-red( Discina ancilis)

    Is a little-known edible fungus.

    Spatula fungus( Spathularia flavida), or patularia yellowish

    Fruit body spatulate, juicy, the upper part is delimited from the stem, golden or orange-yellow. The height of the fruit body is 4-6 cm.

    The pedicle is cylindrical, dense, smooth, tapering from above, white.

    Mushroom can be found in coniferous forests, in particular in larch stands, in large groups from late July to September( Fig.).

    Fig. Spatularia flavida, or yellow yellowish spiderylum

    Red( Sarcoscypha coccinea)

    The fruiting body of the fungus is initially cup-shaped, then saucer-like, inside a cinnabar-red color, outside the whitish shade. The diameter reaches 6 cm.

    The leg is dense, whitish. The length of the stem is up to 5 cm.

    The mushroom flesh is watery, whitish, does not have a special taste and smell.

    The fungus grows in deciduous forest singly or in small groups from April to early May( Fig.).

    Fig. Red( Sarcoscypha coccinea)

    Little-known edible mushroom.

    Pecan orange( Aleuria aurantia)

    Fruit body at first globular, then cup-shaped, in diameter - up to 10 cm. Edges wavy, inside bright orange-red, outside light.

    Pulp is thin, orange.

    The fungus grows in deciduous and coniferous forests on moist sandy soil, in well-lit places in large groups in the period from August to September( Fig.).

    Fig. Orange peach( Aleuria aurantia)

    Is an edible fungus of the IV category.

    I am a dark chestnut squash( Plicaria badia)

    Fruit body is cup-shaped, in diameter - up to 6 cm, chestnut-brown with a granular surface, compressed to the base in a leg.

    The disk is flat or wavy, olive-brown in color.

    The mushroom flesh is thin, juicy. The fungus grows in deciduous forests in close groups during the period from July to August( Fig.).

    Fig. Plicaria badia

    Little-known edible mushroom.

    Donkey ears( Otidea onotica)

    The fruiting body resembles a donkey's ear, with the edges curling inwards, from below narrowed into a small foot. Outdoors it is yellowish-brown in color, rough, inside the yellow-orange. The height of the specimen is from 6 to 10 cm. The mushroom of the fungus is waxy, has a sweetish taste, but no odor. The fungus grows in deciduous forests from late summer to frost( Fig.).

    Fig. Donkey ears( Otidea onotica)

    Little-known edible mushroom.

    Teldellodon gelatinous( Tremellodon gelatinosum)

    Fruit body cap-shaped, adherent to the substrate laterally or an eccentric pedicle. The length is up to 7 cm.

    The pulp of the fungus is gelatinous, translucent, whitish, yellowish, grayish or pinkish in color, does not have a special taste and smell( Fig.).

    Fig. Tremellodone gelatinous( Tremellodon gelatinosum)

    Mushroom can be found in moist coniferous forests on wood, stumps between July and October.