Mar 05, 2018
Stomatitis is called inflammation of the oral mucosa.
The mechanism of the occurrence of stomatitis has not yet been fully identified, but, most likely, this is due to the reaction of the immune system to stimuli.
It is believed that stomatitis occurs when, for reasons that are not yet known, the human immune system reacts to the appearance of molecules that it can not recognize. The appearance of such molecules provokes an attack of lymphocytes of the immune system( a kind of white blood cells), about the same way the human immune system reacts, for example, to an organ transplant. The "attack" of lymphocytes on these unidentified molecules leads to the appearance in the mouth of ulcerous formations, which are called "stomatitis".
There are several types of stomatitis.
Types of stomatitis:
• downstream: acute and chronic( recurrent, leukoplakia);
• for morphological changes: catarrhal, aphthous, ulcerative;
• depending on the cause: traumatic and infectious( specific, stomatitis caused by mycobacteria tuberculosis, pale treponema and other bacteria, viral, fungal).
Diagnosis of the disease by the dentist when examined. It is possible to take a scraping with the affected mucosa to determine the pathogen.
Stomatitis is usually a manifestation of the following diseases:
• Skin diseases: exudative erythema, lichen planus.
• Infectious diseases: scarlet fever, diphtheria, measles.
• Blood diseases: anemia, leukemia, agranulocytosis.
• Fungal stomatitis is most often the result of taking antibiotics and hormones.
Steps of stomatitis
1. At the initial stage of stomatitis, the mucous membrane of the tongue and gums is redder, becomes shiny and dry.
2. If the stomatitis is not detected in time, then after 1-2 days a white coating appears on the tongue, over time it covers the entire internal mucous surface of the cheeks, tongue, palate, and lips, often "corners" appear in the corners of the mouth. Visually, it looks like a drop of milk or grains of curd and is easily removed.
3. The next stage, when in place of a white deposit ulcers and wounds are formed.
H abortion manifests itself as a general malaise, weakness, disability and fatigue.
Body temperature is usually increased. The mucosa of the oral cavity is red, it marks painful points with a whitish coating and a bright red rim.
Aphthous stomatitis develops as an independent infectious disease or as a complication in influenza and other diseases. It is characterized by general malaise and a slight increase in body temperature. The mucous membrane of the mouth turns red, white or yellowish plaques form on it.
Catarrhal stomatitis is characterized by bright red color and swelling of the oral mucosa, swelling and bleeding gums, increased salivation. Chewing becomes painful, an unpleasant smell emanates from the mouth. Causes of catarrhal stomatitis can be an abundance of calculus, dental caries, defective or worn dentures, improper treatment with antibiotics, respiratory catarrh and infectious diseases. As a rule, acute catarrhal stomatitis lasts no more than two weeks and ends with recovery. In adverse cases, the disease can go into a chronic form or ulcerative stomatitis.
Yazvenno-gangrenous stomatitis begins on the gums near the edge of one or several teeth at once. The edges of the ulcer are covered with a greyish-yellow coating. Erosion can spread to the entire mucosa of the oral cavity. There is general malaise, chills and fever. Salivation increases, a sharp putrefactive smell appears from the mouth. Submandibular lymph nodes increase and become painful.
The candidiasis stomatitis usually appears after improper intake of antibiotics( without an antimycotic component), against the background of a general weakening of immunity. On the mucous membrane of the mouth appears whitish film, there is a slight burning sensation in the affected areas.
The traumatic form of develops after a mechanical disruption of the integrity of the oral mucosa( with carelessly performed prosthetics, dental injuries).Formed wounds become infected and turn into non-healing sores.
The medicamentous form of develops after prolonged use of potent antibiotics and other drugs against the background of individual intolerance of these agents. External manifestations of the disease depend on the nature of the prescribed medication.
