The causes of bilirubin in the urine
Mar 06, 2018
The general analysis of urine( OAM) has several indicators, which, as a rule, indicate certain health disorders. One such indicator is bilirubin.
Increased bilirubin in the urine or not, is detected in the laboratory using special chemicals with an indicator that produces a quantitative response to the detection of this pigment in the urine.
Bilirubin is an organic compound present in any environment of the human body. Red corpuscles, that is, erythrocytes, which have lost their functionality - the main source of bilirubin. In urine, its amount should be minimal, such that in laboratory testing it should not be noticeable. If its level has risen, then this indicates a rather serious disease.
When the erythrocyte dies, hemoglobin( its main component) is destroyed and divided into protein and porphyrin. The latter in turn is converted to bilirubin. Connecting in the liver with glucuronic acid, it becomes bound. Then, along with the bile, bilirubin enters the intestine, decaying into it into intermediate products of metabolism under the influence of enzymes.
Some of them are subsequently excreted with feces, and the other is absorbed into the blood and then again enters the liver. Only a small fraction of it is excreted in the urine.
What does this increase in urine show?
Normally in a healthy person, urine analysis for bilirubin almost completely eliminates its detection. However, like the derivative of his urobilin. In a person without any pathologies, the norm of bilirubin in urine should not exceed 4 mg.
This indicator is not detected by reagents when tested in a laboratory. Consequently, an increased concentration of bilirubin signals serious pathologies.
The main source of increasing bilirubin in urine is a disruption in the functioning of liver detoxification. If it is broken, then this indicates the development of pathologies leading to the "death" of hepatocytes. Because of this, free bilirubin, as well as its derivatives in significant quantities accumulate in the blood and are excreted in the urine.
Most often, an elevated level of bilirubin in OAM signals such serious pathologies as:
- hepatitis A or B;
- hepatitis caused by toxic poisoning;
- alcohol-type hepatitis;
- infectious diseases, such as Stuttgart disease, mononucleosis, Maltese fever and others;
- is a drug-induced hepatitis caused by overdose or misuse of drugs;
- cholestatic hepatitis( sometimes occurs at late gestational periods);
- chronic hepatitis;
- liver metastases;
- liver injury.
Not always detection of bilirubin in the urine indicates serious problems with the liver. There are no less dangerous pathologies, when the formation of bilirubin itself increases. Most often this is due to hemolytic anemia, which is accompanied by jaundice.
Below is a list of diseases associated with increased formation of bilirubin:
- congenital hemolytic anemia;
- sepsis or malaria. With such infectious diseases, the death of erythrocytes occurs;
- in newborn children due to incompatibility with the blood of the mother there is a dangerous hemolytic disease;
- severe poisoning( eg, poison or strong dyes);
- elevated hemolysis, occurring against the background of drug use;
- autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a serious disease when antibodies to its own red blood cells are formed;
- consequences of severe injuries sustained, which were accompanied by a significant hemorrhage.
Symptoms of bilirubinuria
A typical sign of bilirubinuria, and, accordingly, of liver diseases is jaundice. Eye scleras, mucous membranes and skin of the patient acquire a yellow tint. Usually this is noticeable to the naked eye.
In addition, liver disease can be accompanied by weight in the right upper quadrant, fever, eructation or even nausea with bitter aftertaste. Kal becomes light color, but urine, on the contrary, becomes noticeably darker. Also, itching and hepatic colic may occur. If one or more of these symptoms are found, consult a doctor without delay. The specialist first of all should give a direction for the delivery of OAM, in order to reveal bilirubin in it.
The analysis of urine on bilirubin allows to reveal in time the most serious pathologies of the human body. Timely diagnosis and treatment give a chance for a complete cure with the medications that the doctor should prescribe, as well as diets, rejection of bad habits. Your health is in your hands.Like the article? Share with friends and acquaintances: