Dizziness: causes, treatment, symptoms, diagnosis
The reasons for its occurrence are quite a lot, which makes the dizziness a multifaceted state. It is worth noting that the clinical manifestations of this syndrome may differ due to different causative factors. Dizziness may last from several minutes to several hours, depending on the cause of development.
In most cases, the causes of dizziness are quite harmless( hunger, fatigue), but sometimes it is a symptom of a serious illness.
Causes of dizziness
As already mentioned, there are many causes of dizziness.
In a normal state, a person's sense of balance is ensured by the arrival of impulses to the brain from vestibular, visual and other systems. If the arrival of impulses is for some reason violated, there are violations in a person's awareness of his own body.
To a similar disorder in most cases lead to various diseases.
- viral infections;
- inflammation of the inner ear;
- Ménière's disease;
- strokes( see the first signs of a stroke.);
- multiple sclerosis;
- of vascular pathology;
- brain tumors;
Sometimes dizziness occurs due to head, neck or back injuries. Such injuries can adversely affect blood circulation, which will affect the brain functions. In addition, some drugs have complications in the form of dizziness, which should be taken into account when diagnosing this condition.
The most common causes of dizziness can be identified, namely:
- viral infections that can cause inflammation of the inner ear( see symptoms of otitis.);
- osteochondrosis of the neck, which leads to failure of the cerebral circulation;
- herb head, neck or back;
- 1) Systemic.
- 2) Non-systematic.
- 3) Physiological
Non-systemic dizziness is associated with the gradual development of cerebral circulation, for example, with osteochondrosis of the cervical spine. With non-systemic vertigo, the vestibular systems work without any functional failure, that is, the causes are not related to the equilibrium organs. That's why this group includes dizziness, which arose on the background of injuries, medications, migraines and the harmful effects of severe stress with the subsequent development of mental disorders.
Physiological dizziness occurs with motion sickness in transport, "seasickness" and other actions that strongly irritate the organs of equilibrium.
Symptoms of dizziness
When dizzy, a person pursues a number of rather unpleasant sensations, which can manifest themselves for several minutes, and several hours, which significantly complicates a person's life.
The main signs of dizziness include such signs as a false sense of rotation of objects, shakiness, gait disturbance, a sense of loss of soil underfoot, a sense of falling and other problems with coordination. Sometimes there may be additional symptoms, such as: tinnitus, nausea, vomiting, hearing loss, pulse rate changes. In rare cases nystagmus develops - involuntary rhythmic movement of the eyes.
Each person's dizziness will manifest itself differently, depending on the cause of the onset.
- With heart diseases, dizziness will be accompanied not only by false sensations of space movement, but by the pallor of the skin of the person, palpitations, darkening in the eyes, sometimes a feeling of fear and panic.
- Vertigo, the occurrence of which is associated with the psychological state of a person, are marked by vague symptoms. A person can complain of faintness, a feeling of intoxication, heaviness in the head. Often the symptoms are barely expressed, so a person can not accurately describe his condition.
- If dizziness is caused by a malfunction in the vestibular systems, the symptoms are usually pronounced. The person will feel the entire spectrum of sensations associated with loss of coordination, in conjunction with additional symptoms, namely: nausea, vomiting, tinnitus, the presence of "flies" before the eyes.
The initial diagnosis of vertigo is based on an anamnesis that allows to identify the patient's main complaints and important diagnostic information, for example: frequency of attacks, symptoms, time of onset of the first seizures, transferred diseases, etc.
A neurological examination is carried out, the purpose of which isin the definition of neurological pathologies. In addition, an otolaryngologist and neurologist are being examined by the doctors, since many diseases of their sphere are a common cause of dizziness development. Without fail, patients should make a general blood test, a biochemical blood test, and undergo ultrasound examination of the arteries that supply blood to the brain.
In some cases, CT and magnetic resonance imaging of the head may be necessary to exclude inflammatory diseases of the brain and tumors. In addition, sometimes tonal audiometry is performed, which allows to determine various ear diseases, which often lead to the development of vertigo.
Treatment of dizziness
Treatment of dizziness is based on the therapy of the underlying disease. So, for infectious diseases of the inner ear, antibacterial or antiviral therapy is prescribed in conjunction with supporting and symptomatic therapy. If dizziness is caused by changes in blood pressure, then drugs are prescribed that correct the patient's condition.
In Meniere's disease, which causes an increase in the amount of fluid in the inner ear, a decrease in the intake of salt and water is shown.
Surgical treatment is usually prescribed in the case when drug therapy is not able to give the proper effect, for example, in brain tumors or arterial pathologies. For all types of dizziness, regardless of the causative factor, nootropics and drugs are prescribed, which improve the blood supply to the head. Of course, the purpose of comprehensive and adequate treatment is possible only after diagnosis and consultation of specialists, but a person who was caught unawares by a strong attack of dizziness, first aid is required.
Severe dizziness can lead to a person falling, and any falls lead to a variety of injuries( see symptoms of concussion.).Therefore, the purpose of first aid is to prevent injuries.
A person with dizziness should be seated or laid on a hard surface, ensure the influx of fresh air and give a drink of water. Light dizziness usually passes in a few minutes and does not require vigilant supervision of the patient, but in the severe case, when there are additional symptoms, for example, chills or vomiting, you need to call an ambulance.
It is not recommended to give any medication, as there are a lot of reasons for dizziness. A slight attack, which occurred, for example, because of heat and stuffiness, does not require specialist advice, but if the seizures recur, become stronger and complicated by additional symptoms, then medical help is needed.
Any preventive action is always aimed at preventing the disease. Unfortunately, there is no specific prevention of dizziness. It is possible to distinguish only some actions that will help to protect yourself from seizures, namely:
- timely cure of infectious diseases;
- regular and high-grade food;
- physical activity, especially with sedentary work;
- frequent walks in the fresh air.
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