Delphinium, or spurnik
Mar 25, 2018
Description and varieties. This decorative perennial rhizome has many names. Delphinium( spur, larkspur) is one of the most favorite garden plants with amazing flowers and sparse flowers. The most common is the delphinium hybrid, or cultural. This perennial, the varieties of which vary in height, size and structure of the inflorescence, the degree of terry and coloring of flowers. Delphinium cultural is represented by dozens of hybrid varieties. Powerful plants up to 2 m in height have a hollow stem, the leaves are serrate-dissected. The number of stems in a well-developed bush can reach 10-15 pieces. Flowers simple, semi-double or double. The color of the flowers is usually blue or blue, but also white, pink, lilac, violet with many shades and a contrasting eyelet in the center of the flower. There is only a yellow color. The flowers are collected in racemose inflorescences 80-100 cm long, shaped like candles. Blooms delphinium in June - early July. With the timely removal of blossoming inflorescence, flowering continues throughout the summer. With good care, the plant can bloom at the end of summer a second time.
All parts of the plant are poisonous, so you must protect yourself from getting juice on the cuts of your hands.
The most popular delphinium varieties from the group are the Marfin hybrids - tall plants with pyramidal multiflorous( up to 80 flowers) spectacular inflorescences resistant to fungal diseases. Another popular group is the Pacific hybrids of the ( or the Hybrid hybrids).This perennial rhizome plants with high( 120-180 cm), erect, leafy stems. Flowers are semi-double, large( up to 7 cm in diameter), various colors - bright blue, blue, lilac, white and pink with a bright and contrasting eye. The inflorescence is a giant cylindrical or pyramidal brush with a length of up to 70 cm. The assortment of Pacific hybrids firmly includes 12 tested and recognized varieties. In the course of work on obtaining varieties of this group, natural species were used, in addition to hybrid perennial varieties.
A significant disadvantage of this group can be considered a strong affection of diseases in our conditions and relative fragility. In Europe, Pacific hybrids are used as biennials. In our climate they are well preserved for 4-6 years. Then they must be renewed with seeds or cuttings.
Delphiniums Belladonna. The plants of this group are lower and have a height of 150 cm, the flowers of these plants are collected in spreading little-flowered inflorescences. Flowers are mostly simple( non-marble), the predominant color of them - from light blue to blue. There are also white varieties. Rhizome is racemose with a thickened central part. On the germination of seeds and the quality of seedlings, the Belladonna group is inferior to all other hybrids.
Malvaceous forms are distinguished by large flowers and especially large inflorescences( up to 15 cm) with a double coloration - blue and lilac, blue and violet.
Delphiniums are used in various flower gardens, including in the center of the flower bed as the center of the composition, and on the lawn in separate groups. It is good to place them in the background of the plot along the fence. The delphinium bushes perfectly decorate fences, low buildings, planting trees. They provide excellent material for cutting: the flowers of the Delphinium put into the water are stored for up to 10 days or more.
Blue lace ( blue), Lilac spiral ( violet blue with white eyes), Morpheus ( violet with black eye), Pink sunset ( dark pink with black eye) Venus ( bright sky blue), Lavender obelisk ( lavender with black eye), Winter daughter ( pure white).
Blue Jay ( blue-blue, cornflower blue with black eye), Galahad ( pure white), Black Knight ( purple with black eye), Blue Bed ( bright blue with white eyes), Geneveva( pink-lilac with white eyes), Formula Mixt ( various shades), King Arthur ( dark purple with white eyes), Summer ( light sky blue with white eyes), Astolat( purple with a black eye).
Casablanca ( pure white), Connecticut Jan-kiz ( pure white, semi-double), Bellamozum ( dark blue).
Cultivation and care. The delphinium hybrid belongs to the most undemanding and labor-intensive for growing plants. It has a powerful root system, so before planting requires deep tillage. On loose fertilized peat from slightly acid to neutral soils, the dolphinium lives longer than on dense loams and chernozems. Sandy soils are unsuitable, since they dry out quickly in the summer. Best of all, the dolphinium develops and blossoms on soils richly fertilized with compost or well-repaired manure, well-cultivated and in places warmed by the sun. Delphinium grows in the shade, in the sun some of its varieties are burned out. Soils are preferable deep, clayey and loamy, moderately moist, but not moist.