Herpetic stomatitis , as a rule, occurs in children from one to three years old and in young people. The main symptoms: increased body temperature to 37-38? C, increased salivation, reddening of the oral mucosa, the appearance of small bubbles in the mouth, which are soon opened and form painful ulcers or cracks. There is soreness, a burning sensation in the mouth, a decrease in appetite. The simultaneous appearance of herpetic vesicles on the lips and wings of the nose is possible.
Treatment of stomatitis depends on the causes of its occurrence, the general condition of the patient and some other factors. After eliminating the cause of the disease, antiseptic agents of local action are used in the form of rinses, ointments, gels and powders. In addition, the appointment of multivitamins and fortified biological supplements is recommended. How to use folk remedies for this disease look here.
What should I do? All types of stomatitis are treated under the supervision of a doctor, aimed at eliminating the cause of the disease, general strengthening of the body. Food for the period of treatment should contain an increased amount of vitamins, be warm and wiped.
The disease usually lasts from 4 to 14 days. The healing usually passes quietly, after it there are no traces left.
If you once had a stomatitis, the probability of recurrence is very high, although the frequency of these repetitions is highly variable. If the disease repeats three to four times a year - this frequency can be called typical. In some people, however, stomatitis can become almost chronic - ulcers do not have time to heal, as new ones appear.
As a rule, for the first time stomatitis is sick at the age of 10 to 20 years, after which, as it grows up, it is repeated less often and with less pain.
Stomatitis affects about 20% of the population.
There is no evidence that stomatitis is contagious.
Local treatment consists of rinsing the mouth with a solution of hydrogen peroxide( 2 tablespoons of a 3% solution of hydrogen peroxide per glass of water), a solution of soda or decoctions of herbs.
General treatment includes the appointment of anti-inflammatory drugs, antihistamines, vitamins and trace elements.
Treatment of herpetic stomatitis includes topical application of antiviral ointments( oxolin ointment 0.25%, zovirax, aciclovir, etc.), as well as agents that promote the healing of damaged areas of the oral mucosa( sea buckthorn oil, dogrose oil, etc.). Antiviral ointmentsIt is recommended to apply not only on the surface of ulcers, but also on the surrounding areas of the mucous membrane, up to 4 times a day. To relieve pain before feeding the baby, it is recommended to treat the oral cavity with 5% anesthetic ointment. To improve local immunity and reduce the risk of recurrence of the disease, you can use Imudon tablets( dissolve up to 8 tablets per day, every hour) for 4-7 days.
Treatment of candidal stomatitis in newborns and children under one year of age should be performed under the supervision of a physician. It is recommended to treat the oral cavity with a solution of soda( 2 teaspoons of soda per glass of water), pimafucine, and antifungal ointments( 5% nystatin ointment, 1% clotrimazole, etc.) up to 6 times a day. It is recommended to dissolve IMUDON tablets( up to 8 tablets per day, once per hour), which increase the activity of the immune system. In severe cases, the doctor may prescribe antifungal drugs in tablets or injections.
Treatment of aphthous stomatitis is carried out under the supervision of the attending physician. As a rule, corticosteroids are used to treat aphthous stomatitis: oral cleansing with Dexamethasone solution, treatment with ointment Clobetasol 0.05%, etc. If local medications are ineffective, injections or tablets are given( Prednisolone, Betamethasone, Azathioprine, etc.)
Treatment of bacterial stomatitis consists in the local application of antibacterial( antiseptic) agents: for example, Oracept, Tantum Verde( in the form of a spray of 4 doses every 3 hours, or tablets for resorption of 1 tablet up to 4 times a day), Geksoral, Dr. Theiss Sage, etc.
The forecast is usually favorable. But it can get a prolonged or periodically exacerbating current.
• Treatment of chronic diseases of the body.
• Taking antifungal drugs during treatment with antibacterial agents.
Adherence to oral hygiene, proper dental care and elimination of disease-provoking factors: spicy food and alcohol, smoking, sharp edges of teeth, bad dentures, etc.