How is X-ray of the kidneys with contrast agent, preparation and indications
Mar 07, 2018
Radiography is the method of X-ray examination, when a photograph of the investigated object is obtained on a solid carrier. X-ray of kidneys with contrast substance is called excretory urography of kidneys.
Such a diagnosis allows a detailed study of the structure of the kidney. In this case, the images are more clear in comparison with the survey radiography. This method is different in that for its organization a special intravenous substance is injected intravenously.
The negative aspects of this diagnosis include the possibility of manifesting an allergic reaction to a contrast agent. It is important to ensure that the doctor has established the possibilities and risks of developing a hypersensitivity reaction. If such reactions are not expected, then before the introduction of the substance requires a sample - 0.1 ml of the solution is injected under the skin into one of the forearms, and saline - into another forearm.
The main indications for the study of kidneys with contrast media are:
- Systematic infectious diseases of the urinary system.
- Signs of development of renal colic.
- The presence of blood in the urine.
- Symptoms of urolithiasis.
- Detection of the patient's condition after surgery.
- With the development of symptoms of the presence of a stone in the ureter, a stone in the bladder, or the symptoms of a stone in the kidneys in order to reveal their precise localization.
Survey First of all, the specialist should explain to the patient the need for organizing this survey, to tell about who and when will conduct it.
Eight hours before the diagnosis begins, you will need to stop eating and consuming large amounts of liquid. Three days before the examination, foods that increase gas production are excluded from the diet. If necessary, the reception of activated charcoal, as well as cleansing enema.
A blood test is organized, it turns out which medications the patient is taking. Also, the patient or his relatives agree in writing to carry out the diagnosis.
The physician should establish the presence of an allergy to the contrast agent used, in particular to iodine. If there is no allergic reaction, then a control sample is made. The patient must take off all jewelry and other objects made of metal. Empty the bladder and wear a special gown. The doctor warns in advance about the possibility of burning, nausea, redness of the skin on the face during the injection of contrast medium. Before use, the patient is given a drink of sedative medications or analgesics.
Initially, an X-ray examination is organized, followed by a contrast agent examination. Then a whole series of shots is taken after an equal amount of time and one photograph is always in the standing position.
Conduction and results of the
examination The examination lasts about 45 minutes, and the specific time depends on the personal indicators, such as the presence of stones in the ureter or in the kidneys, their size, location, etc.
The specialist must always pay attention to the quality of the received images, as the degree of filling of the various parts of the upper part of the urinary tract and bladder with the substance introduced into the body.
Depending on the information received in the pictures, the physician decides whether to conduct further studies.
If, on the one hand, the upper part of the urinary tract is clearly filled with contrast medium, and on the other hand this substance is absent or there is only the shadow of the injected contrast medium, the shadow of the dilated calyxes, then a re-diagnosis after 50-60 minutes, and then one to twohours. In some situations only late shots give the opportunity to correctly diagnose pathology and to reveal the functionality of the kidneys.
This study is considered to be a reliable physiological method of diagnosis. The images obtained by this method show the morphological and functional state of the organ at any stage of the disease, and also provide a large amount of valuable diagnostic information. A correct description of the images obtained will require the specialist to have modern views on the physiology of the urinary system of man.
Absolutely contraindicated organization of radiography with the introduction of contrast agent to the following groups of persons:
- Patients with hypersensitivity reactions to contrast agents, especially people with intolerance to iodine.
- Pregnant women.
- Patients with an increased level of bleeding and poor blood coagulability.
- People with kidney failure.
- With some kidney pathologies.