Delphinium is valued not only for decorative properties, but also for winter hardiness, drought resistance, unpretentiousness and ease of reproduction.
During the summer, it is necessary to regularly water plants under the root so that water does not fall on the leaves and flowers. Particularly sensitive to lack of moisture plants during the budding.
In dry weather, delphiniums are abundantly watered, as plants suffer greatly from high temperatures and especially from the dryness of the air. Each plant during the vegetation period requires about 60 liters of water. When leaving, the soil is loosened to a depth of no more than 5 cm, so as not to damage small roots growing at a great distance from the base of the bush. During the growing season, it is necessary to carry out several fertilizing First run in April. Contribute nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers( 3: 4: 6, respectively).It is also good to use fresh mullein - 1 bucket for 5-10 buckets of water;10 liters of this fertilizer is enough for 20 young seedlings or 5 adult bushes. At the time of the formation of the flower brush( end of May - June), the plant needs potassium. It is good to fertilize with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers( 2: 5: 6), as well as foliar top dressing with boron during the budding period, at the rate of 0.02 g of boric acid per 1 liter of water( the solution is prepared the day before use).
In the central part of Russia, fertilization after August is not recommended, as it stimulates the growth of young shoots, and they do not have time to prepare for the winter. Tall grades of delphiniums( above 150 cm) are planted at a distance of 50-60 cm, the smaller ones are closer. All delphiniums with a large inflorescence( Pacific and Marfin hybrids) need a garter. It is also necessary to thin the bush, leaving 2-3 strong shoots, the rest cut out or break out. Faded stems are cut off at the ground, leaving a few basal leaves. If the delphinium is pruned in the first flowering, then at the end of the summer it will bloom a second time. The second flowering is less abundant.
For normal flowering in spring it is recommended to remove some of the weakest shoots, leaving 3-6 strong on the bush.
.Varietal delphiniums multiply mainly by the division of rhizomes and cuttings, as well as by seeds. A year later the seeds lose their germination. Seeds are sown in March in spring greenhouses or boxes on the window to obtain a uniform material. Shoots appear after 20 days, a little later than their peaks High massive dolphinium bushes need support, decaying thick bushes must be tied around and and fastened to
support. Landing in a permanent place is held in early May or in August. During autumn and early spring sowing, many varieties are gaining strength and blooming by the end of summer, forming one miniature inflorescence by the end of summer. Plant the plants shallowly, otherwise they rot, but from a lack of moisture in the summer they suffer very noticeably and need regular watering. The real flowering begins in the second year and can be twofold - in June and August.
By dividing rhizomes, 3-4-year-old plants are propagated. To do this, in the spring or autumn rhizomes are excavated from the soil, cut with a knife between young shoots or buds of renewal. From one rhizome( depending on its size), you can get up to 10 parts. Each part should have at least 1 shoot or renewal bud and healthy roots. The separated parts are planted in a flower bed. Blooming plants in the same year. Removed during thinning of the bush and pruning shoots can be used for propagation. You can multiply the delphinium and cuttings. Cuttings are carried out when the shoots reach a height of 8-10 cm. The shoot is cut with a heel( a piece of the root neck), treated with crushed charcoal mixed with heteroauxin( 10-30 mg per 1 g of coal), and rooted in a film greenhouse orin the greenhouse under the film. The substrate is a mixture of sand and peat. After 2-3 weeks, the plants are planted in open ground.
At one point the delphinium can grow for several years. For the renovation of the earth and bushes in the fall they dig out, divide into parts and plant again.
Diseases and pests. Delphiniums tend to be affected by fungal diseases caused by fungi, in particular powdery mildew. To avoid this, you should avoid watering the leaves when watering. From pests dangerous delphinium fly, core scoop, arachnoid and gall mite.
As a preventive agent, it is very good to water lime milk at the dolphinium at the rate of 3-4 liters per 1 adult plant, which is watered 2-3 times during the summer.