How is hypertension of the 1st degree manifested and its treatment
May 17, 2018
Despite the constant efforts of doctors, the emergence of new drugs and treatment regimens, a disease like arterial hypertension does not lose its medico-social significance. The latter is associated with a wide prevalence among the population and such complications as myocardial infarction and stroke. These conditions often lead to disability and death.
Arterial pressure is considered to be elevated if the systolic blood pressure value is 140 mm Hg. Art.and above, and the value of diastolic blood pressure is -90 mm Hg. Art.and higher. Provided that these data were obtained as a result of at least three measurements made at different times of the day in a calm environment, and the patient did not take medications that affect the value of blood pressure.
Symptomatic arterial hypertension and hypertension
In cases when the increase in arterial pressure is due to known, eliminated causes, it is symptomatic arterial hypertension. These are found in diseases of the kidneys( glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, etc.), endocrine pathology( thyrotoxicosis), the use of drugs that raise blood pressure( oral contraceptives, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cold drugs with adrenomimetic activity), etc.
Let's talk about a chronic disease, in which increasing blood pressure is the main clinical manifestation. It is called hypertensive disease. His exact reasons are not revealed. But there are a number of predisposing risk factors. These are:
- Sex and age( more often men after 30 years old, women in menopause)
- Harmful habits( smoking, alcohol abuse)
- Inadequate nutrition( predominance of fatty foods in the diet)
- Sedative lifestyle
- Obesity, diabetes
Diagnosis of arterial hypertension
Timely diagnosis plays an important role in the prevention of serious complications. If the increase in blood pressure is revealed for the first time, then depending on its magnitude, the degree is determined. Hypertension 1 degree corresponds to the value of systolic blood pressure from 140 to 159 mm Hg. Art.and diastolic from 90 to 99;2 degrees - from 160 to 179 and 100 -109 mm Hg.p.3 degrees - respectively, more than 180 and 110 mm Hg. Art.
Classification of essential hypertension depending on the stage of the disease
- Stage 1 of hypertension is characterized by absence of changes in the target organs
- Stage 2 of hypertension - changes in one or more target organs
- Stage 3 of hypertension - presence of one or more associated conditions
To organs- targets include the heart, blood vessels, kidneys.
To associated clinical conditions - cerebral stroke( ischemic and hemorrhagic), myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, chronic heart failure, diabetic nephropathy, chronic renal failure, aortic lesion( exfoliating aneurysm) and peripheral arteries, hypertensive retinopathy.
Risk factors and the likelihood of developing serious complications are also considered.
Symptoms of hypertension 1 degree
Hypertension 1 degree is a mild form. It is characterized by periodic pressure rises, which then automatically returns to normal.
With a rise in blood pressure, there is a headache in the occiput, as well as in the parietal and temporal areas. The attack is accompanied by flashing "flies" before the eyes, noise in the ears, dizziness, palpitation. Causes of hypertension of 1 degree can serve almost all of the above risk factors.
Treatment of the disease
Treatment for hypertension 1 degree 1 stage is reduced primarily to non-drug therapy. Its main principle is to change the way of life:
- normalization of body weight. Each discarded extra kilogram reduces blood pressure by an average of 2 mm.gt;p.
- giving up smoking, limiting alcohol consumption to 20 grams per day;
- regular moderate exercise( walking, easy running for half an hour at least four times a week);
- to reduce the intake of table salt to 5 grams per day;
- changes in diet with reduced intake of animal fats and increased consumption of plant foods;
- increase in the diet of foods with high content of potassium, calcium( vegetables, dried fruits, cereals) and magnesium( dairy products);
- Limitation of increased mental and emotional stress.
Also some non-traditional methods of treatment are effective:
- psychotherapy, auto-training, relaxation,
- reflexotherapy, massage, acupuncture,
- physiotherapy( electrosleep, diadynamic currents, hyperbaric oxygenation),
- phytotherapy( chokeberry, turtles, hawthorn, herbaceous hawthorn,immortelle, sweet clover, marsh swine).
Drugs that lower blood pressure for 1 hypertension are prescribed in the absence of the effect of non-drug therapy, as well as in the transition of the disease to the next stage.
So, already in the 1st stage of the 2nd stage, the following groups of drugs are shown: antihypertensives, diuretics, statins( drugs that reduce LDL in the blood), aspirin. Therapy, as a rule, combined - appointed several drugs from different groups.
The main goal of the treatment is a gradual reduction of blood pressure to values less than 140 and 90 mm Hg. Art.
Can hypertension be cured? Completely get rid of hypertension is currently impossible. Even arterial hypertension of the 1st degree requires vigilant control and timely treatment. Regular visits to the doctor and daily implementation of the recommendations will help maintain pressure on normal numbers, prevent formidable complications and increase life expectancy.