Degrees of arterial hypertension and its consequences
- constant overstrain, first of all - emotional;
- overeating, especially with the consumption of large amounts of fatty and salty foods;
- smoking and alcohol abuse;
- insufficient physical activity;
- considerable excess weight.
In addition, a fairly large role is played by heredity. Observations showed that those who had close relatives with severe cardiovascular diseases are more susceptible to arterial hypertension and its complications. Especially great risk if one of them died at a fairly young age from a heart attack or stroke.
Methods and methods of diagnosis
Hypertension is currently one of the most common diseases worldwide. First of all, its danger lies in the fact that hypertension 1 degree can be generally asymptomatic. A complaint with hypertension is already 2 nd degree can be reduced only to periodic headaches, dizziness and other ailments, which can be "written off" for the usual overwork. Many people who do not constantly control their pressure, can not even guess long enough about the presence of this dangerous disease. Although it has already been proved that a seemingly small increase in pressure( only 10 mm Hg) immediately increases the probability of complications of arterial hypertension by 10%.
Diagnosis - arterial hypertension can be delivered if there is a persistent, rapidly transient, high blood pressure. Fixed several times unprovoked increase in pressure allows you to suspect this disease. More accurate diagnosis of arterial hypertension is carried out after additional( except pressure measurement) studies. In particular, it is necessary to make an electrocardiogram, cerebral vascular examinations, a biochemical blood test, and ultrasound of the kidneys. Only after such a survey can the stages of arterial hypertension be accurately determined.
It is already proved that hypertension is most often diagnosed in people who have crossed the forty-year boundary. However, quite often, there are cases when very young people aged 20-25 suffer from this insidious disease. Although, according to some reports, a persistent increase in pressure is more common in women, with severe complications of hypertension more typical of men.
Types of the disease
This disease is of two kinds. The so-called primary( essential) hypertension is inherently an independent disease, and the secondary one arises from problems with other organs( most often with the kidneys).This type of hypertension is also called symptomatic, since in this case, hypertension is a symptom, not a major illness.
Primary hypertension develops gradually and deterioration of the condition can take place for a long time. Disease of the second kind( as a consequence of the underlying disease) can manifest quickly and immediately in severe form.
Classification of the disease by severity
The degree of arterial hypertension is determined primarily by the indications of blood pressure, as well as by the results of its negative effect on individual organs and the entire human body as a whole. A slight excess of normal values (no more than 139/89 mm Hg) is considered to be the initial stage of the disease or the stage of prehypertension.
This disease is classified according to the level of arterial pressure and the presence( absence) of pathological changes in various organs. There are three main degrees of arterial hypertension.
Class 1 hypertension involves the absence of serious impairment in organs that are primarily afflicted with this disease( which is why they are often referred to as "target organs").The values of blood pressure at the first degree of hypertension rarely exceed 159/99 mm Hg. Art. At this stage of the disease, in most cases, people keep their usual activity, they are only occasionally disturbed by headaches and heart palpitations.
At the 2nd degree, considered( in severity) moderate or moderate, the systolic( upper) pressure is in the range from 160 to 179, and the diastolic( lower) - from 100 to 109 mmHg. And, the excess of the norm can be for a long time. Arterial hypertension of the 2nd degree is already characterized by certain pathologies in some "target organs"( heart, brain vessels, kidneys, and also vision).
Diagnosis - arterial hypertension of 3 degrees is set at pressures steadily exceeding 180/100 mm Hg. Art. At this degree of illness the most serious complications are most probable. Patients with this stage are at great risk of cerebral circulation, heart attacks, kidney failure, and often have vision problems. Since a constant high blood pressure leads to a serious pathology of the optic nerve, the result of which can be its edema or even blindness. At this degree of the disease, hypertensive crises can occur, often leading to a stroke or a heart attack.
Prevention and treatment of
Prevention of hypertension reduces, as it does not sound corny, to a healthy lifestyle. Even just a refusal from smoking and alcohol, a more or less balanced diet, low salt content, and regular walking tours, already contribute to reducing the risk if not the occurrence of the disease itself, then at least its severe consequences.
If a person with bad heredity can not do anything, then at least reduce the likelihood of its manifestation, it is always possible. It can be considered a preventive measure and a constant control of blood pressure. Since the state of prehypertension or the initial stage of the disease is much easier to treat than the practically incurable hypertension of grade 3.
Modern medicines allow maintaining normal blood pressure and avoiding its sharp jumps. Therefore, timely detected high blood pressure and timely access to a cardiologist can not only avoid serious complications, but also keep working.
For a person, the norm is considered to be blood pressure not exceeding 120 per80 mm. Art. Arterial hypertension( commonly referred to as hypertensive disease or simply hypertension) is characterized by a steady increase in blood pressure above 140 by 90. Although the disease as such can only occur in the case of a frequently occurring abnormality. Since a short-term increase( up to several minutes) can be quite adequate reaction to a greater physical or strong psychological load in a practically healthy person.
Causes of arterial hypertension
Until now, despite a lot of studies on the mechanisms of blood pressure regulation, it has not been possiblefully explore the pathogenesis of hypertension. Although it has already been proven that there are certain factors that significantly increase the risk of hypertension. These include: