First aid for emergency situations
Jun 09, 2018
Urgent conditions include, above all, wounds. A wound is a violation of the integrity of skin, mucous tissues or serous membranes with damage to various tissues and organs caused by mechanical stress. Wounds are gunshot, chopped, chipped, scalped, smashed. Wounds can be single, multiple and combine with other lesions( chemical, radioactive, bacteriological).Any injury is accompanied by bleeding.
First aid. The main tactic for wounds is the fight against bleeding, shock and symptomatic therapy at the prehospital stage.
For small and uncomplicated wounds, treatment at the feldsher-midwife point is shown: excision of necrotic areas and crushed tissues with subsequent suturing of the wound.
Severe and extensive injuries show hospitalization in surgical departments.
Chest injuries. In peacetime, chipped and cut wounds are more common. Danger to life is a penetrating wound, accompanied by the opening of the pleural cavity and damage to the heart, lungs, large vessels. In addition, with injuries of the lower sections of the thorax, damage to the abdominal cavity( thoracoabdominal injuries) is observed.
Victims complain of pain in the wound area, bleeding. With penetrating wounds, there is air sucking, subcutaneous emphysema.
If the patient is unconscious, in deep intoxication, there are no witnesses of the accident, and the wound( especially in winter) is closed with clothes, you need to be very careful and do not look through it.
The help consists in applying a bandage, in particular, hermetic( occlusive) and cold on the wound, in anesthesia;When the pneumothorax is open, oxygen is indicated according to the indications.
Hospitalization in a surgical or thoracic hospital. The wound of the heart is one of the most dangerous injuries.
Extensive wounds lead to immediate death. About 15% of the victims with stabbed and small cut wounds of the heart die, usually not from acute blood loss, but from cardiac tamponade( accumulation of blood in the pericardial cavity, compressing the heart).For developing heart tamponade are characterized by: severe general condition, low systolic and high diastolic blood pressure, tachycardia with a threadlike pulse, swelling of the veins of the neck, upper limbs, face, cyanosis of the skin and mucous membranes. However, this is an expanded tamponade clinic, and sometimes, in addition to a wound in the region of the heart and a certain decrease in blood pressure, symptoms may be absent, especially if the patient is intoxicated. It must be remembered that any wound in the projection of the heart is dangerous. Errors are possible when the wound is applied with a long narrow knife or an awl, and the wound is located outside the projection of the heart, especially in the region of the back.
At the slightest suspicion of injury to the heart, immediate delivery of the victim to the hospital( surgical or cardiosurgical department) is necessary. The vein must be punctured, transfusion of Ioliglyukine, rheopolyglucin, and hormones is initiated during transportation. By radio walk through the senior doctor notify the surgical department where the patient is being taken, and deliver it directly to the operating room, bypassing the waiting room.