Main manifestations and features of treatment of semantic aphasia

  • Main manifestations and features of treatment of semantic aphasia

    Semantic aphasia is a very rare disease in neurological practice, which is expressed in a misunderstanding of logical and grammatical constructions for patients, that is, there is a violation of the perception of complex grammatical phrases, both in oral and in written speech.

    Semantic aphasia develops as a result of damage to a site that is located on the boundaries of three cortical zones - parietal, occipital and temporal.

    Diagnosis of the disease

    In its pure form, the lesion, which causes semantic aphasia, is rare, which causes difficulties in diagnosing pathology. The usual spontaneous speech and dialogues in such a patient are practically unchanged. In addition, it can easily repeat the phrases pronounced by another person, except for too complicated constructions.

    Some words the patient can forget, but at the prompt with ease they remember, without distorting, and not replacing it with another word or expression.

    Problems arise when the short text is retold, and its understanding and repetition of the main parts may also be missing. When you try to repeat the information you read, the phrases turn out to be steep and unrelated.

    The biggest problem arises in the understanding of spatial categories, as well as comparative and transitional constructions. And such a phenomenon does not depend on reading aloud or about oneself, and that and the other process is rather slow, but on the whole the analytical and global reading has not been changed.

    The text that is perceived by hearing is understood by such a patient much worse than when it reads itself, because during self-reading it is possible to repeat the same read passage.

    The letter practically does not suffer, but there are difficulties at folding of separate letters in words( at use of the cut alphabet).The meaning of sayings, proverbs, metaphorical statements is not perceived by a person with such violations.

    Diagnostics is performed taking into account neurological disorders that are typical for disrupting the parietal cortex: orientation right-left, lack of a normal understanding of the chart on the map, inability to fulfill the request to set the time on the mock-up of the clock. A number of such patients have violations in order of account, as well as gross errors in copying drawings.

    The severity of a state in semantic aphasia is determined by the degree to which the patient understands the logic of speech.

    Treatment of

    The following methods are used to treat and prevent semantic aphasia:

    1. Logopedic therapy. It is used to restore linguistic skills, as well as writing and reading. The standard methods used by the aphasiologist must necessarily be combined with a full range of measures to restore the functioning of cortical structures responsible for violations of such a plan. In the case of difficulties with the definition of objects, differentiation of figures, individual objects, and the correlation of non-painted images with complete ones are applied. It also helps to collect images from individual parts, as well as solving simple mathematical problems by distinguishing them.
    2. Conservative treatment methods that involve improving blood circulation in the cerebral cortex, reducing the sensitivity of cells to hypoxia, and improving their nutrition.
    3. With insufficient effect of drug therapy, surgical methods are used to optimize blood flow in the affected area and restore the work of nervous tissue.
    4. Physiotherapy. Special techniques, including electrostimulation, which are used in rehabilitation centers.
    5. Functional biofeedback. It is carried out infrequently, is so much limited by the abilities of the speech apparatus when its functioning is disturbed, and absolutely has no effect on the patient whose letter is broken.

    Timely and comprehensive treatment can guarantee a cure with uncomplicated pathological changes and translate a serious condition into an average severity.

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