Mar 06, 2018
Anthrax is a disease caused by a sporiferous bacterium.
The source of infection is agricultural animals( large and small cattle, in part - pigs).Infection with anthrax can lead to a violation of sanitary and hygienic requirements when caring for sick animals, slaughtering cattle, processing their skin, wool or bristles. The factor of transmission of infection is also the soil in the places of former cattle cemeteries. Repeatedly observed also domestic infections( wearing a woolen shawl, infected with spores of anthrax bacteria, etc.).The causative agent can penetrate the human body through the damaged skin( contact mechanism of transmission), through the mucous membranes( upper respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract).Infection with the air-dust method leads to the development of a rare pulmonary form of the disease. When germinating in the body, the spores change into very virulent vegetative forms, which cause the development of clinical symptoms.
At the site of infection, necrotic tissue changes( cutaneous form) or serous-hemorrhagic effusion( exudate with pulmonary disease) occur in the body. From the primary focus, the causative agent penetrates into the blood stream( bacteremia), which can lead to the development of secondary lesions( hemorrhagic meningitis, endocarditis).
The following main clinical forms of the disease are distinguished:
Most common is the cutaneous form of the disease. The incubation period is from 3 to 14 days. It develops as a result of penetration of spores and vegetative forms of anthrax bacteria through cracks, abrasions, scratches or skin wounds. First, at the site of penetration of the pathogen, a red, highly itchy stain appears, which soon turns into a dense bundle-the papule. After 10-20 hours at the top of the papule, a vesicle is formed, soon filled with serous-bloody contents. The pustule thus formed bursts;in its place a black scab is formed, consisting of necrotic tissues resembling coal. Subsequently, the scab falls, around it is formed 4-5 secondary, daughter blisters, each of which subsequently leads to the formation of a small necrotic scab. Forms the so-called anthrax carbuncle. On the periphery of the central and peripheral scabs a massive swelling of soft tissues - skin and subcutaneous tissue develops. The tissues in the area of the edema are tensioned, the skin glosses. In the area of edema, soft tissues are completely painless - even with a pin tingling. The disease is accompanied by a significant increase in temperature( up to 40-41 ° C), general weakness, depressed mood, insomnia and loss of appetite. At the end of the disease, both central and minor peripheral scabs are rejected, the scar tissue replaces them on the skin with the formation of a superficial scab.
With the pulmonary form, the onset of the disease is acute, with a chill, a rapid rise in body temperature to 41 ° C, followed by a cough accompanied by the release of a large amount of liquid, foamy pink sputum. Sometimes there is pain in the chest. The course of the disease is severe and the prognosis is always serious. The intestinal form, which is characterized by severe intoxication and symptoms of hemorrhagic enterocolitis, is also very difficult.
The disease is recognized on the basis of epidemiological and clinical data. The diagnosis is confirmed by the isolation of anthrax bacteria from the body of the patient( from carbuncle, blood, sputum, vomit, feces).A skin allergic test is performed with the introduction of an intra-skin specific specific allergen( 0.1 ml of anthraxin).
All patients with anthrax are hospitalized. Treatment is carried out by the anti-invasive globulin. After a preliminary intradermal test and desensitization, 30-60 ml of a 10% solution of globulin is injected in the m / m. The course of treatment is 5-7 days in decreasing doses. In the absence of globulin, antiserum serum( 100-200 ml IM) may be used. The rules for desensitization are the same as for the administration of globulin. The introduction of immunopreparations is combined with antibiotic therapy. Only with mild forms of the disease can we confine ourselves to antibiotics alone. Apply penicillin at a dose of 2 000 000-4 000 000 units / day with the introduction of 4-6 times a day. The course of treatment is 7-8 days. Possible use of tetracycline, levomycetin. In severe forms, detoxification therapy is carried out, anti-shock blood substitutes, corticosteroids, cardiac agents, oxygen therapy are prescribed.
Prevention includes veterinary control of agricultural animals, research of animal raw materials( skin, wool, bristles) on infection with spores of anthrax bacteria and prevention of such raw materials into processing without its preliminary disinfection;categorical prohibition to consume meat of sick or suspicious animals for anthrax;observance of special rules for burial of corpses of animals that died from anthrax;preventive immunization of animals and humans( special vaccines).Persons in contact with sick animals are subject to active medical supervision for 2 weeks