• Reproduction by root cuttings

    In autumn, before the onset of frosts, the mother plant is excavated from the ground and one of its main roots is cut off at the base. The thick part of the root is cut into several lengths. When dividing the root into parts, it is necessary to observe the direction of its natural growth. Each segment should be at least 5-7 cm in length, otherwise it may not be viable. For the winter, the obtained root segments or cuttings are placed in a box with wet sand or light soil substrate based on peat. Root cuttings stuck into the substrate vertically, observing the direction of growth, or laid horizontally, sprinkled with earth and kept in a place that is cool enough but protected from frost, for example, in a cellar or cellar. Do not allow the cuttings to freeze, otherwise they will die. The root segments can not be buried in sand or ground, but stored during

    . Dividing the root of the dahlia

    1. Cut the root of the root to pieces so that each part has a piece of the root neck.

    2. If the separated root canker has two or

    more kidneys( ocelli), it can be cut along two more parts. Each delenka should have 1-2 kidneys or a sprout. Cut the sprinkled wood ash

    winter wrapped in cloth or paper and watch out so that they do not damp. In spring, the container with planted root cuttings is transferred to a moderately warm place and allowed to germinate. Non-planted cuttings are planted in pots and also allowed to germinate at a relatively warm temperature. When the shoots get stronger, they are tempered as a seedling and transferred to the open ground.

    Underground organs of flower crops have different structures. It can be tubers and similar to them korneklubni, bulbs and corms. Depending on the structure of these underground shoots of plants, the ways of their reproduction also differ. Tissue and root crops of breed such decorative flower crops as dahlias, tuber begonia, cyclamen and many others. Tubers of uterine plants

    Reproduction by bulbs

    On the bulb of the onion bulbs, babies are formed which are separated and planted, using bulbous decorative cultures as propagation material

    is excavated in autumn, dried, cleaned from the ground, checked for damaged or rotted areas and stored insand or simply wrapped in several layers of paper at a low temperature( not more than 7-9 ° C.) and humidity 60-70 %. In March, the plants are planted in boxes with a light ground substrate and germinate at a temperature of 20 ° C.After 2-3 weeks germinated tubers are divided into parts, each of which must have a piece of root neck and two or three strong well developed sprouts. Sections of the separated parts of the tuber are sprinkled for disinfection with wood ash and planted in a new place. Reproduction of by bulbs is characteristic for so-called bulbous plants: tulip, narcissus, lily, hyacinth and others. The bulbs are dug out at the end of the vegetation period and the children's bulbs are formed, dried, sorted and stored until September in a dry, not too hot place. Actually, these bulb-babies are the material that bulbous plants reproduce. Productivity of the onion formation of the plant of the children depends on the plant species, variety and growing conditions. Adult bulbs, for example tulips, form up to 5-5 children a year, sprouts up to 5 children, lilies up to 6, and hyacinths - only 2.

    Some flower crops, such as gladiolus, saffron or crocus, colchicum, propagate with corms, underground shoots, similar to an onion, but in a structure reminiscent of a tuber. This vegetative organ of the plant combines the features of a bulb and a tuber and therefore allows two ways of reproduction: by babies, like

    Division of corms

    A large well developed corms that have more than one kidney can be divided into two or more parts so that each contains at leastone renewal kidney

    bulb, and dividing into parts, like a tuber. At the bottom of the growing corms, small bulb-babies are formed, which are separated and planted. Large bulbs of valuable varieties of crops can also be divided into parts containing at least one kidney and used as a planting material. Plants forming spontaneously rooted sprouts, such as rudbeckia, gelemony, chrysanthemum, are propagated by with root offsprings, , which are separated from the mother plant in spring and transplanted to a new site. In doing so, they comply with all the general rules for the treatment of young plants when planting.

