How are stages of kidney cancer classified?

  • How are stages of kidney cancer classified?

    In a normal state, the kidney cells undergo restoration, old cells are replaced by young ones. At times, such a process is disrupted, in connection with which, new cells form before the due date, and a tumor develops. The tumor turns into a malignant process only when exposed to nearby tissues. I'm in the way. The flow of oxygen prevents normal operation. In medicine, specific stages of kidney cancer are known. At the same time, the blood flow and lymph flow are spreading metastases to other organs. It turns out that metastases are the penetration of malignant cells into other organs.

    Reasons for the formation of a malignant tumor in the kidney

    There are no unequivocal answers to questions about the origin of oncological pathology in the kidney. There are suggestions that people working on the production of aniline dyes are at high risk of damage to the body.

    The following are the main factors provoking the disease:

    • Age group of a person, sex. In the male, renal oncology is diagnosed much more often. In addition, the peak incidence of people celebrated by seventy years.
    • Excess body weight. After conducting a large number of tests, it was found that obesity can provoke the formation of malignant cells.
    • Smoking. It is smoking that is considered the scientifically proven etiological factor of any malignant process. In smokers, the risk of tumor formation is increased to 60% compared with non-smokers.
    • Arterial hypertension.
    • Kidney pathology. It is noted that the risk of kidney damage by a malignant process is increased in patients with chronic kidney failure at the terminal stage of development.
    • Taking diuretics.
    • Diabetes mellitus - there is an increase in the incidence in people with diabetes.
    • Incorrect power. According to researchers, eating fruits and vegetables markedly reduces the risk of developing a tumor.

    When kidney cancer develops stage 4, it can begin to spread the metastases by lymphogenous way or with blood flow. Unfortunately, every fourth victim at the time of the diagnosis already has metastases. Life expectancy in this scenario is no more than a year, and only about 10% of patients survive to two years. Approximately 30% to 50% of cases after nephrectomy, metastases reappear, but the outlook is slightly better than the first case, although the five-year lifespan still does not exceed 5%.

    This is important! The most frequent places of spread of metastases are the brain, liver, lungs, bone system.

    Classification of renal cancer and stages of the development of the disease

    The degree of progressive development of tumor cells is assessed according to the appearance of healthy cells. There are four degrees of malignant process in the kidneys:

    • First degree - highly differentiated renal oncology - tumor cells slightly differ with healthy cells of the organ parenchyma, the tumor increases slowly and has good therapy predictions.
    • The second and third degree of oncology of the kidney characterize the disease as a moderately differentiated cancer. These are the two most common forms of defeat.
    • Fourth degree - or otherwise undifferentiated renal cancer, when tumor cells are very different from healthy cells, which indicates the aggressiveness of the process and greatly worsens future predictions.

    Although the degrees of differentiation of renal oncology provide a significant help in determining disease predictions for patients, most experts believe that the stages of disease progression better characterize the survival rate of patients.

    Classification of the stage of development of kidney cancer enables physicians to determine the size and location of tumor growth using CT and MRI, clinical and laboratory diagnostic methods. The following stages are distinguished:

    • Kidney cancer Stage 1 - a tumor of a small size, less than 2.5 cm in diameter, without signs of local invasion, there is no damage to the lymph nodes, there are no distant metastases.
    • Cancer of the 2nd stage kidney - tumor tumor of dimensions in diameter is more than 2.5 cm, without signs of local invasion, there is no damage to the lymph nodes, and there are no distant metastases.
    • Kidney cancer Stage 3 - a tumor of any size, there is a lesion of one lymph node, the tumor grows into the adrenal glands or to the nearby kidney parenchyma, damages large veins.
    • Kidney cancer Stage 4 is a mixed group consisting of: tumor processes that grow into nearby organs, tumor processes with distant metastasis, tumor processes with damage to more than one lymph node.

    The organization of treatment of oncology and the achievement of positive dynamics

    The main way to treat this disease is an operation that is implemented in any situation, provided there are no contraindications for the patient's health condition. The operation involves removing the organ, fatty tissue around it and the ureter and is called radical nephrectomy.

    This is important! At present, organ-preserving surgical interventions are developed and successfully used even in cancer pathology. They can be organized only at the first stages of the development of the disease with timely diagnosis or when it is not possible to perform a nephrectomy. Such operations involve the removal of only a part of the kidney, and the result of the studies by their effectiveness they hardly differ from nephrectomy.

    The only drawback of such operations is the maintenance of high risks of subsequent relapse of the disease.

    After the implementation of radical nephrectomy in patients with stage 1 oncology, the survival rate for five years is approximately 75%.In the second stage, the tumor can damage the hollow vein. Therefore, the five-year survival rate is reduced to 45%.At the third stage, the fatty tissue that surrounds the kidney is involved in the disease process - the five-year survival rate is also about 45%.When kidney cancer of grade 4 develops: the prognosis is very unfavorable, and the five-year survival rate reaches a maximum of 18%.When affecting neighboring organs and distant metastases, only 5% or less.

    Chemotherapy in renal oncology is practically ineffective. Irradiation as an independent way of treating such a malignant tumor is also not applied due to inefficiency. It is implemented only to prevent further development of the disease, reduce the intensity of pain and prevent and stabilize pathological bone fractures with metastases in them.

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