Apr 15, 2018
To obtain rich and long flowering of ornamental crops, improve their health and increase resistance to diseases and pests, it is necessary to provide them with additional doses of nutrients, that is, fertilize. All plants differ among themselves both with respect to the duration of nutrient consumption from the soil, and the nature of their absorption in different phases of
growth. Most flower crops absorb the most potassium from the soil, less nitrogen and even less phosphorus. The need for potassium in cloudy weather, with a short light bottom or when shading plants significantly increases, and in nitrogen - is reduced. A large number of potassium carry out from the soil all the plants, but especially the flower bulbous cultures. With a lack of calcium, the winter hardiness of wintering plants decreases sharply. Depending on the period of vegetation in different flower crops, the need for nutrients varies. Thus, plants with a long vegetation period( gladiolus, phlox, etc.) need higher doses of fertilizers, and with a short vegetation period( daffodils, tulips, etc.) - in lower doses. Although in the summer they already fade, they still need fertilizing to ensure a good flowering for the next year.
Bulbous flowers are cultures of a short period of nutrition, and consequently, they are demanding for the presence of nutrients in the soil.
An indispensable condition for the cultivation of most flower crops is pre-fertilization of soil, that is, fertilization before planting. To replenish the soil with nutrients and improve its structure, organic fertilizers are used - manure, bird droppings, compost, peat, si-derates.
In addition to organic plants, mineral fertilizers contribute significantly to the nutritional value of the soil. No matter how well the soil is filled with organic and mineral fertilizers before sowing or planting flower crops, in most cases it completely can not provide all nutrients to fast-growing plants. Therefore, it is necessary to apply systematic top dressing, which will promote the rapid growth of plants and the production of quality floral products.
The decisive factor in obtaining high decorative qualities of flower beds, the duration of flowering and improving the overall appearance of the plant are nitrogen fertilizers, and the addition of phosphorus and potassium to them enhances their beneficial effect. Phosphoric and potash fertilizers are better to make from the autumn, and nitrogen - in the spring. The rates of application depend on the soil, the plants that will grow on it and grow in the previous year. Plant nutrition is a complex science. The long experience of growing shows that in
, the beginning of growth of ornamental plants requires more nitrogen, and with budding and flowering, potassium and phosphorus. Overfeeding the plant, especially nitrogen, is more dangerous than underfeeding. With an excess of nitrogen, some plants bloom poorly, developing many leaves and shoots, are more afflicted with fungal diseases. It is because the plant gives all its strength to the formation of an abundant green mass, the growth of which stimulates nitrogen, and the flowering is meager. The average dose per 1 m2 is 50-60 g of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers in autumn and 30-40 g in spring.
The main condition for the effective action of mineral fertilizers on the growth and development of flower plants is the correct and rational use of them. It is necessary that the fertilizer dose, as well as the types of fertilizers themselves, be selected taking into account the content of nutrients in the soils and the phase of plant development.
It is very effective to apply fertilizers as fertilizers, especially liquid fertilizers, at the beginning of growth and during budding. To avoid the excess of individual elements, it is better to use combined mineral fertilizers: nitroammophoska, nitrophoska, crystalline, etc. The average dose for the first fertilizing is 20-30 g fertilizers per 10 liters of water. If the fertilizer is concentrated, for example urea or potassium chloride, then the dose should be reduced. In the second and subsequent fertilizing the amount of fertilizer must be increased to 50 g per 10 liters of water.
Fertilizers are applied in dry or liquid form to moist soil, and it is better to do this in the afternoon.
Plants are pre-poured with clean water, and after watering with a solution of fertilizers they are poured from the watering can from above so as to wash off from the leaves and stems the droplets of solution and insoluble fertilizer particles.
For mineral fertilizing, all ready-mixes can be used. They are dissolved at a rate of 40 grams per bucket of water.
If early in the spring, fertilizing is given to enhance plant growth, in summer, during the formation of buds - for better flowering, at the end of summer - for better ripening of seeds and shoots of perennial crops. It is very good to apply fractional top dressing. The number of them during the summer period can be different and depends on a number of factors - the type of plants, their age, soil properties, the degree of its cultivation, fertility, weather conditions.
In the period of mass flowering, the fertilizing is carried out:
with nitrogen fertilizers at the rate of 15 g / m2,
phosphoric - 15 g / m2,
with potassium 10 g / m2.
After flowering with nitrogen and potash fertilizers - at the rate of 10 g / m2.
A good effect on plants is provided by 4 top dressing with weak solutions of organic fertilizers, for example infusion of Mullein( 1 kg of manure per 10 liters of water) with the addition of up to 1 kg of ash to it. To avoid ammonia volatilization, the container with the solution is tightly closed. Since there is not enough phosphorus in this feeding, 1-1.5 kg of superphosphate should be added.