The tactics of vaccination.ways to administer vaccines
May 28, 2018
Before carrying out the inoculations, it is necessary to carefully check the quality of the preparation, its labeling, and the integrity of the ampoule( vial).
Opening of ampoules, dissolution of lyophilized vaccines( measles, mumps), the vaccination procedure is carried out in accordance with the instructions, with strict adherence to aseptic rules.
The drug in the opened ampoule( vial) is not subject to storage.
The toolkit for carrying out preventive vaccinations( syringes, needles, scarifiers) should be disposable and be rendered unusable in the presence of the person to whom the vaccine was given, or his parent.
When carrying out the vaccination procedure, medical personnel must strictly observe the relevant provisions of the "Instructions for the use of the drug".When carrying out the vaccination, the patient should assume a sitting or lying position.
This will help to avoid falling with possible fainting conditions that occur during the procedure in adolescents and adults.
When carrying out the vaccination, the following methods of administration of preparations are used: dermal, intradermal, subcutaneous, intramuscular, enteral, intranasal.
Parenteral administration of preparations( by cutaneous, intradermal, subcutaneous and intramuscular route) can be performed using scarifiers, syringes and needleless injectors. Needleless injectors administer the vaccine, serum preparations with a warm stream through the skin under high pressure. This method of vaccination allows the patient to avoid pain, they can be vaccinated up to 1500 people per hour.
Before parenteral administration of the inactivated vaccine, the skin grafted in the area of injection should be wiped with alcohol or ether, and after the inoculation lubricate with 70% alcohol.
Intradermal vaccines should be injected strictly into the skin of the inner side of the forearm or the outer side of the shoulder, inserting the needle with a cut from the bottom at an angle of 10-15 °.If the needle is inserted correctly, a small, whitish, clearly defined and dense formation appears on the skin at the injection site, which looks like a lemon crust.
When the vaccine is injected subcutaneously, the needle should be inserted at an angle of 45-50 ° in the subcutaneous tissue of the subscapular region or the outer side of the shoulder( thigh) or in the lateral areas of the abdomen.
Intramuscular injection of the vaccine should be performed in the upper outer quadrant of the buttock.
Before vaccination of live vaccines used dermatologically, the place where it is supposed to scarify the skin should be treated with alcohol, then with ether. Then apply a few drops of the drug at the required distance from each other, according to the instructions of this drug. After that, with the tip of a special scarifier( pen) through the applied drops, make shallow incisions of the skin to the papillary layer( drops should appear - dewdrops of blood).Then the vaccine should be wiped with the scarifier plane, allow to dry for 5-10 minutes and place the incisions with a sterile cloth for 45-60 minutes.
When vaccinated enterally, liquid and tablet preparations are administered through the mouth.they are given a vaccine, appropriately a spoon or tweezers, the polio vaccine is injected through the horn with a special pipette.
Oral preparations are administered only in the presence of a health professional.
Intranasal immunization requires the use of a special nebulizer. Before administering the vaccine, each grafted tip of the nebulizer must be wiped with 70% alcohol, injected at a depth of 0.5 cm into the nasal passages, previously cleaned of mucus.
Disturbances in the technique or volume of the drug administered can lead to various complications and reactions in the vaccinated.
Vaccination is monitored in accordance with the instructions for the use of drugs in the first 30 minutes after the introduction, because at this time it is theoretically possible to develop immediate reactions, including anaphylactic shock.
According to the Law of the Russian Federation on the sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population, vaccinations against tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, measles, mumps are mandatory.