Mar 22, 2018
Lymphadenitis is an inflammation of the lymph nodes. The causative agents are staphylococci, streptococci, spreading through the lymphatic channels from nearby inflammation.
Lymphadenitis develops due to infection of the lymph node with various microorganisms, the most frequent pathogen is staphylococcus, streptococcus, various types of diplococci( pneumococcus), pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli. A direct increase in the lymph node is due to the accumulation of cells of the inflammatory reaction in the zone where the microorganism is detected. In most cases, these microorganisms enter the lymph node through lymphatic vessels with a current of lymph from the infected area of the body, the so-called primary focus of infection. It can be a purulent wound, localized on the surface of the skin, purulent-necrotic inflammation of the hair follicle or furuncle.
The hematogenous pathway of infection( with blood flow) occurs as often as the lymphogenous and is a consequence of a foci of infection in the internal organs( inflammatory diseases of the liver, ovaries, intestines, tonsillitis and others).
The contact pathway of transmission of the pathogen is more rarely encountered immediately when the infectious material and the tissue of the lymph node come in contact. Possible penetration of microbes directly into the lymph node when it is injured. In such cases, lymphadenitis acts as a primary disease.
Entering the lymph node, the microorganism begins to send the products of its vital activity surrounding tissue, causing inflammation, and further purulent melt tissue. In this case, changes in the surrounding tissues can be limited to serous inflammation or go into a purulent with the formation of adenophlegmons.
Pain in the area of the inflamed lymph node, swelling, redness of the skin. At palpation, enlarged, oval, painful knots are identified, single or whole groups of them. With early treatment and elimination of the main focus, the process is reversed. In more severe cases, symptoms of general intoxication appear: fever, febrile condition, severe general condition, and an abscess or phlegmon locally forms.
Lymphadenitis in children is violent with high fever, malaise, loss of appetite, sleep disturbance. Possible severe complications may become generalization of infection with the development of sepsis.
Lymphadenitis develops in children quite actively and can be acute or chronic. The acute form of the disease often makes itself felt by the following symptoms:
- fever( 38 ° C and above),
- loss of appetite,
weakness and malaise,
intoxication( a painful condition caused by the action of substances on the bodyfrom outside( microbial toxins) or harmful substances produced in the body) in the smallest,
severe edema( with cervical lymphadenitis),
severe pain in the sites of enlarged lymph nodes,
With purulent lymphadenitis, the area of inflammation can turn red.
The manifestation of the chronic form consists in the enlargement of the lymph nodes, which can be detected by palpation( probing).In this case, the nodes are slightly painful, and the body temperature is normal.
If you identify these symptoms, you should urgently show the child to the doctor. In no case do not establish the diagnosis yourself and do not perform any therapeutic actions. Only a specialist can confirm the presence of the disease and determine its appearance. It is on the type and specificity of the course of lymphadenitis that its treatment will depend.
The only thing you can do to help a child before a doctor comes in is to cool the inflamed area with ice.
Acute lymphadenitis begins with a sharp pain and enlargement of the lymph node, which rarely leads to a restriction of the mobility of that part of the body next to which lymphadenitis was formed. A person starts to worry about a constant, dull or aching headache, there is general weakness, possibly malaise, fever.
Serous lymphadenitis disrupts the general condition of the patient. Appears dull pain in the region of regional lymph nodes;the latter can be enlarged, sufficiently dense compared to healthy and slightly painful when palpating, the skin over the affected lymph nodes is not changed. With further progression of the inflammatory reaction in the lymph node, destruction of the lymphatic tissue occurs with the development of purulent fusion and the formation of necrotic tissue.
Purulent lymphadenitis causes pain, which is a sharp, sometimes pulling character. The skin over the inflamed lymph node is hyperemic( it has a bright red color, indicative of inflammation), with sensation reveals soreness. If in the initial stages, even with serous lymphadenitis, the lymph nodes did not merge, then they merge with each other and surrounding tissues, become immobile.
Chronic nonspecific lymphadenitis is the result of a prolonged chronic untreated infection. Chronic lymphadenitis can take place without significant symptoms, or in general not manifest itself at all. Usually there is a small subfebrile temperature of about 37 degrees C, which a person eventually gets used to and does not notice, a small swelling in the area of the affected lymph nodes.
Adenophlegmon , which is formed due to untreated purulent lymphadenitis, diffuse hyperemia of the skin is determined, tight, without clear boundaries, edema with foci of softening. Body temperature rises to high figures, there is a chill, a marked increase in heart rate, headache, severe weakness. To this state, this disease should not be brought, because it can lead to serious complications.
Bed rest, local warmer, ointment packs, irradiation with a lamp of the solux, etc. When signs of purulent melting of the inflamed node or the development of phlegmon, an operation is performed - an autopsy followed by treatment, as in an abscess.
Timely etiotropic treatment of lymphadenitis avoids the spread and generalization of the process. The outcome of chronic lymphadenitis can be scarring of the lymph node with connective tissue replacement of lymphoid tissue. In some cases, there may be a violation of lymphatic drainage and lymphedema.
Prevention of lymphadenitis requires the prevention of micro-traumas, infection of wounds and abrasions, scuffs of the skin. Also timely treatment of foci of infection( sore throat, dental caries), dissection of purulent lesions( panariciums, furuncles) is necessary.
Rules for prevention in children:
- visit the pediatric dentist on time for the treatment of caries and its complications,
- treat stomatitis, rhinitis, otitis, furuncles and other diseases to the end,
- make sure that the child does not have any damage to the oral mucosaand facial skin,
- protect the child from acute respiratory infections.