Jun 08, 2018
As a result of exposure to low ambient temperature, general cooling may occur, while body temperature may drop to 34 ° C or lower. Cooling of the body depends not only on the temperature level, but also on the duration of its effect, and therefore distinguish several degrees of gravity of total cooling.
For a mild degree, or adynamic, a decrease in body temperature from 30 to 32 ° C is typical. In this case, the victim's consciousness remains preserved or clouded, the skin is pale or cyanotic, the pulse rate drops to 60 beats per minute. For some affected, blood pressure remains within their normal range or moderately increases, the rhythm of breathing is preserved. The victims become drowsy, quickly tired, experiencing a sense of weakness, dizziness, headache. Their movement and speech become slow, they are inhibited and inactive.
Emergency assistance to victims with general cooling should be directed to the fastest warming of the body and the restoration of normal temperature. For this, the patient is placed in a bath with water at a temperature of 36 ° C and for 15-20 minutes the water temperature is raised to 38-40 ° C, maintained at this level for about 1.5 hours with constant monitoring of the temperature of the victim's body.until the temperature in the rectum is raised to 35 "C.To enhance the effect of water treatment, the victim can be massaged by using a soaped sponge or sponge. After that, it should be given by a hot drink, 40-60 ml of 40% glucose solution warmed up to 35-40 ° C is injected intravenously. Further, asymptomatic therapy is carried out: to accelerate warming and desensitization, 10% solution of calcium chloride intravenously;elimination of acidosis - 5% solution of sodium bicarbonate, with hypotension intravenously - a solution of polyglucin, cardiovascular drugs, analgesics and antihistamines. If there is a violation of the respiratory function, artificial ventilation should be performed.a and lungs are shown corticosteroid hormones, osmotic diuretics
After removal of the patient from the state of hypothermia treatment should be directed to the prevention of possible complications that can be bronchitis, pneumonia, nephritis, etc.
The victims with general cooling after warming are hospitalized in a hospital.on stretchers in the supine position.