Hydronephrosis, signs of a condition where one kidney is smaller than another

  • Hydronephrosis, signs of a condition where one kidney is smaller than another

    Hydronephrosis refers to a condition in which, due to the influence of certain factors on the human body, one kidney is smaller than another. As a rule, the pathology manifests itself in the following situations:

    • The blockage of the urinary tract at a certain level is the most common cause of the disease.
    • Constant penetration of urine into the kidneys from the bladder. At times, this deviation provokes pain in the side or flows without causing any symptoms.

    Main causes of hydronephrosis development

    Hydronephrosis can be a congenital or acquired pathology. The congenital form develops due to the influence of the following factors:

    1. Impaired coordination of the urinary canals.
    2. Congenital abnormalities of the localization of the arteries of the kidney and their branches, which strongly presses the ureter.
    3. Incorrect localization of the ureter itself behind the hollow vein.
    4. Congenital constrictions, valves in the ureters or obstruction of the urinary tract.
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    Acquired form of hydronephrosis is manifested in the following situations:

    • Urolithiasis.
    • Manifestation of inflammatory processes in the organs of the urinary system.
    • Tumor neoplasm of urinary canals, uterus, ovaries, prostate.
    • Cicatricial narrowing of the lumen of the urinary canals due to injury.
    • Infiltration of malignant character and metastasis in the cellulose of the small pelvis and in the space behind the peritoneum.
    • Injuries to the spinal cord causing a reflex violation of urinary diversion.

    Often, the disease develops asymptomatically, as there are no specific signs for it. At the first stages, when one kidney becomes larger than the other, the clinical manifestations depend on the cause that triggered the pathology. For example, with the development of urolithiasis, attacks of renal colic may begin - these are severe acute painful sensations in the direction of the ureters.

    Symptomatic characteristic of hydronephrosis

    The most constant sign of hydronephrosis can be considered aching dull pain in the lumbar region. Painful sensations in the development of this disease can begin regardless of the time of day and the position of the human body.localization of pain, right or left, correlates with the side of the lesion.

    If the left kidney or the right kidney is increased, then the abdominal pain manifests itself on the corresponding side, resembling pain in liver pathologies or cholecystitis. During the development of an attack of pain, nausea develops with vomiting, bloating and blood pressure rises.

    This is important! When the temperature of the body increases, the doctor presumes the attachment of an infectious process. Sometimes the only sign of the disease is the discharge of blood along with urine. Approximately 20% of cases are diagnosed with hematuria, and even more often with microhematuria. This sign manifests itself under the condition that hydronephrosis was caused by urolithiasis, because the stones begin to damage the walls of the urinary canals.

    When the disease starts, especially with a bilateral lesion, symptoms of kidney failure form. At the same time, the volume of urine decreases, edema develops, hypertension and anemia develop.

    Stages of formation of hydronephrosis in the body

    • The first stage of the development of the disease is manifested by a small accumulation of urine in the renal pelvis and mild stretching of the pelvis. This stage is compensated when the kidney function continues to be normal.
    • In the second stage of the disease, hydronephrosis of the kidney causes thinning of the kidney parenchyma, and this is supplemented by a worsening organ work by approximately 40%.This increases the activity of the second healthy kidney, which compensates for the excretory function.
    • The third stage of the development of the disease is terminal - it is characterized by a significant loss of the kidney of its functions or complete stopping of the kidney. At the same time, chronic kidney failure actively develops, which, in the absence of necessary measures, can lead to the patient's death.

    Treatment of hydronephrosis

    If, after diagnosis, the doctor confirmed the kidney damage by hydronephrosis, then correctly selected treatment helps to quickly restore the kidney and compensate for the pathological condition. In each case, it is necessary to take into account the causes of the disease, its rate of progression and the degree of development. The main goal of the therapeutic process is to eliminate the cause of hydronephrosis.

    Conservative treatment involves the provision of symptomatic therapy, organized at the first stages of the disease. It consists in taking painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs, medicines that allow you to reduce blood pressure, as well as other means, depending on the signs of the lesion. In case of infection, an antibacterial treatment is required. As a rule, conservative treatment is performed before the operation.

    With regard to surgical intervention in the process of the disease, basically an organ-saving operation is organized to eliminate the cause of hydronephrosis and restore the kidneys. It is best to perform an operation at the first stages of the disease, when organ changes are still reversible, especially in a situation in congenital disorders.

    This is important! Surgical intervention involves the resumption of patency of the urinary canals, and in advanced stages of the disease - the realization of the plasticity of the renal pelvis and the restoration of its normal size.

    Nephrectomy is performed only if the process is severely disrupted, when the kidney has completely lost its ability to function, and its preservation can cause inflammation and, as a consequence, other serious complications.

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