Cancer of the Fallopian tube - Causes, symptoms and treatment. MF.
Jun 03, 2018
To date, malignant tumors of the uterine tube constitute 0.3% of malignant tumors of the female genital organs, being thus the most rare oncogynecologic disease. Virtually all malignant tumors of the fallopian tubes are epithelial in nature. Sarcomas are extremely rare.
Causes of uterine tube cancer
Ovary cancer is most often observed at the age of 50-60 years. The risk factors for this tumor are unknown. Histologically, both in its structure and in the course of the process, the cancer of the uterine tube resembles ovarian cancer, hence the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases may be similar. Fallopian tubes are often affected secondarily, under the condition of primary damage to the ovaries, uterus, gastrointestinal tract, breast
Symptoms of uterine tube cancer
The classical triad of symptoms in uterine tube cancer includes:
• copious watery or discharge from the genitals,
• pain in the lower abdomen,weight in the abdomen.
• volume formation of the small pelvis.
Clinical manifestations of cancer of the uterine tube are erased. Watery or spotting from the genitals is the most frequent symptom of a tumor. It occurs in 50% of cases. In the case of the appearance of causeless watery or bloody discharge from the genital tract, premenopausal women in pre- and postmenopausal women should always exclude the cancer of the uterine tube. Sometimes the uterine tube cancer is an accidental finding when the uterus is extirpated with the appendages about another disease.
The main diagnostic methods are:
• a history, detailed examination, examination
• Biopsy from the uterus cavity
• Diagnostic laparoscopy and laparotomy
Like ovarian cancer, the uterine tube cancer is disseminated mainlyby contact, mainly spreading through the peritoneum. At the time of diagnosis, 80% of patients have metastases within the abdominal cavity. Fallopian tubes contain a large number of lymphatic vessels, through which lymph flows into the lumbar and pelvic lymph nodes, and lymphogenous metastases are often observed in uterine tube cancer. The defeat of lumbar lymph nodes is detected in 33% of patients.
There is currently no classification for determining the stage of uterine tube cancer. Usually use a modified classification developed for ovarian cancer. The stage of the tumor is determined by the results of a laparotomy. As a rule, late stages in uterine tube cancer are observed less frequently than in ovarian cancer. This is due to the fact that patients usually go to the doctor earlier because of secretions from the genitals.
Treatment of uterine tube cancer
Treatment of uterine tube cancer is similar to ovarian cancer. Treatment, surgical rule. The minimum amount of surgery - the removal of education, as a rule, is not permissible. In uterine tube cancer, extirpation of the uterus with appendages and resection or removal of the large omentum are shown. With disseminated cancer of the uterine tube, the operation should be cytoreductive( maximum removal of the primary tumor within the limits of the possible).
For monochemotherapy, alkylating agents and cisplatin are most often used. In cancer of the uterine tube, it is advisable to use the same chemotherapy regimens as for ovarian cancer.
Although radiotherapy has been widely used in ovarian cancer in the past, its role in the treatment of this disease remains unclear. Patients usually underwent remote radiation therapy in the pelvic area, but when the tumor spreads beyond its limits, the use of radiation therapy is illogical. In recent years, microscopic residual tumors or in their absence have suggested irradiation of the stomach and pelvis.
Prognosis for uterine tube cancer
The five-year survival rate for uterine tube cancer is approximately 40%.As a rule, the cancer of the uterine tube is diagnosed earlier than ovarian cancer, in view of the presence of complaints, but in their absence, the diagnosis is more difficult and occurs later than the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. The prognosis is largely determined by the stage of the tumor. This explains that the 5-year survival rate for the I stage of uterine tube cancer, according to the literature, is only 65%.However, do not forget that the uterine tube cancer is poorly studied and many data are still not supported by real research.
Sarcoma of the fallopian tube is usually carcinosarcoma. They are very rare, they usually appear at the age of 50-60 years and are diagnosed at later stages. During the operation, if possible, remove the primary tumor and all metastases within the abdominal cavity. Then, chemotherapy is given by combinations based on cisplatin. The prognosis is unfavorable - most patients with sarcoma die within 2 years.
Doctor gynecologist Kupatadze D.D.