• Cultivation of rootstocks

    Vaccination is the combination of two parts of different plants, as a result of which they grow together and continue to grow as a single organism. The grafted part of the plant is called a graft, and the plant to which it is planted is a stock. With the help of grafting and re-inoculation of fruit plants, many tasks can be solved:

    - to grow varietal seedlings with the desired qualities( on clonal rootstocks, with an intermediate weakly inserted insert, with a winter hardy stem and skeleton);

    - get several varieties on one tree;

    - replenish the garden with new varieties with replacement of low-value ones;

    - fix defects in the crown;

    - save the tree after the damage to the stem;

    - to grow plants on poorly tolerant soils.

    Ancient Roman poet Virgil, who lived in the 70s-20s BC, in the poem about agriculture "Georgika" describes the section connected with surgical operations on plants.

    almond-stalked chicken with

    Currently, the methods of grafting are divided into two groups: grafting with the kidney( eyeball), called ocularization, and grafting by cutting( copulation).Until the coalescence of the part of the graft( kidney or stalk) exists due to the nutrients contained in their cells. The process of growth of the scion and rootstock takes place in three consecutive stages: the formation of an intermediate tissue( callus), partial resorption of the insulating layer and the formation of common conducting vessels. The optimal temperature for grafting is 18-22 ° C.

    For successful inoculation, it is important to correctly connect the various tissues of the scion and rootstock so that their actively growing layers of cambium( the layer immediately below the stem of the stem) coincide or have as large a contact area of ​​the slices as the other cells of the graft components are more closely aligned.

    For the successful growth of the scion and rootstock, other conditions are also needed( Table).

    Conditions for successful vaccination of fruit plants

    Requirements for

    Methods of implementation, methods, parameters

    Grafting( grafting with eye)

    Optimum timing of the operation

    Fertile rocks: from July 15 to August 20 Stone fruits: early May( germinating kidney), and from 20June

    Correct cutting of cuttings

    Cut annual shoots from the southern side of the tree from the middle or top part of the crown. Below the cut, leave an 8-10 cm shoot, remove the upper part with the unripened kidneys. Remove the leaf blades, leaving the leaf petioles 5-7 mm long *.Keep cuttings in the wet state for 2-3 days, in the refrigerator - up to 15 days.

    Clean tools and joints of the

    inoculations. Grind the inoculcating blades to the razor. Wipe clean the tissue with cuticles before vaccination and regularly with a knife blade. Vaccinations to be done in dry overcast weather

    Accuracy and density of alignment of cambium layers

    Cut the grafted components so that the area and shape of the cut of the scutellum and cut into the rootstock are the same. Immediately after vaccination, the shield should be tightly bound with

    film. A larger percentage of

    grafted inoculations should be oculated on cloudy and cool days;better two eyes;first cut the slices into a rootstock, and then to the privo. In time remove the harness

    Copulation( inoculation with cuttings)

    Optimal timing of the operation

    Sunflower: from early April to mid-June

    Stone stones: early April, at rest

    Correct cuttings

    Cut annual shoots at the beginning of winter( November-December) and store up tothe moment of vaccination in wet condition( wrapped in wet cloth and film) at 0-3 ° C temperature

    Fastness of grafting

    Graft training

    Touching density of the surface of cuttings of graft and rootstock

    Place the graft tightly with a foil

    Protect vaccinations against drying

    Coat the ends of the grafted components and the entire stalk with a garden fume. Close the vaccine with a paper cap, take it off as soon as shoots begin to grow from the kidneys of

    * Experienced oculists do not leave stems on the shield. This simplifies the tying of vaccines.

    For budding it is necessary to cut off long annual shoots, preferably elevated growing, leaving on the uterine tree the lower part with short interstices. Annual increments on the uterine trees, cut for vaccination, should be well ripened, and the kidneys on them are sufficiently formed. In pomegranate crops, annual growths, regardless of their length, have growth buds. In stone fruits, they are present only on growths of at least 40-50 cm in length, short flower growths are dominated by flowering buds that are not suitable for budding, since no shoots are formed from them.

    Cut off( preferably in the morning) shoots should immediately remove the unhealed top and leaf blades( with stipules), leaving the lower parts of petioles 0.5-1 cm long.

    This petiole can serve as a diagnostic organ for eyelet survival, because three weeks afteroculisation with a positive result, the petiole should easily separate from the scutellum, and if it is negative, it will remain firmly attached to it.

    For grafting the ocellus is better to take from the middle part of the cuttings with more developed kidneys. For seeding, seedlings or shoots with a thickness of no more than 10 mm are best suited. The "application" can be done in the absence of active sap movement( easy separation of the cortex) into the rootstock, besides there is no swimming of the eyes( unlike the grafting in the T-shaped incision).

