Infertility in women: causes, diagnosis and treatment
And immediately, this problem is full of many questions, and the search for alternative methods in its solution.
Millions of married couples with a regular, long intimate life without any kind of protection, face this problem. It is this development of events that is treated in medical classification as primary infertility.
If the problem has affected women who have already given birth and the circumstances are similar, then this infertility refers to the secondary form. But there are situations when absolute infertility is diagnosed.
This applies to women with congenital anomalies:
- baby uterus;
- absence of uterus or ovaries;
- pathology of development of genital organs;
- no genital organs.
How does a child conceive?
Preparation of the body for the birth of a new life, is the menstrual cycle, which is divided into two phases.
- 1) The first phase - the ovaries produce the hormone estrogen, which provides the process of maturation of the follicle with the inside of the gamete( egg).Having reached "maturity", it bursts, and the gamete goes to the "cruise".
- 2) In the second phase, the uterus prepares to receive the fertilized gamete - the hormone produced by the ovaries( progesterone) prepares the inner layer( endometrium) for admission.
The process of the birth of a new life begins with the fusion of a mature egg with its "chosen" sperm.
As a result of fusion( fertilization), there is a connection of chromosome groups of the spermatozoon - 23 pairs, with the same number of chromosome groups of the egg cell. The result is the formation of the first cell of the future little man, the zygote.
Moving along the fallopian tubes to the uterus, the chromosome division of cells continuously proceeds in the zygote, and by the time it reaches the target, it will look like a dense conglomerate with a set of 16 or 32 cells called morula, which looks like a smallraspberries.
Morula, consisting of a special kind of cells producing serous fluid - a blastomer, completely fills the zygote and gives rise to the formation of the internal cavity. Appears primitive organism in the form of a balloon - a blastula, which is implanted( implanted) into the wall of the uterus. This whole process takes no more than a week from the moment of fertilization.
From this moment, active cell growth begins, the definition of their specialization, and the division into groups of orientation. The process of formation of various systems, organs and tissues of the future baby begins.
What conditions should be and what affects the conception, you can answer with one definition - the health of the woman on whom it depends, be motherhood or not.
Causes of infertility in women
Infertility can cause a huge number of reasons, both serious and contrived, associated with a psychological factor. Such a factor can be:
- abortion and abortion, contributing to the emergence of - antiphospholipid syndrome( miscarriage);
- age factor - the ability to conceive a child after 35 years is almost halved.(see the first signs of menopause)
- stress and fatigue;
- postponement of the first pregnancy;
- is an environmental and social factor.
Types of female infertility
Quite serious problems with health, cause several types of this pathology:
- 1) Endocrine disorders are signs of endocrine infertility. These include - the processes that caused the violation of egg cell maturation and ovulation. Disorders of neurohumoral regulation of the reproductive system. Hormonal shifts in the sphere of sex in case of violation of multiple functions of the endocrine system.
- 2) Frequent complications of the transferred inflammatory diseases, operations on female organs with the formation of adhesive processes, can cause blockage of the tube channel. The gamete does not have the ability to fertilize and reach the uterus. This is how the tubular - peritoneal appearance manifests itself.
- 3) Infertility due to gynecological pathologies - inflammatory and infectious processes, asymptomatic, chronic form.
- 4) Specific proteins( immunoglobulins) produced in the female body and destroying spermatozoa lead to the immunological form. Otherwise, it can be rephrased, as an allergy to a particular partner.
- 5) In the idiopathic form, the diagnosis does not reveal any anatomical or functional defects.
- 6) Psychogenic appearance is caused by psychological stress, which contributes to the violation of the synthesis of prostaglandin and sex hormones.
- 7) When a number of symptoms interact, a mixed disease is formed.
Diagnosis of infertility in women
Diagnostic studies of female infertility begin with a physical diagnosis that determines possible causes and further tactics.
The examination of the patient on the gynecological chair is a prerequisite.
- ultrasound of the lower abdomen.
- colposcopy - determining the presence of pathologies in the fallopian tubes;
- STDs and STIs are tests that determine diseases caused by sexual infections.
- study( monitoring), assessing the hormonal background in the blood.
- Ultrasound monitoring of the likely changes in the female organs during the menstrual cycle.
- rectal temperature control - an indirect definition of ovulation.
- hysteroscopic examination method - for possible uterine pathologies and inflammatory processes in it.
- metrosalpingography is a method of evaluating blockage of lumen in the phalic( uterine) tubes.
- test for compatibility - exclusion of immunological infertility.
- mandatory tests for HIV infection, hepatitis, rubella, chlamydia and many others are conducted during the course of the examination.
Treatment of infertility in women
The treatment program is made after the evaluation of all diagnostic survey data and is aimed primarily at eliminating the root cause and selecting therapeutic methods for:
- correction and improving the efficiency of the regulation and recovery of female reproductive function using surgical or conservative methods.
- definitions of possible reproductive techniques in cases of ineffective treatment.
- , a pharmacological correction of hormonal disorders is performed;
- physiotherapy procedures;
- hormonal therapy - ultrasound monitoring.
Infertility as a result of gynecological pathologies - plastic reconstructive surgery is shown. Contraindications - absence of the uterus and defects of a pronounced nature. The indication is a surrogate motherhood.
How to increase the likelihood of conception of a child?
The main rule is a positive attitude. Nervous breakdowns, and mutual reproaches will not solve the problem, but will only aggravate it. Remove from the lexicon the question of who is to blame, and focus on the question - what to do? When starting to solve the demographic question, approach it creatively - candlelight dinner, beautiful underwear and favorite music. This will create an emotional mood.
Calculate the time of ovulation, this will increase the likelihood of fertilization. Knowing your menstrual cycle, you can determine the date of ovulation - two weeks before the onset of menstruation( see the reasons for the delay of menses other than pregnancy).Or according to the characteristic signs - abundant transparent secretions, pulling pains in the lower abdomen, swelling of the chest. Or use a special test.
Regular proximity process, increases the likelihood of pregnancy. Take action, capturing a couple of days before, and as many, after the onset of ovulation. If the issue of family planning is serious, the optimal schedule of intimacy is three times a week.
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