Bilirubin is elevated - causes of abnormalities and methods of therapy
Mar 07, 2018
Bilirubin is a bile pigment, colored with a pronounced brownish-red color. The formation of this product occurs in the liver. Bilirubin is elevated in the human body due to the increased decay of obsolete red blood cells.
In this case, bilirubin is a toxic substance that moves around the body and converts in several stages:
- With the albumin protein, bilirubin moves with blood to the liver. The combination of bilirubin and albumin does not have the ability to penetrate the liver and such a compound is not excreted in the urine of a person.
- In the case of detachment from albumin, bilirubin can penetrate the liver cells.
- Bilirubin binds to glucuronic acid cells. Such a compound has the ability to dissolve in water and is subsequently excreted from the body with urine or with bile. The withdrawal of this component is the final step.
Hyperbilirubinemia may indicate the development of jaundice, hepatitis, or hemolytic anemia.
The amount of bilirubin: the norm and the deviation of
Because of the peculiarities of the passage of all stages of transformation, substances are distinguished by indirect and direct bilirubin.
In order to determine the degree of development of a violation, it is important to know which indicators are the norm, and which are the violation.
- The formation of direct bilirubin, associated with acid, occurs in the liver. It is not dangerous and is ready to be excreted from the body. The quantitative content is not more than 4.5 μmol / l.
- Indirect bilirubin is increased in those cases if its content exceeds 16.4 μmol / l. This type of bilirubin is toxic, it is it that does not bind to the albumen protein and can penetrate the liver.
- The total bilirubin content should remain within 20.5 μmol / l.
Causes of development of disorders of
The causes of increased bilirubin in the blood are associated with exposure to the following factors:
- Rapid acceleration of erythrocyte destruction - a similar deviation is often observed with hemolytic anemia.
- Impaired conversion of bilirubin in the liver.
- Disorders of excretion of bile from the body.
- Accepting certain groups of medicines.
- Infection with worms.
Hyperbilirubinemia can cause skin and tissue coloration:
- Eye scleras acquire a yellowish tinge.
- The mucous membrane of the oral cavity is being stained.
- In the neglected case, the skin of the patient( feet, palms) also acquire a yellow color.
Manifestations of hyperbilirubinemia
Elevated bilirubin in the blood in the case of hemolytic anemia develops as follows:
- Patient is concerned about unpleasant sensations in the area of the left hypochondrium( enlarged spleen).
- Body temperature rises.
- Urine is colored in dark( black or dark brown) color. This may indicate the destruction of red blood cells.
- The patient has complaints of fatigue, headache, development of tachycardia. This is due to a violation of oxygen supply to the body.
Symptoms of hyperbilirubinemia in liver diseases and cholelithiasis
If the increase in bilirubin is associated with impaired normal liver function, the following symptoms appear:
- Liver enlargement and development of pain syndrome in the right hypochondrium.
- Development of nausea after eating, belching bitterness.
- Increased fatigue and weakness.
- The feces of the patient may become discolored, and urine - take a dark color( strong tea or dark beer).
- In case of development of viral hepatitis, an increase in body temperature occurs.
In cholelithiasis and outflow of bile there are such symptoms:
- Complaints of hepatic colic - acute pain in the area under the right rib.
- Severe itching of the skin.
- Complaints of belching bitterness, nausea, lack of appetite.
- Development of flatulence and stool disorders( diarrhea and constipation).
- Complete discoloration of stool.
- Strongly colored urine in a dark color.
Therapy of the disease
Treatment of an increased level of bilirubin is carried out in several stages. First and foremost, an infusion treatment with glucose preparations and detoxifying agents is required. This allows you to cleanse the body of the level of decay of red blood cells. Similar therapy is carried out in case of development of a serious condition.
Further treatment is selected taking into account the cause that triggered the development of hyperbilirubinemia. In liver diseases may be required using hepatoprotectors, antiviral and immunomodulating agents;with violations of the outflow of bile, cholagogue preparations are prescribed. Self-medication in this case is not recommended, since it may not have the proper effect.
At the first sign of hyperbilirubinemia, you should immediately consult a doctor. Ineffective therapy can cause serious complications: Gilbert's syndrome and other liver diseases.
The diet plays a significant role in the treatment of increased bilirubin. Patients with hyperbilirubinemia are recommended to reduce the consumption of salt, white bread, butter, cholesterol-rich foods and products with a high content of baking powder and soda( cake, cake, cake).You should refrain from consuming mushrooms, sorrel, garlic, radish and green onions, spicy and sour dishes and seasonings, chocolate, alcohol and ice cream, smoked, industrial sweets and canned goods.
Bilirubin greatly improves fatty foods, spicy condiments, sour fruits and vegetables.
The action of proper nutrition is aimed at maximizing the "unloading" of the liver. The diet should consist of dishes cooked in the oven or a couple.
In order to reduce the level of bile recommended the use of herbal decoctions( a combination of chamomile and mint, motherwort and St. John's Wort).
It is recommended to introduce with your usual diet such products:
- Fruit( sweet).
- Low-fat meat.
- Soups cooked on vegetable broth.
- Foods high in fiber.
You must take food at least 4-5 times a day. Observe the diet is necessary until the laboratory results of blood will not return to normal.Like the article? Share with friends and acquaintances: