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  • Gastric and duodenal ulcer symptoms

    Gastric ulcer ( and duodenum) is a disease that occurs for a variety of reasons( genetic, bacterial, psychoemotional, etc.).

    Disease is characterized by the appearance on the mucous tissues of the stomach( or duodenum) defect of different depths. The patient feels pain in the upper abdomen, often this pain occurs after meals( after 20 minutes or after 1.5 hours, depending on the location of the mucosal defect), sometimes hungry, night pains that disappear after eating.

    Gastric and duodenal ulcers are crater-like openings in tissues lining the stomach, duodenum( part of the small intestine immediately adjacent to the stomach) and sometimes the esophagus. Duodenal ulcer is observed approximately three times more often than stomach ulcer .Usually, the glands in the stomach produce acid and the enzyme pepsin, which contribute to the breakdown of food products during the digestion of food. The stomach and duodenum in the meantime produce mucus to protect against pepsin and stomach acid. With duodenal ulcer, the protective mechanisms of the digestive tract are often violated as a result of infection with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. Consequently, even small amounts of gastric acid can cause ulceration. How to treat this ailment with folk remedies, look here.

    The insidiousness of the stomach and duodenal ulcer lies in the fact that it can:

    • leak asymptomatically( mute ulcer);

    • complicated by sudden bleeding;

    • transform into cancer;

    • lead to perforation of the wall of the stomach or duodenum.

    The risk of an ulcer is also that this disease can become an indirect cause of pulmonary tuberculosis. At present, the relationship between these diseases has already been proven. Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract rank second among all concomitant diseases in pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Why do patients with peptic ulcer often suffer from pulmonary tuberculosis? It is assumed that a long-term low-calorie anti-ulcer diet, an imbalance in the work of the nervous system of the body, frequent digestive disorders reduce the body's resistance to infectious diseases, including tuberculosis. In patients who underwent gastrectomy for peptic ulcer, absorption of fats, proteins, carbohydrates, mineral salts, vitamins is impaired, which further increases the risk of developing pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Tuberculosis of the lung can develop 5 years after the disease with peptic ulcer or gastrectomy.

    Often patients with peptic ulcer at the onset of tuberculosis take the symptoms of this disease( weakness, weight loss, loss of appetite) for the effects of ulcers and do not go to the doctor. When these symptoms occur, it is very important to undergo a fluorographic examination of the lungs.

    Ulcer can develop at any age( even in children), although the most common ulcers are observed at the age of 30 years. Ulcers usually recur: even after the ulcer has healed, new ulcers often occur during life or in an old or new place. Therefore, modern medications for ulcers, which are mainly aimed at reducing the level of stomach acid, often need to be taken for a long time. New short-term medicines aimed at fighting H. pylori can significantly reduce the frequency of ulcers. Although gastric and duodenal ulcers rarely pose a major health threat, they sometimes lead to serious complications, such as bleeding, blocking the digestive tract due to scarring, or forming a hole in the digestive tract, which can cause a strong, life-threateninginfection of the abdominal cavity( peritonitis).In addition, in a small percentage of cases, a permanent stomach ulcer may be malignant. The same applies to duodenal ulcer. In most cases, treatment is highly effective in controlling symptoms and preventing serious complications.

    • No symptoms in some

    patients • Corrosive pain in the upper abdomen a few hours after ingestion,( duodenal ulcer) or dull pain often right after ingestion( stomach ulcer).Pain can be given in the back or behind the sternum, resembling heartburn.

    • Stomach upset, nausea, vomiting and weight loss

    • Extreme symptoms: black tar or bloody stool;vomiting with blood or a substance reminiscent of coffee grounds( a symptom of potentially possible severe bleeding).Cessation of pain in the stomach can mean that the ulcer has completely penetrated the digestive tract( perforation)

    Gastric and duodenal ulcers are moist spots or wounds that can occur anywhere on the tissues lining the stomach( duodenal ulcer) or duodenum( ulcers of the duodenumguts).

    • It is believed that at least 80 percent of ulcers are caused by infection of the digestive tract by the H. pylori bacterium. It is not known how the infection spreads, although it is possible that it is transmitted orally. H. pylori is found in about 60 percent of Americans at age 60, but most of the infected do not have ulcers. Most likely, bacteria simply increase, the possibility of ulcer development, weakening the protective mechanisms of the stomach and making the tissues lining the digestive tract susceptible to erosion by stomach acids. Once the ulcer has appeared, it can be strengthened by various secondary factors, including alcohol, caffeine, dietary factors, smoking and stress.

    • It used to be that excessive production of gastric acid is the basis of ulcers. It is now recognized that many people with ulcers have a normal or even slightly reduced amount of stomach acid. However, since the mechanisms that protect the tissues lining the digestive tract are weakened, even a small amount of gastric acid can cause the formation( or inhibit healing) of the ulcer. The exception is ulcers caused by certain types of tumors of the pancreas or duodenum, which secrete the hormone gastrin and cause the production of a large amount of acid( Zollinger-Ellison syndrome).

    • Prolonged use of aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibugrofen or naproxen, can lead to ulcers primarily in the stomach due to irritation of the lining tissues.

    • Hereditary factors can also play a role.

    • A medical history and physical examination are needed.

    • X-ray of the upper gastrointestinal tract( in which the patient swallows a barium solution to create a clear image of the digestive tract on the x-ray) may show active ulcers or scars of ex-ulcers.

    • Endoscopy( where the flexible tubes are inserted through the throat into the stomach and duodenum) allows you to view ulcers. Endoscopy also allows the doctor to take a small sample of an ulcer( biopsy);this sample is analyzed for the presence of cancer.

    • A biopsy can also detect the presence of H. pylori bacteria, but this method is aggressive and expensive.

    • Now there are express methods for detecting this bacterium.

    • For patients with moderate disease development( one or two periods of symptoms per year), drugs that reduce the production of gastric acid( cimetidine, ranitidine, famotidine, nisatidine or omeprazole) or that cover the tissues lining the stomach( sucralfate) usually reduce paina week later, although ulcers can only heal in about eight weeks. Antacids can also help, although they can interfere with the effect of prescribed medications if taken at a small interval from their intake.

    • Antibiotics for the control of the bacterium H. pylori are usually recommended only to those with a stronger development of the disease, which can not be treated by other means;However, the long-term effect and side effects of this method of treatment are still not fully established. Two antibiotics( more often metronidazole and tetracycline) are usually taken together for at least two weeks, along with a bismuth-containing antacid( such as peptobismol).Antacids or drugs that reduce acid secretion can also be used. The combination of antibiotics prevent the recurrence of ulcers in about 90 percent of cases.

    • Surgery may be necessary in case of bleeding, blockage or perforation of the digestive tract or severe pain due to ulcers.

    • Eat a well-balanced diet rich in fiber. Obviously, many of the dietary measures that were previously considered effective, for example, using soft foods, eating many times a day in small portions or drinking milk, are not effective. Milk can increase the production of gastric acid, although one or two glasses a day usually do not cause harm. Coffee, tea and soda water with caffeine can increase the production of acid. Avoid excessive consumption of alcohol.

    • Consult your doctor if you experience symptoms of a stomach or duodenal ulcer.

    • Attention! In patients with ulcers, any symptoms of bleeding or perforation( including vomiting with blood, black fatty stools or severe abdominal pain) require immediate medical attention.

    • Avoid prolonged use of aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs if possible. Anyone who must take these medicines for a long time, such as arthritis patients, can protect themselves using misoprostol. Your doctor may also advise you on one of the newer anti-inflammatory drugs called cytooxygenase inhibitors, such as celecoxib and rofecoxib, which cause fewer side effects in the gastrointestinal tract compared to other non-steroid drugs.

    • Taking prescribed medications for an ulcer and refraining from smoking and foods or drinks that have already aggravated ulcers earlier can help prevent the recurrence of ulcers.