Jun 10, 2018
Peanut( peanut)( Arachis hypogaea L.) is an annual herbaceous plant, belongs to the family of legumes.
Synonyms for : groundnut, Chinese walnut.
Description. Annual herbaceous plant of legume family( Fabaceae) 20-60 cm high. Root stem, branching. The root system is powerful( it extends 130-160 cm deep and sideways more than 100 cm).Leaves are alternate, pubescent, parodergial, consisting of four leaves. The flowers are yellow, located in the axils of the leaves. After self-fertilization and fertilization of the lower cleistogamous, i.e.closed flowering flowers, the ovary begins to lengthen. On a special filamentary gynofore, the ovary descends to the ground and deepens along with the fruit's ovary to the soil to a depth of 10 cm, where it gradually grows to form a bean( fruit).Peanuts, therefore, are called peanuts, that the fruit develops in the ground and consists of several seeds( one to four, but more often two to three).The weight of 1000 seeds is 350-500 g.
Ripening of fruits in peanuts is unusual, and flowers on the same plant of three varieties. Small flowers - open, but bloom for nothing, they do not give beans. Others grow at the very ground, after they bloom, the leg on which the ovary sits grows and screws the ovary into the ground, the beans grow underground, the third flowers bloom under the earth, they pollinate themselves, it occurs in an undisclosed bud, beansare also formed underground. Peanuts are a plant of deserts, there is little water, but there are a lot of beans - this is the plant and has adapted.
Fruits contain one to three seeds covered with a reddish coat.
The birthplace of peanuts, or peanuts, was considered the Old World. In Europe, peanuts came from China, it was called "Chinese nuts."However, he came to China from Brazil in the XVI century. In Russia, peanuts appeared in the XVIII century. The first landing was conducted in the south, in the Odessa region, and then it was planted in the south of Ukraine, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Medicinal raw materials: beans. On the benefits of peanuts look here.
Biological features. Peanuts are a drought-resistant, heat-, moisture- and light-loving plant. The period of flowering is very long, lasting from the middle of June to the very frost, so under one bush there are beans with varying degrees of maturity. Vernalization of peanuts at a temperature of 22-30 ° C showed that this method reduces the length of the growing season by 10-15 days and increases the yield of beans by 13-17%.
Distribution. Until now, groundnut in the wild is not found. Most researchers believe that his homeland is Brazil, because there are eight other forms of peanuts growing in the wild state.
In the culture, peanuts occupy large areas in India, China, Japan, Nigeria, Burma, Argentina, Senegal, Sudan, Paraguay.
It is also cultivated in Central Asia, the Krasnodar Territory, Transcaucasia and the south of Ukraine.
Chemical composition. Peanut beans contain 48-50% of edible non-drying oil, about 15% of starch and about 30% of protein, about 12% of protein, 2% of fat and 45-48% of starch are contained in stems and leaves. The same substances are rich in other parts of peanuts( shell, seed coat), which are a high-nutrition for livestock.
Application. Peanuts provide valuable products for a number of industries. Peanut butter is used in margarine, canning and soap industries. Wastes of oil production in the form of makuhi go for the production of halva, and flour for confectionery products, as an admixture in chocolate, cocoa, etc. From candies of peanuts, they make sweets, and in their natural form they are very tasty. Peanut butter is used in medicine for making parenteral medicinal forms on a par with almond oil, and beans are used as a substitute for almonds.
Agricultural machinery for growing
Site selection. Peanuts grow well on light black earth soils, but loams and sandy loams with sufficient fertility are most favorable for it. The best predecessors are winter crops, which are fertilized, and vegetable crops in irrigated areas.
Soil treatment. Preparation of soil for peanuts should begin with peeling of stubble, and then make plowing on plowland to a depth of 25-27 cm. In early spring the soil is harvested in two tracks, and before sowing it is cultivated with subsequent harrowing.
Application of fertilizers. For plowing, 10-15 c / ha of manure should be applied in plowing with granulated superphosphate in the amount of 1-2 c / ha and potassium salt 0.5-1.0 c / ha.
Reproduction. Peanuts propagate directly by sowing seeds in the soil. Five to eight days before sowing, peanut beans are cleaned of shells on special machines. The crop is produced with special seeders CA-6G or cotton and corn seeders SK-G-6.Sowing is recommended when the temperature of the arable layer of the soil reaches 13-15 ° C.The seeding rate is 50-80 kg / ha( depending on the size of the beans), and the depth of embedment is 4-7 cm.
The feeding area is 70x25( 30) cm, and in irrigation conditions - 70x10( 15) cm. Density of plantingis regulated by a break through them in the stage of two leaves. The use of a square-nest method increases the yield of peanuts by 1.5 centners per hectare and reduces labor costs by half.
Care of plantations consists in systematic loosening of rows and weeding in rows. Such loosening during the summer must be made three to five times to a depth of 8-12 cm. In conditions of wet summer and in irrigated areas, peanuts are hilled during flowering, burying the gynophore in the ground. In July they produce coinage, i.e.cut off the tops of the main stem, resulting in a significantly higher yield.
Harvesting. Peanuts are removed with peanuts. After airing, the bushes are placed in tents and mops for ripening and drying beans.
Drying. In the case of belated harvesting with the onset of wet rainy weather, the beans are dried in dryers at a temperature of about 40 ° C.
With high agrotechnics and good care, the peanut crop reaches 8-10 centners per hectare, and in conditions of irrigation, a yield of 20 centners / hectare can be achieved.
Packing .Peanut beans are packed in clean dry whole bags. Storage should be carried out in conditions that ensure complete preservation from damage and infestation by pests.
Quality requirements for .Peanut beans must meet the requirements of GOST 7078/54.
Cultivation of seeds. For seed production, the seed plot is placed in the same field with a common sowing, but separated from the last by pegs. On the seed plot, high agrotechnics is applied with the application of fertilizers and careful care. Before harvesting from the seed plot, patients, atypical and underdeveloped plants are pulled out and tested. Cleaning, threshing, drying and storing peanuts from the seed plot is carried out separately from the crop from the general sowing.
For seeding the next year's seed during harvest, healthy and powerful plants are selected with a good harvest of beans. Harvesting, threshing and storage of selected plants are carried out separately.