    Planting trees and shrubs

    The best time for planting deciduous trees and bushes that shed foliage during the cold period is autumn or early spring, that is, the rest time that comes at the time of the vegetation break. For planting, the soil must be prepared in advance, fertilized and loosened, creating a favorable environment for the roots of trees, especially at the initial stage of rooting a young plant. While digging out the pit, one should take into account the volume of the root system, which should be freely placed in the pit, the roots should not be bent, twisted or directed upwards due to lack of space. Lateral and friable roots, which ensure the absorption of moisture and nutrients in full volume, need space, they should not be pinched or broken. In addition, the larger the size of the landing pit, the greater the volume of nutrient fertilized soil will enter it and create a favorable environment for the growth of the tree. For a large tree, the diameter of the landing pit should be 1 - 1.5 m and a depth of 0.8-1 m. For smaller seedlings, the pit size may be smaller.

    Planting dates

    Deciduous trees are preferably planted at the time of the vegetation break, that is, in the early spring before the leaves bloom or fall after the fall of the foliage.

    "The best period of autumn planting is considered the middle of September and the whole of October, but it should be guided by the specific weather conditions of autumn.

    Spring planting is carried out after thawing of the soil, which in the mid-latitudes usually occurs in mid-April-early May.

    On wet, heavy and compacted soils it is recommended to plant trees in the spring.

    In the area with early severe winters it is also preferable to plant seedlings in spring.

    Thermophilic trees and shrubs are planted in spring after late spring frosts, as during autumn planting they may not survive the winter.

    When planting trees in the spring, you need to make sure that the ground has thawed and has no frozen areas.

    It is not recommended to plant trees during prolonged rainy weather, at the time of freezing or dry hot weather.

    .Coniferous and evergreen plants should be planted late in the spring, late summer or early autumn, so that they managed to take root and in winter they fed the above-ground part with moisture.

    When digging the landing pit, the upper humus layer of the soil should be carefully removed with a shovel and laid aside, it is possible to spread a tarpaulin or a thick film for this purpose so that the landing site is neat. This is done in order not to mix the fertile layer with the main mass of the land selected from the pit and after the end of the landing put it in its original place. The soil that has been compacted and humus-poor soil from the pit should be properly prepared for filling: crush and mix with compost in equal parts, but in no case should you use even the reparted manure, as it will come into direct contact with the exposed roots of the plant and can damage them. It is also recommended to make a portion of the necessary mineral or organic fertilizers in order to increase the nutritional properties of the soil. The bottom of the pit should be carefully shoveled with a shovel, pitchfork or even scrap if the soil is too compact. This operation is especially necessary for heavy clay soils, otherwise the roots of the tree will be in an impenetrable space and it will be difficult for them to break through the landing pit. After loosening, the bottom of the pit should be covered with a full layer of compost, it is possible to add overgrown vegetative remains, straw, organic materials, such as bone meal. When the pit is prepared, you can proceed directly to planting the tree.

    It is important to consider that the place of inoculation of the fruit tree should be above the soil level, otherwise the lateral roots will start to grow from it, which will cause an additional expenditure of moisture, nutrients and internal forces of the plant, which will waste the energy of development necessary for it. Therefore, to place the tree in the landing pit, taking into account its subsequent subsidence, should be so that the place of grafting is 10 cm above ground level.

    The planting process is always a certain stress for the plant, which will require the strength to recover and start growing in a new place, so the plant must be prepared before planting. First of all, the tree for several hours before planting or even on the eve should be put in water so that the entire root system is covered. The plant will be saturated with water, create the necessary moisture reserve in the tissues, transfer the recovery period more easily, take root quickly and take root. Especially this applies to seedlings with unprotected bare roots, which tend to dry out. Before planting, too long or thin roots should be shortened, smoothly pruned with a pruner, this will stimulate the growth of the lateral roots and create a branched structure of the root system. The cut should be sprinkled with ashes for disinfection.

    Basic rules for planting trees

    The soil for planting trees must be prepared in advance, loosening and fertilizing it. Before planting, it is necessary to check whether the soil is too moist, if it has not frozen.

    The tree should be placed in water for several hours before planting, so that the root system is saturated with moisture and the plant easily tolerated the planting.

    Too long, damaged or dead tree roots before planting must be cut smoothly.

    Make a landing pit so large that the root system of the tree is freely placed in it, the roots do not break, do not twist and are not directed upwards.