    Seed rootstocks are budding 5-6 cm above the root neck, on clonal rootstocks - at an altitude of 20-35 cm, so that when planting in the garden, the stem of the rootstock deepen and get additional roots.

    Technique for "in-application" method involves the following basic techniques.

    1. The transverse incision of the cortex at the site of grafting at an angle of 30 ° to a depth of 4-5 mm is made on the rootstock( grafted branch), thereby forming a wedge-shaped tongue. Then, the blade of the knife is removed, set it 2.5-3 cm above the cross-section, and the movement of itself cuts the strip of bark with a minimum grip of wood.(The best survival rate for grafting will be if you cut off a strip of bark with a kidney.)

    Annual shoot prepared for budding

    You can also cut the stripe of the bark first and then with a transverse incision to leave the tongue( as shown in the picture).

    2. A shield with a length of 2.5-3 cm with a well developed kidney and a thin layer of wood is cut from the cuttings of the grafted variety. When cutting the flap, cut the stalk to the top.

    First, stepping upward from the kidney by 1 cm, make a transverse incision of the bark length of 6-8 mm. Then, the knife is placed at an angle of 30 ° to the surface of the cuttings at a distance of 1.5-2 cm below the selected kidney and the flap is cut to itself. For the best intergrowth of the scion with the stock, it is necessary that the scutellum has a bottom part of 1-1.5 cm and a little longer than the upper part. The incision tissue of the rootstock and the grafted scutellum should be clean.

    3. When the blade of the knife reaches the upper cross section, the inoculum with the right thumb of the right hand, the cut out flap presses against the knife, separates it from the cuttings and inserts it into the prepared cut into the wedge-shaped tongue. Larger eyes should be inoculated to thick eyes, and small ones to thin rootstocks. The shield is applied so that its longitudinal axis coincides with the longitudinal axis of the stock. It will be worse to get too fat and wide, as well as too narrow shields.

    If the guard is longer than the cut to the rootstock, then the excess part is cut. If the rootstock is too thick, and the strip of tissue cut on it is wide, then the shield should be applied to one side so that the cambium tissues of the grafted components match. In the case of a narrow flap, it is moved to either side of the cut into a rootstock for the same purpose.

    4. For intimate contact of the grafted parts and protection against drying, the grafted shield is tightly bound with a tape of a width of 10-12 mm and a length of 30-40 cm. The tape is started to be laid underneath the grafts in a spiral so that the turns overlap each other. In the upper part of the grafting, the tape is tied with a loop. When budding instead of tying the place of grafting with a film, you can apply a glue with a medical plaster, which will increase labor productivity.

    Under normal conditions, 3-4 weeks after inoculation, the scrotum is fused with the stock and therefore the film strapping should be removed( delay with this operation can lead to unwanted constrictions of shoots).

    At the beginning of spring, over the grafted kidney, in order to ensure its rapid growth, cut the tip of the rootstock( or branches).

    The beginning of ovulation of pome and stone stones - the third decade of July - the middle of August. In addition to these terms, the budding of stone fruit crops is better at spring budding with waking eyes( the beginning is the middle of May).Here it is possible to apply the method of incubation proposed by D.M.The Popovs. It consists in the fact that the stock is cut at the beginning of the sap movement by a slanting cut into the short spine. Then in the lower part the bark is cut along and inserted into the bark of the eye, cut with a thicker layer of wood than usual. Place the inoculation tape with a tape and cover with a garden sauce. A short spine in this case serves as a garter for the oculant.

    Young trees( up to 5 years old) can be re-inoculated with oculization( 1-2 year old branches) and annual cuttings by the methods of "improved copulation", "for bark", "into the side cut".In more mature trees, it is advisable first to prune the skeletal branches and the next year, the annual shoots to be reconstructed by the method of ocularization or improved copulation.

    Unusual advice. It is better to re-inoculate the tree at the same time, but you can go to one half of the tree to make vaccinations in one year, and in the other half, the next year.

    It is necessary to take into account this peculiarity: if a cultivated( varietal) tree is re-treated, then it is better to plant a variety of the summer maturity period, too, by the sort of summer( in terms of fruit ripening).

    For example, on varieties Papirka or Summer striped, selected as "skeleton-forming", varieties of summer ripening season are planted - Melba, Mantet, Medunitsa, Kitayka gold, Arkadik and others. In the same way, trees with skeleton-forming varieties of autumn and winter maturity of fruits are delivered.

    Annual cuttings for grafting should be harvested at the end of autumn-early winter before the onset of severe frosts and stored in conditions that preclude the drying of cuttings and the germination of buds on them( wrapped in wet cloth and film, placed in a refrigerator or snowball).

    In the absence of strong annual growths, 2-year-old twigs can be used for inoculation.

    Formation of the crown of the renewed tree for the next year

    The main requirement for successful copulation is to inoculate during the active sap movement of the rootstock with varieties of cuttings that are in a dormant condition.

    "Improved copulation" method. Normally, the thickness of the scion( stem) and rootstock( the branch to be grafted) with this method should be the same, about 1 cm. The root and grafted cuttings are made with oblique cuts, 3-4 times longer than the rootstock. When connecting the cuttings and the rootstock, their cambial layers must coincide along the entire length of the cuts. The grafted stalk should be with 2-3 kidneys. On the rootstock, after an oblique cut, retreating about 1/3 from the upper end, a longitudinal incision is made for the width of the blade of the grafting knife( about 1 cm), and for the prickly cut, 1/3 of the lower one. When combining the cuttings with the stock, it is necessary to make it so that the "tongues" formed by the longitudinal cuts go in each other. If the graft and the stock do not have the same thickness, then it is necessary that the cambial layers coincide at least on one side. Immediately after combining the cuttings with the stock, place the graft tightly with tape from the film. In doing so, ensure that the plane of the slices are not moved and there are no lumens between the coils of the film. Garden gum is coated with the upper cut of the grafted cuttings, and the entire surface of the cuttings is better to prevent drying out.

    "Improved copulation" grafting.

    In-side grafting. .This method is better to use in the case when the root thickness of the grafted cuttings is 1.5-3 times. First, the stock is cut 10-20 cm above the intended site of vaccination. Then make a longitudinal oblique incision 2-2.5 cm long at an angle of 20-25 ° to its axis to a depth of 1 / 3-1 / 2 of it( by moving the knife from top to bottom).On the cuttings of the grafted variety, 2 oblique connecting longitudinal sections are made on a wedge. In this case, the length of the wedge cut must correspond to the depth of the cut to the rootstock, and the lower bud( from 3-5 available on the cuttings) to be on the outside after the inoculation. The prepared stem is inserted into the incision and, since the thickness of the stock and the graft are different, it is desirable, at least on one side, to match the cortex of the grafted components. The place of grafting is tied with a tape of the film, overlapping several times over the formed "fork" in order to completely isolate the wound surface. The upper cut of the grafted shank is coated with a var. The rootstock is cut off 10-15 days after inoculation, above the incision site, by covering the top cut with garden gauze. It is also important not to forget, after 3-4 weeks, from the inoculations the bandage film, otherwise there may be undesirable constrictions of shoots.

    In-side grafting

    Unusual advice. Inoculation "into the side incision" can be corrected the situation when still young trees( no older than 4-5 years) have a high bust - more than 70 cm In this case, nailing the stem cuttings, it is necessary in the future from the upper kidney grafts to form skeletal branches.

    Inoculation with the bark method .The method is used from the beginning to the end of the spring sap movement for re-vaccination of mostly thick branches. The vaccines for the cortex on the apple, pear, plum, and plum are best. The grafted branch is cut at a right angle to the axis, the butt is cleaned, its thickness should not exceed 5 cm. Several cuttings are planted on the branch. Cuttings from annual shoots are taken with three or four well developed buds. At the lower end of the cut, under the night, make an oblique cut. The length of the cut must be greater than the thickness of the cuttings in 6-7 times, and opposite the middle of the cut from the opposite side on the cut must be a kidney. Then, at the end of the cut, on the reverse side of the cut, the bark is cut slightly so that it does not wrap up when it is inserted into the stock. Just slightly cut the bark from the sides of the oblique cut along the entire length.

    On the root of the rootstock, after preparation of the cut, a longitudinal incision is made to the wood. Place for grafting on the mountaineer of the stock is preferably not round, but flat. Then turn the strip of bark to the rootstock and insert the stalk. When inserting the cuttings behind the bark it is necessary that the cut of the cuttings protrude above the cut of the branch by 1 cm;then the fusion will be "with an influx", which increases the strength of the graft. For the same purpose, a thick stalk( more than 7-8 mm in diameter) can be nailed with a stud( shoe length 10-15 mm).The graft is tied with a tape of tape, the butt end of the rootstock and grafted on the stalk with a garden gauze.

    Unusual advice. IN AND.Susov recommends that, during grafting, the cuttings along the circumference of the branch be inserted 2-3 cm apart, which allows them to quickly join together and prevent breakdowns. When the inoculations coalesce with each other( in 2-3 years), gradually, one after the otheryear, greatly shorten so that the continuation of the re-bridged branch( in 4-6 years) there was one upper strong graft.

    Inoculation by the "bark" method

    When grafting fruit crops, you can apply this method: wet the sections of the scion and rootstock with a solution of honey( 1 teaspoon per 100 g of water).Those who did this, achieved 100% survival rates of vaccinations.