    Carefully prepare a pit: loosen the bottom of the pit, especially if the soil is clay and compacted, then cover the bottom with a layer of raw compost with a mixture of fertilizers.

    is selected from the landing pit to be mixed with compost, mineral and organic fertilizers, sand or pulverized silica to improve soil structure. Do not use manure.

    Plant the plant in a planting pit strictly vertically so that the place of grafting is 10 cm above ground level.

    It is recommended to plant a tree together, so that one person supports the trunk vertically and the other falls asleep.

    ; & gt;Fill the pit with prepared fertilized soil evenly so that the holes do not form in the bottom of the hole, in the filling process, compact the soil two or three times in the pit to provide the tree with a strong position in the ground.

    Seal the soil in the landing pit should be careful not to break the roots of the tree.

    It is recommended to perform intermediate watering during the filling of the pit so that the entire mass of the earth is evenly saturated with moisture, then a good contact of the root system with the soil will be ensured.

    After the end of the landing, once again compact the soil and form a watering circle.

    To create a watering circle, it is necessary to form a mound in the form of a roller 5-7 cm high along the whole circumference, the surface of the circle is covered with a mulching organic layer from a moist compost that has repaired manure, grass, straw, bark, which will protect the soil from excessive drying and will serve as a source of nutrientsubstance "..,.,.,

    After finishing the plant, the tree should be watered abundantly.

    To support the seedling, tie it to a hardened wooden cola with a soft natural material that does not injure the tender bark of the young tree.

    Planting of deciduous trees

    1. Saplings with bare roots for several hours before planting put in water, so that they are saturated with moisture and easier to transfer the process of planting. Long, damaged, dead parts of the roots are cut off smoothly.

    2. At the bottom of the landing pit, drive in a wooden stake that will serve as a support for the tree. To keep the stake firmly in the ground

    and ensure the stability of the tree, it must go deeper into the bottom of the pit by 30-40 cm.

    3 - Plant the tree strictly vertically, freely placing the roots in the landing pit. The depth of planting should not exceed the previous depth of growth. The site of vaccination should be located 10 cm above ground level. Fill the pit with ground beforehand not to the very top and water the tree.4. Fill the pit with earth to the end, compact it, form a watering circle and once again abundantly water the seedling. Tie a tree to a wooden support, using a soft material, loop in the form of a figure-eight and form a watering circle

    It is also necessary to cut the damaged split, worn or broken roots to a healthy tissue. In the same way, one must act with too long roots that go beyond the earthen coma.

    It is advisable to plant trees together, so that one person holds the trunk of the tree in a strictly upright position, and the second man pours the pit into the prepared land. Fill the pit should be evenly, making sure that the land is distributed over the entire area and no voids are formed. In the process of falling asleep, before the final filling of the pit, the soil needs to be compacted a couple of times so that the tree is firmly held in the ground. However, you should not tamp the ground too hard to damage or break the roots. After the end of the landing, the ground needs to be compacted once more and a watering circle is formed around the

    tree. To do this, make a small embankment in the form of a roller height of 5-7 cm along the entire circumference, the area inside the circle should be covered with rotted manure, raw compost or mulch layer and carefully watered the tree. It is also recommended to water the tree in the process of filling the pit, so that the whole earth is uniformly moistened. The young tree needs to be strengthened with the help of a wooden stake, which can be hammered into the bottom of the pit before planting or after its end, when the ground will take a little. Kol is slaughtered at some distance from the trunk and a loop in the form of a figure eight is tied up to a cola tree. For a garter it is better to use a natural rope, a bast, a rubber band or other material that does not damage the young bark of the seedling.

    All of the above is true for planting shrubs, only

    / must be made. The wire for a bush can serve as a wire in two rows.2. Ordinary supports, as the name implies, are used for ordinary plantings, ensuring the stability of plantings of stamping varieties, supporting the lower part of their crown.

    3. Triangular supports have proven themselves in the planting of high-pitched breeds of fruit trees, they are very reliable and can be a good support for young unformed seedlings

    correction for the size of planted plants. In addition to the wooden cola, various structures can be used as a support, for example, ordinary supports when planting young low seedlings in a row or triangular supports that support the tree from all sides.